Muraya: tips for caring for an exotic tree on the windowsill
Muraya is not only a spectacular interior decoration, but also a very useful plant. Any florist can have this unusual, abundantly flowering and fruitful tree at home. Caring for him at home is not difficult. An additional bonus is an amazing floral-citrus aroma that fills the room during the flowering of murraya.
Appearance and other characteristic features of murraya
Murraya (sometimes the spelling muraya is found) is a small genus of evergreen perennials belonging to the Rutaceae family. At the moment, according to various sources, there are from 8 to 12 of its representatives. Plants look like shrubs or miniature neat trees.
Since Murraya was named after one of the students of the famous Swedish botanist and systematizer Carl Linnaeus, Juhan Andreas Murray, from the point of view of etymology it would be more correct to call it Murray. But for some reason this option did not become widespread, neither in professional literature, nor in everyday life.
Johan Andreas Murray, after whom Murraya was named - one of the most famous students of Carl Linnaeus
Murraya is found naturally in India, southeast Asia, on the islands connecting this continent with Australia. The tree reaches a height of 2–5 m, at home - 0.8–1.5 m.
In nature, murraya is a neat shrub or tree
In any form, murraya is very decorative. Creamy shoots, covered with thin silvery-gray hairs, and glossy rich green leaves, and snow-white flowers, spreading an amazing aroma, and dark scarlet fruits, effectively contrasting with the foliage, are also beautiful. And all this can be observed at the same time. Murraya forms buds almost non-stop, flowers bloom and fall on it, berries ripen.
On the murraya tree, you can simultaneously observe buds, flowers and fruits
Murraya leaves are complex, consisting of 5–7 lanceolate or elliptical segments. Botanists call this form unpaired. The edges of the sheet are slightly corrugated.
Murray leaves of a complex shape, botanists call it unpaired
Murraya fruits are very beneficial for health. Their tonic properties are similar to those of the berries of the Chinese magnolia vine. The taste for the medicine is quite pleasant, sweet and sour. The fruits strengthen the immune system, have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system and brain activity, prolong youth, are a good analgesic, increase efficiency and help release the body's hidden reserves. Scientifically proven their positive effect in the presence of coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure. But do not abuse it - it is enough to eat 3-5 berries a day.
Murraya fruits - an effective tonic and tonic
According to a widespread superstition, only that Murraya, which is grown independently and with love, has healing properties.
Mankind has known about the benefits of the fruits of murraya for a very long time. They were cultivated for themselves by the Japanese emperors in the strictest secrecy. According to legend, one of them, lying on his deathbed, a tree just standing nearby, helped not only to recover, but also to acquire an heir at a very old age. Murraya was not intended for mere mortals - its presence in a private garden meant execution. Even the gardener Edo Famaguchi, who gave the world the art of ikebana, did not escape this fate.
Murraya is widely used in Japan to form bonsai
This plant was highly respected by the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, with whom the priests prepared an infusion from the leaves, called the elixir of life. Before the decisive battles, the berries were eaten by Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan. Among ordinary warriors, it was considered a great success to have several fruits with them, supposedly diverting arrows and other weapons from a person.
Murraya's flowers are snow-white, similar to stars or lilies with a diameter of 7-10 cm. Their rich aroma, reminiscent of the smell of orange blossom, lily of the valley or lilac. In addition to pleasing the sense of smell, it has a positive effect on the bronchi and lungs, normalizes sleep, relieves stress and fatigue, relieves migraines, and eases the condition of meteorological dependence.
A few murraya flowers are enough to fill the room with a subtle scent.
The buds form plants that are only a few months old. At 2-3 years old, with proper care, Murraya is almost completely dotted with inflorescences. On trees up to this age, it is recommended to cut them off so that the plant does not waste energy on them. Flowering lasts from the beginning of spring to almost the end of autumn; in favorable conditions, it repeats twice a year.
Even very small murrayas are able to form buds
Then, without the participation of a grower (a self-pollinating plant), berries are tied with a diameter of about 2 cm. To reach full maturity, they need 3.5-4 months. Ripe fruits have a very intense color, ruby or pomegranate.
An additional plus of murraya is the ability to independently form a crown. The tree practically does not need pruning. It can also calculate its strength - as soon as a sufficient number of buds are formed, the growth of shoots immediately stops.
Murraya leaves are also used. In India and Sri Lanka, they are widely used in cooking, most often for the preparation of aromatic oils and as an integral component of the world famous curry seasoning. Their taste is similar to laurel, sage and parsley, and the piquancy inherent in red pepper has a positive effect on appetite.
