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Oat Covered Smut Control – Treating Oats With Covered Smut Disease

Oat Covered Smut Control – Treating Oats With Covered Smut Disease


By: Teo Spengler

Smut is a fungal disease that attacks oat plants. There aretwo kinds of smut: loose smut and covered smut. They look similar but resultfrom different fungi, Ustilago avenaeand Ustilago kolleri respectively. Ifyou are growingoats, you probably need oats covered smut information. Read on tolearn the basic facts about oats with covered smut, as well as tips on oatcovered smut control.

Oats Covered Smut Information

You can find oats with covered smut in many places that oatsare grown. But the disease is not easy to spot. You may not realize that youroat plants are diseased until the crop develops heads.

Oats covered smut symptoms are generally not visible in thefield. That’s because the smut fungus forms in small, loose balls inside theoat panicle. In oats covered with smut, the spores are contained within adelicate gray membrane.

The kernels of oats are replaced by the dark spore masses,composed of many millions of spores called teliospores. While the fungusdestroys the seeds of the smut covered oats, it doesn’t ordinarily destroy theouter hulls. This effectively masks the problem.

It is only when the oats are threshed that the oats coveredsmut symptoms become apparent. Covered smut spore masses burst during harvest,giving off the smell of decaying fish. This also spreads the fungus to healthygrain that can then become infected.

It also spreads the spores onto the soil where it cansurvive until the next season. That means that susceptible oat crops thefollowing year will also be infected with covered smut.

Treating Oats with Covered Smut

Unfortunately, there is no way of effectively treating oatswith covered smut once you have threshed the oats. And a heavy outbreak of thefungal disease will almost inevitably result in a poor crop.

Instead, you should look to earlier methods of treating the issue. First, always use smut-resistant seeds that are recommended by your local university extension. With smut-resistant seeds, you are must less likely to suffer crop loss due to this issue.

If you don’t get smut-resistant oat seeds, you can also usea seed treatment for oats covered smut control. If you treat the oat seeds withan appropriate fungicide, you can prevent covered smut as well as regular smut.

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The Torrey Botanical Society is an organization of people interested in plant life, including professional and amateur botanists, students, and those who just like to go out into the country and study nature. The society began informally in the 1860's under the aegis and inspiration of Dr. John Torrey, then professor of botany at Columbia College, and claims to be the oldest botanical society in America. The early members were amateur botanists and some students and colleagues of Dr. Torrey, who were interested in collecting and identifying plants. They occasionally met in the evening to discuss their findings. The organization was first named with the appearance of its first publication, The Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Society, in 1870, and was incorporated in 1873. Today, the society holds as its objectives "to promote interest in botany, and to collect and disseminate information on all phases of plant science." These objectives are fulfilled through indoor meetings, outdoor meetings or fields trips, and publications. Because the publications have become standard reference material for botanists, many people residing in practically every state and in a number of other countries have become members, primarily to receive the publications. Thus, the society has become an international organization and is affiliated with the American Institute of Biological Sciences. It differs from most scientific societies in the numerous meetings and field trips.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare)-Covered Smut

Cause The fungus, Ustilago hordei . Spores can overwinter on barley seeds or in soil. Infection is favored by high soil moisture over a wide range of temperatures.

Symptoms Kernels in heads of infected plants are replaced by masses of dark brown smut spores. When infected heads emerge, a whitish or gray membrane enclosing spore masses will split and may release some spores. Spore masses are further broken up during harvest, scattering spores on grain. Frequently, masses of spores remain intact and appear in harvested grain.

  • Plant tolerant or resistant varieties.

Chemical control Seed treatments can give excellent control.

  • Charter at 3.1 fl oz/100 lb seed plus a dye. See label for rotation and reentry restrictions.
  • Dividend Extreme at 2 to 4 fl oz/100 lb seed for spring barley. Do not graze green barley forage until 30 days after planting. See label for reentry restrictions.
  • Although Captan, mancozeb, and Thiram are registered, they give only fair control.
  • Apron alone and products with imazalil are ineffective.