Video: what Murraya looks like
Types popular with amateur flower growers
From an already small family, only two species have adapted to domestic conditions. The so-called Dutch Murraya, which is often found in stores, is not a separate variety, but just an indication of the country of origin of this specimen. By the way, experienced flower growers do not recommend purchasing such plants - they have a more interesting leaf shape, but they have to wait for flowering for 4–5 years, and the fruits are reluctantly tied.
- Murraya Koeniga (koenigii), she is black. In nature, it grows up to 3–6 m in height. The leaves are elongated, individual plates are arranged in pairs. There are 11–20 couples in total. The flowers are snow-white or cream, small (1–1.5 cm in diameter). The plant owes its nickname to its blue-black fruits. They are edible, unlike poisonous seeds. There is another popular name - curry tree. It owes this name to the ignorance of the British colonialists. In Tamil (the language of the aborigines of Sri Lanka), the tree was called karivepalai. They reduced it to curry and correlated it with a well-known seasoning, to which the murraya Koeniga, in fact, has nothing to do with it.
- Murraya paniculata (paniculata), it is exotic (exotica) or foreign. There are also many unofficial names - Japanese myrtle, orange or orange jasmine. The height of the plant in nature is 2–3 m, in captivity - 0.7–1.5 m. It does not differ in its growth rate, adding 4–5 cm per year. The bark is relief, strongly resembles marble. The stems are quite thin, so they need support, especially when they bend under the weight of inflorescences and fruits. Shiny dark green leaves cast bronze-golden in the sun, effectively shading the whiteness of the flowers. Each one consists of 3-5 separate leaves. The buds are formed almost all year long with a break of 2-3 months (November-January). Flowers 3–5 cm in diameter have a very strong pleasant aroma - they are often used to decorate temples, girls who are getting married, weave them into their hair or put on live necklaces. Ruby-colored fruits, 2-3 cm in diameter, are edible. They are widely used in traditional medicine. Each has two seeds. Murraya paniculata is less demanding in care than murraya Koeniga.
- Murraya dwarf (nana). Natural variety of Murraya paniculata. The maximum height is 0.5 m. The new plant begins to bloom six months after rooting, reaching a height of 4–5 cm.
Photo gallery: types of murraya grown at home
How to create an optimal microclimate for a plant
Murraya is a native of tropical rainforests. At home, you need to try to reproduce the microclimate familiar to it as accurately as possible. This is the key to well-being and abundant flowering.
Table: optimal conditions for growing murraya
Be sure to place the murraya on the windowsill, a lack of light will lead to a lack of flowering
Planting and transplanting procedure
Murrayas under the age of five need an annual transplant, then - as needed, about once every 2-3 years. When a plant reaches such a size that it needs to be placed in a large tub, transplanting becomes problematic or physically impossible. In this case, every spring, remove the top 5-10 cm of the substrate and replace it with fresh soil.
The diameter of the container increases insignificantly each time, by 1–2 cm, since the growth rate of murraya does not differ. As for the soil, a store-bought citrus mix is fine, but you can make it yourself. The main requirements of the plant to the soil are lightness, looseness and slightly acidic reaction.
For growing murraya, store-bought citrus soil is quite suitable.
- Fertile turf, leafy soil, coarse river sand, humus or rotted compost (2: 2: 2: 1). If the mixture is prepared for young plants, vermiculite, perlite, crushed sphagnum moss or coconut fiber (up to 10% of the total volume) are added to it. The younger the murraya, the more baking powder you need.
- Soil for cacti and succulents, peat chips, humus (3: 1: 2).
There is nothing difficult in the transplant itself. They use the transshipment method, keeping the earthen lump intact if possible. It will be easier to remove the plant from the old pot if it is watered abundantly for 30-40 minutes before transplanting. Do not forget about the drainage, which should fill at least a quarter of the volume of the pot. It needs to be covered with a fresh substrate, place an earthen lump on top and add soil along the edges. Be careful not to deepen the root collar.
Murraya transplant is carried out by the transshipment method
The transplanted murray is watered moderately and sent for 5-7 days in partial shade. Then they are returned to their usual place and looked after as usual. Top dressing is resumed 4–6 weeks after the procedure.
Video: how to plant murraya correctly
Proper care for murraya at home
Proper care for murraya at home is the key to abundant and long flowering. You won't need to spend a lot of time on this - the plant only needs timely watering, competent feeding and a slight decrease in temperature to rest in winter.
During the active growing season, Murraya needs a fairly rare, but abundant watering. If you save water on it, the roots that have not received it will simply die off. The soil should dry out between procedures, but not completely, about 2/3 of the depth of the pot.
Murraya gratefully responds to spraying, you can raise the air humidity in other ways
Murraya does not like waterlogged and sour substrate very much. Therefore, it is better to forget to water the tree than to do it twice.
Water is used exclusively soft, warmed to room temperature. Bottled, filtered, or melted will do. If this is not possible, stand up or boil tap water. To maintain the desired acid-base balance of the soil, add a little citric acid or juice, apple cider vinegar (a few granules or drops per 10 liters) to it.
Complex liquid mineral fertilizers for flowering indoor plants or special preparations for bonsai are quite suitable for murraya. Be sure to pay attention to the composition - the plant categorically does not tolerate chlorine. Top dressing is carried out about half an hour after watering, best in the evening.
When choosing a fertilizer for murray, be sure to study the composition - the product should not contain chlorine
One procedure every 15–20 days is enough. Overfeeding the plant is undesirable. In this case, it will direct all its forces to building up the green mass, and there will be very few flowers.
You can alternate mineral fertilizers and natural organic matter - for example, infusion of fresh bird droppings, cow dung, banana peels. The finished product must be diluted with water in a ratio of 1:20 (for litter) or 1:15.
Murraya is highly prone to chlorosis. Therefore, for prophylaxis, preparations containing iron chelate (for example, Orton, Micro-Fe) are added to the fertilizer solution. Or you can just bury a few rusty nails in a pot when transplanting.
Video: important nuances of plant care
Murraya does not need formative pruning. The branches are shortened only for greater bushiness, stimulation of bud formation and to give the plant a neat appearance. Of course, this does not apply to the specimens from which the bonsai is formed.
Murraya is cut mainly to make the bush look more neat
Every year, before the beginning of the active growing season, all shoots are shortened by a third, the longest by half. Poorly placed branches, directed downward or deep into the crown, are cut to the point of growth.
The lack of flowering and formation of murray fruits is most often associated with low humidity in the room. In dry air, pollen becomes sterile.
The flowering of murray is a clear sign that the plant is satisfied with the conditions of maintenance and care.
In favorable conditions, Murraya blooms and bears fruit almost all year round. Each of the flowers is short-lived (lasts 1–2 days), but new ones are constantly revealed.
Murraya does not have a pronounced rest period. But she still needs to rest and gain strength. Therefore, from November to early February, the plant is watered more moderately and is not fed at all. Lighting requirements remain the same. The hibernating murray is looking for the brightest place. You can place it on the southern windowsill so that the leaves do not touch the cold glass. You will definitely need additional lighting to create a day of the required duration.
Typical mistakes of a novice florist
Murraya does not cause any particular difficulties to the grower. It can endure a lot without losing its decorative effect, but it reacts very painfully to dry air and extreme heat. The first sign indicating that the plant is not satisfied with the conditions of maintenance and / or care is falling or missing buds and abundant leaf fall.
Table: Leaves turn yellow, dry, fall off and other Murraya's reactions to improper care
Murraya leaves dry with insufficient air humidity and low temperatures
Diseases and pests affecting the flower
Murraya suffers from viral and bacterial diseases extremely rarely. Fungal (first of all, all kinds of rot) with proper prevention can be completely avoided. But she is very susceptible to chlorosis. Do not forget about pests, although they rarely pay attention to murray.
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. A complex of simple preventive measures will help reduce the risk of fungi and harmful insects to a minimum:
- keep all newly acquired plants in quarantine for a month;
- regularly examine pets (you can even use a magnifying glass) and isolate the allegedly affected specimens at the first alarming symptoms;
- place bouquets of cut flowers and houseplants as far apart as possible, ideally in different rooms (especially roses and chrysanthemums);
- ventilate the room regularly, wipe dust from the leaves at least once a week;
- spray murraya daily and increase the humidity in other available ways;
- use only clean pots, disinfected soil and tools;
- follow the recommendations for caring for the plant, especially those related to watering and feeding;
- Irradiate the leaves on both sides with a quartz lamp weekly for 2-3 minutes.
Table: what diseases and pests threaten Murray
Photo gallery: what diseases and pests will have to be dealt with when growing murraya
Reproduction of murray at home
Murraya reproduces at home both vegetatively and generatively. There will be no problems with planting material - the plant is regularly pruned, and under proper conditions, it willingly sets fruits.