Barley pest and disease control

Barley diseases can affect the growth and survival of both tillers and spikelets which can affect initial plant count. Therefore early disease management is vital, as initial plant count is important for a successful yield and economic profits.

Seed production and certification

Certifying seed is one way to reduce pests and diseases, and all seed bought and sold in the UK must be certified. Wheat quality must meet European Union (EU ) minimum standards and member states can set their own higher standards.

Organic certified seed must meet the same standards as conventional seed.

Seed-borne diseases

There are a number of seed-borne diseases, the most common of these being:

  • loose smut
  • leaf stripe
  • covered smut
  • seedling blights
  • seedling blight, foot rot and leaf spot
  • net blotch
  • Ramularia leaf spot
  • Rynchosporium

To help recognise these diseases, you can find illustrated information on plant diseases on the Fera website. Once you have confirmed the diseases you should then choose a product to treat it. You can download the HGCA ’s wheat disease management guidance from the ADLib website (PDF, 3.38MB).

Foliar and stem-based disease control

Disease control should keep the crop healthy during the growth stages that are most important for yield. The three grain yield phases are:

  • number of ears per unit
  • grain numbers per ear
  • average grain weight

It is essential you keep crops protected from disease during these phases. These phases occur at different dates depending on winter or spring sowing.

The most common diseases to affect barley are:

  • foliar diseases - eg brown rust, yellow rust and powdery mildew
  • stem-based diseases - eg eyespot
  • ear diseases and mycotoxins - eg ergot
  • virus diseases - eg barley yellow dwarf virus, soil-borne mosaic viruses

Assessment of disease risks

You should start crop protection as upper leaves emerge, before disease develops on yield-forming leaves. Forecasting disease is difficult and depends on a number of factors such as:

  • disease pressure
  • field resistance of the crop
  • crop variety’s genetic resistance

Fungicides

Fungicides are often the best way to limit crop diseases. However resistance can occur when a disease becomes insensitive to a particular fungicide. To prevent this, you should:

  • practise good hygiene - eg disposal of crop debris
  • avoid large areas of any one variety of crop, especially in high disease areas
  • only use fungicides when treatment is necessary
  • use minimum amounts of fungicide
  • regularly monitor crops for diseases and resistance


Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 Biology
    • 2.1 Domestication
    • 2.2 Two-row and six-row barley
    • 2.3 Hulless barley
    • 2.4 Classification
    • 2.5 Cultivars
    • 2.6 Chemistry
  • 3 History
    • 3.1 Origin
    • 3.2 Spread of cultivated barley: genetic analysis
    • 3.3 Dispersal
  • 4 Genetics
    • 4.1 Hybridization
  • 5 Production
  • 6 Cultivation
  • 7 Plant diseases
  • 8 Food
    • 8.1 Nutrition
    • 8.2 Preparation
    • 8.3 Health implications
  • 9 Beverages
    • 9.1 Alcoholic beverages
    • 9.2 Nonalcoholic beverages
  • 10 Other uses
    • 10.1 Animal feed
    • 10.2 Algistatic
    • 10.3 Measurement
    • 10.4 Ornamental
    • 10.5 Cultural
  • 11 See also
  • 12 References
    • 12.1 Notes
    • 12.2 Bibliography
  • 13 External links

The Old English word for barley was bere, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina "flour".

The direct ancestor of modern English barley in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley". [5] The first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. [6] The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, and refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there. [7]

The word barn, which originally meant "barley-house", is also rooted in these words. [5]

The Latin word hordeum, used as barley's scientific genus name, is derived from an Indo-European root meaning "bristly" after the long prickly awns of the ear of grain.