Getting Murray seeds at home won't be a problem
Murraya seeds quickly lose their germination, so they are sown immediately after picking ripe berries.
Murray seeds are rooted in a light, loose substrate
- Fill plastic cups or small pots with a 1: 1 mixture of leaf earth and coarse river sand. A drainage layer 2-3 cm thick is required. Moisten the soil.
- Plant several seeds in them, previously soaked in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate for 15–20 minutes.
- Cover the containers with plastic bags, creating a greenhouse effect. Maintain a constant temperature of 23–25 ° C, bright diffused light.
- Air the plantings daily for 10-15 minutes. As it dries, spray the soil with a solution of any biostimulant, reducing the concentration of the drug by half compared with the manufacturer's recommended one.
- The first shoots will appear in 12-15 days, mass shoots - in 30-40. Wait for the bushes to form two pairs of true leaves, and transplant them into adult plant soil. Groom as usual.
Murraya seedlings appear quite quickly
Video: growing murraya from seeds
Cutting is an easier and faster way to propagate Murraya, but is only suitable for plants one year or older. The best time to get planting material is the beginning of autumn.
Most often, murray cuttings are rooted in the ground.
- Cut off the top of the shoot 7-10 cm long. Sprinkle the bases with any powdered root stimulant.
- Plant the cuttings immediately in pots filled with peat or sand. An alternative is rooting in water or a weak (2-3 ml per liter) solution of any biostimulant (Epin, Zircon, Heteroauxin). The water should be changed every 2-3 days.
- Provide the same conditions as for germinating seeds. You just need a higher temperature - 26-28 ° C. Bottom heating is also desirable.
- When the first pair of new leaves appears, transplant the cuttings into soil suitable for mature plants.
By settling murraya at home, you will not only demonstrate originality, but also acquire a very healthy and unpretentious plant. The abundant flowering of the tree pleases the eye, the buds spread a pleasant aroma, the fruits strengthen the immune system and the cardiovascular system. If you follow the simple rules for caring for a plant, it will delight you for a very long time.
27 years old, higher education in law, broad outlook and interest in a variety of topics.
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How to properly care for bougainvillea at home: features, homemade varieties
The plant from Brazil is famous for its flexibility, originality, fascinates with a variety of colors and vigorous flowering. The flowers are named after the French explorer Bougainville, who led the first expedition around the world. The flower was found in the rocky expanses of South America by the botanist Commerson, who was part of this expedition.
He not only discovered an amazing flower, but brought it to Europe and gave it a name. If you nevertheless decide that bougainvillea will live in your house, home care will give you pleasure, because this plant requires not only attention, but also a flight of imagination, a creative approach to its cultivation.
Origin and description of muraya
Muraya is a shrub or small tree belonging to the Rutaceae family along with all known citrus fruits such as lemon or tangerine.
The plant was first discovered at the end of the 18th century in the Himalayas by the Swedish naturalist Murray, after whom it got its name.
Under natural conditions, muraya is found in Southeast Asia, in particular in Sumatra, Taiwan, in the mountainous regions of China, in India and Nepal. In addition, it can be seen in the northern part of the Australian continent.
Muraya, like citrus plants, belongs to the Rutaceae family.
The bush is small, the height of the muraya grows on average up to two meters. Thin and flexible stems are covered with light gray bark. The leaf blades are leathery, shiny and smooth to the touch. On one sheet there are several dark green elongated leaves.
Snow-white flowers consist of five petals bent back. They are collected in racemose inflorescences and exude a wonderful aroma reminiscent of the scent of jasmine. Muraya fruits are small, oval. Outwardly, they resemble tiny elongated oranges. Inside each of the fruits there is a large yellowish stone.
On one bush, you can simultaneously observe buds, flowers, and berries
Types and varieties of muraya, popular in indoor floriculture
Botanists have described ten species of muraya, but only two of them are cultivated as a houseplant.
- Muraya Koeniga (black-fruited). It is an evergreen plant native to India. Muraya Königa has feathery leaves, on which there are 11 to 21 lanceolate leaf blades. A peculiarity of the species is that not only flowers, but also leaves have a strong aroma, due to which they are used in cooking and cosmetology. In India, they are used as a curry seasoning, which is why the chokeberry muraya is often referred to as the "curry tree." For indoor floriculture, this species is quite capricious, it requires special humidity and lighting.