Barley is a member of the grass family. It is a self-pollinating, diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, and is abundant in disturbed habitats, roadsides, and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats. [3] However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley. [8]

Domestication Edit

Wild barley (H. spontaneum) is the ancestor of domestic barley (H. vulgare). Over the course of domestication, barley grain morphology changed substantially, moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one. [9] Additionally, wild barley has distinctive genes, alleles, and regulators with potential for resistance to abiotic or biotic stresses to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes. [10] Wild barley has a brittle spike upon maturity, the spikelets separate, facilitating seed dispersal. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes, making it much easier to harvest the mature ears. [3] The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two tightly linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2 many cultivars possess both mutations. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele. [3]

Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key phenotypic traits at the genetic level. Little is known about the genetic variation among domesticated and wild genes in the chromosomal regions. [11]

Two-row and six-row barley Edit

Spikelets are arranged in triplets which alternate along the rachis. In wild barley (and other Old World species of Hordeum), only the central spikelet is fertile, while the other two are reduced. This condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations (one dominant, the other recessive) result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys. [3] Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, vrs1, is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley. [12]

Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is usually lower protein [13] ("low grain nitrogen", usually produced without a late fertilizer application) which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, and has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers.

Amylase-rich six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers, especially when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used.

Hulless barley Edit

Hulless or "naked" barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain, especially for swine and poultry. [14] Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, and for its value-added products. These include bran and flour for multiple food applications. [15]

Classification Edit

In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes (wild barley) is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as H. distichum L., six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as H. vulgare L. (or H. hexastichum L.), and six-row with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Åberg.

Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L. [3]

Cultivars Edit

Chemistry Edit

Origin Edit

Barley was one of the first domesticated grains in the Fertile Crescent, an area of relatively abundant water in Western Asia, and near the Nile river of northeast Africa. [27] The grain appeared in the same time as einkorn and emmer wheat. [28] Wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ranges from North Africa and Crete in the west, to Tibet in the east. [3] According to some scholars, the earliest evidence of wild barley in an archaeological context comes from the Epipaleolithic at Ohalo II at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee. The remains were dated to about 8500 BCE. [3] Other scholars have written that the earliest evidence comes from Mesopotamia, specifically the Jarmo region of modern day Iraq.

Spread of cultivated barley: genetic analysis Edit

One of the world's most important crops, barley, was domesticated in the Near East around 11,000 years ago (circa 9,000 BCE). [26] Barley is a highly resilient crop, able to be grown in varied and marginal environments, such as in regions of high altitude and latitude. [26] Archaeobotanical evidence shows that barley had spread throughout Eurasia by 2,000 BCE. [26] To further elucidate the routes by which barley cultivation was spread through Eurasia, genetic analysis was used to determine genetic diversity and population structure in extant barley taxa. [26] Genetic analysis shows that cultivated barley spread through Eurasia via several different routes, which were most likely separated in both time and space. [26]

Dispersal Edit

Some scholars believe domesticated barley (hordeum vulgare) originally spread from Central Asia to India, Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt. [29] Some of the earliest domesticated barley occurs at aceramic ("pre-pottery") Neolithic sites, in the Near East such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B layers of Tell Abu Hureyra, in Syria. [ citation needed ] By 4200 BCE domesticated barley occurs as far as in Eastern Finland [30] and had reached Greece and Italy around the 4th c. BCE. [29] Barley has been grown in the Korean Peninsula since the Early Mumun Pottery Period (circa 1500–850 BCE) along with other crops such as millet, wheat, and legumes. [31]

Barley (known as Yava in both Vedic and Classical Sanskrit) is mentioned many times in Rigveda and other Indian scriptures as one of the principal grains in ancient India. [32] Traces of Barley cultivation have also been found in post-Neolithic Bronze Age Harappan civilization 5700–3300 years before present. [33]

In the Pulitzer Prize-winning book Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond proposed that the availability of barley, along with other domesticable crops and animals, in southwestern Eurasia significantly contributed to the broad historical patterns that human history has followed over approximately the last 13,000 years i.e., why Eurasian civilizations, as a whole, have survived and conquered others. [34] Jared Diamond's proposition was criticized, however, for underemphasizing individual and cultural choice and autonomy. The anthropologist Jason Antrosio wrote, that "Diamond's account makes all the factors of European domination a product of a distant and accidental history" and "has almost no role for human agency–the ability people have to make decisions and influence outcomes. Europeans become inadvertent, accidental conquerors. Natives succumb passively to their fate." He added, "Jared Diamond has done a huge disservice to the telling of human history. He has tremendously distorted the role of domestication and agriculture in that history. Unfortunately his story-telling abilities are so compelling that he has seduced a generation of college-educated readers." [35]

Barley beer was probably one of the first alcoholic drinks developed by Neolithic humans. [36] Barley later on was used as currency. [36] The ancient Sumerian word for barley was akiti. In ancient Mesopotamia, a stalk of barley was the primary symbol of the goddess Shala. [37] Alongside emmer wheat, barley was a staple cereal of ancient Egypt, where it was used to make bread and beer. The general name for barley is jt (hypothetically pronounced "eat") šma (hypothetically pronounced "SHE-ma") refers to Upper Egyptian barley and is a symbol of Upper Egypt. According to Deuteronomy 8:8, barley is one of the "Seven Species" of crops that characterize the fertility of the Promised Land of Canaan, and it has a prominent role in the Israelite sacrifices described in the Pentateuch (see e.g. Numbers 5:15). A religious importance extended into the Middle Ages in Europe, and saw barley's use in justice, via alphitomancy and the corsned.

Rations of barley for workers appear in Linear B tablets in Mycenaean contexts at Knossos and at Mycenaean Pylos. [38] In mainland Greece, the ritual significance of barley possibly dates back to the earliest stages of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The preparatory kykeon or mixed drink of the initiates, prepared from barley and herbs, referred in the Homeric hymn to Demeter, whose name some scholars believe meant "Barley-mother". [39] The practice was to dry the barley groats and roast them before preparing the porridge, according to Pliny the Elder's Natural History (xviii.72). This produces malt that soon ferments and becomes slightly alcoholic.

Pliny also noted barley was a special food of gladiators known as hordearii, "barley-eaters". However, by Roman times, he added that wheat had replaced barley as a staple. [40]

Tibetan barley has been a staple food in Tibetan cuisine since the fifth century CE. This grain, along with a cool climate that permitted storage, produced a civilization that was able to raise great armies. [41] It is made into a flour product called tsampa that is still a staple in Tibet. [42] The flour is roasted and mixed with butter and butter tea to form a stiff dough that is eaten in small balls.

In medieval Europe, bread made from barley and rye was peasant food, while wheat products were consumed by the upper classes. [40] Potatoes largely replaced barley in Eastern Europe in the 19th century. [43]

The genome of barley was sequenced in 2012, [44] due to the efforts of the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium and the UK Barley Sequencing Consortium.

The genome is composed of seven pairs of nuclear chromosomes (recommended designations: 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H and 7H), and one mitochondrial and one chloroplast chromosome, with a total of 5000 Mbp. [45]

Abundant biological information is already freely available in several barley databases. [46]

The wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) found currently in the Fertile Crescent might not be the progenitor of the barley cultivated in Eritrea and Ethiopia, indicating that separate domestication may have occurred in eastern Africa. [47]

Hybridization Edit

Barley has been crossed with wheat with mixed results that have yet to prove commercially viable. The resulting hybrids have further been crossed with rye, but with even more limited results. [48]

Barley production, 2018
Country (millions of tonnes)
Russia 16.99
France 11.19
Germany 9.58
Australia 9.25
Spain 9.12
Canada 8.37
Ukraine 7.34
Turkey 7.00
United Kingdom 6.51
Argentina 5.06
Kazakhstan 3.97
Denmark 3.48
United States 3.33
World 141.42
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division, 2018 [4]

In 2017, world production of barley was 149 million tonnes, led by Russia producing 14% of the world total. Australia, Germany, France, and Ukraine were major producers. [4]

Barley is a widely adaptable crop. It is currently popular in temperate areas where it is grown as a summer crop and tropical areas where it is sown as a winter crop. Its germination time is one to three days. Barley grows under cool conditions, but is not particularly winter hardy.

Barley is more tolerant of soil salinity than wheat, which might explain the increase of barley cultivation in Mesopotamia from the second millennium BCE onwards. Barley is not as cold tolerant as the winter wheats (Triticum aestivum), fall rye (Secale cereale) or winter triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus.), but may be sown as a winter crop in warmer areas of Australia and Great Britain.

Barley has a short growing season and is also relatively drought tolerant. [40]


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