- Muraya paniculata (exotic). Under natural conditions, the flower grows in the southern regions of Asia and in the northern part of Australia. It is this plant that is most often found in home flower collections. The leaves are not as large as those of muraya black-fruited, they reach 7 - 12 cm in length. Each has 7 to 11 small leaf blades. The flowers are painted in a snow-white or cream shade. The fruits are bright red in color. During flowering, Muraya paniculata exudes a pleasant aroma, for which the flower is popularly called "orange jasmine". This species blooms rather late, at 5–8 years of age. However, new varieties of Muraya paniculata have been developed by hybridizers, the flowering of which occurs in the first six months after planting the seeds. This is a dwarf muraya, whose growth in adulthood does not exceed 50 cm. Among the modern varieties, Min-a-min, Minima and Dwarf Compact can be distinguished.
In stores, muraya paniculata is often sold under the name Dutch, this is not a variety of muraya, it is just that they began to call muraya paniculata, supplied from the Netherlands.
Chokeberry, paniculate (or Dutch) and other types of muraya in the photoThe size of the dwarf muraya does not exceed 50 cm Muraya paniculata is most often cultivated indoors. The fruits, leaves and flowers of muraya black-fruited are edible. They are used in cooking, pharmacology and cosmetology. The crown of dwarf varieties of Muraya is spherical, the bush is fluffy, so you do not need to form a plant Murayi dwarf varieties are ideal for growing on a windowsill
Features of planting and care
The flower growers' comments on the nature of the flower are positive: caring for it is simple
Clerodendrum grows in the tropics and subtropics - in humid and warm climates. Therefore, it is desirable to provide similar conditions at home for its comfortable growth.
For the catharanthus, the temperature will be 25 degrees in summer and 15 degrees in winter.
A tropical plant prefers warmth, especially during the growing season, when it is actively developing or blooming. It should be grown at an air temperature of + 20-25 ° С.
And in winter, the flower should rest, so the temperature should not exceed +15 degrees. Only in this case will there be a normal budding for future flowers.
Growing on a windowsill
Clerodendrum loves the sun and bright, but diffused light. With a lack of lighting, it will begin to lose leaves.
It is better to protect the plant from direct sunlight. This is especially important if you put the plant on the south window: the midday sun can leave burns on the leaves, damage delicate petals, and reduce flowering.
It is better to choose an east or west window sill.
Clerodendrum requires abundant watering, especially in summer. You should not water too often: you need to wait until the top layer of soil dries out in the flower pot.
In winter, watering is conditioned by the air temperature in the room. If it was possible to lower it to the recommended levels, watering is rarely done, only so that the earthen lump does not dry out. If the temperature is slightly lower than it was during the growing season, watering is reduced only slightly.
A tropical guest loves humid air. It is necessary to spray the leaves and stems daily during the summer. It is better not to direct the streams of water from the spray bottle to the flowers. Water for irrigation and spraying must be soft and settled for at least a day.
From spring to autumn, clerodendrum requires fertilization. They are fed on average once every 10-14 days. No additional feeding is needed in autumn and winter.
For clerodendrum, an alternation of mineral fertilizers with organic ones is suitable. Fertilizers for flowering houseplants are sold in flower shops.
Agricola is recommended as a mineral fertilizer. fertilize the plant according to the instructions. Organic fertilizing is also necessary to enrich the soil and improve its bioactivity. FlorHumate can be purchased. Top dressing is applied by spraying the foliage or directly into the soil so that they penetrate into the root system.
Diseases and pests, methods of control
Muraya is relatively resistant to diseases. More often she suffers from chlorosis. It appears when watering a plant with chlorinated water or using chlorine fertilizers. Root rot may also appear due to waterlogging of the soil or fungal infection. To get rid of the disease, you need to remove all affected areas, treat with fungicide and transplant the flower into new soil.
Common pests of muraya:
- Spider mite - the leaves and trunk are covered with a thin cobweb, light dots appear, the leaves become discolored, dry, crumble.
- Shield - brown bumps appear, plant growth slows down, leaves fall off.
- Aphid - the shoots curl, a sticky substance appears on the surface of the leaves from the vital activity of insects.
- Mealybug - a whitish bloom appears on the stems and base of the leaves, the growth of the plant slows down, the leaves crumble.
To get rid of pests, you must first remove all damaged leaves and stems, buy the plant in the shower. It is advisable to transplant muraya into new soil. Treat with a solution of acaricide (Actellik, Karbofos) or fungicide (Fitosporin, Fundazol). It is recommended to carry out 2-3 treatments at intervals of a week.
Video - recommendations about the features of growing muraya at home: