Poppy (Papaver) is a herbaceous flowering plant related to the Poppy family, where scientists have managed to count about a hundred species that come from Australia, Europe and Asia. Wild poppy plantings prefer temperate and subtropical climates. Steppes, deserts, rocky slopes are the main location of the plant. Poppy is grown as a decorative flower in a personal plot and is used for medicinal purposes.
There are a number of countries where the government has banned the cultivation of this plant. The reason is that in the tissues of individual representatives of the Makovs there are narcotic substances. The industrial use of poppy also takes place. The flower is bred to produce seed pods. Raw materials contain opium - one of the main components of medicinal preparations with hypnotic and analgesic effects.
The value and useful properties of poppy were recognized even by the inhabitants of Ancient Rome, so for a long time they studied how opium affects the body. The name of the species, translated from Latin, means "father" who tries to calm his children and gives them poppy seeds.
In the Middle Ages, in the countries of Asia Minor, professing Islam, it was forbidden to consume alcoholic beverages, but opium smoking was legalized. Over time, the custom of smoking opium gained popularity in the rest of the eastern states. In China, this tradition has become one of the most widespread. Since 1820, the Chinese authorities have banned the import of "dope", but the restriction was lifted after the country was defeated in the war with the British, which received a large income from the export of opium. Today, cultivated poppy species are cultivated in India, China and other Central Asian countries. In our regions, you can often see red poppy heads in flower beds or rockeries.
Description of the flower
All types of poppy are subdivided into annuals, biennials and perennials. The rhizome looks like a rod and goes deep into the ground. The small lateral roots are fragile and break off easily if the bush is transplanted to a new location. Straight stems are smooth or pubescent. The cirrus leaf blades are arranged in opposite order and contain hairy setae.
Poppy flowers adorn the top of the bush and have many stamens, which are located on elongated rigid peduncles. Single flowers are collected in panicles. The color of the wide petals is presented in different shades. The ripe box cracks. Achenes are scattered over the soil surface. The material does not lose germination for 4 years.
Growing poppy seeds
The most common way to grow poppy seeds. Gardeners prefer to save time and plant outdoors. Among other things, poppy seedlings are too fragile. Seedlings may die due to transplantation. The only species grown for seedlings is perennial poppy. The pick is started at the stage of the formation of the first pair of strong leaves.
Shops and horticultural pavilions offer ready-made stratified poppy seeds that can be sent directly into the soil. If the material is collected by one's own hands, it must be stratified. For this, poppy seeds are sown in the ground in late autumn so that they are properly hardened. Another way is to use refrigerated boxes for stratification, where material is sent for several months. If you skip this stage of preparation, the growth of seedlings will be slowed down.
Terry poppy, peony. (Poppy).
Planting and caring for poppy
How to grow a poppy
Poppy planting is carried out in well-lit areas. The composition of the soil depends on the specific type of flower. There are many types of poppy that are not pretentious to the type of soil and are able to grow in conditions of low fertility. Otherwise, the flower bed will have to be dug up and compost and bone meal added.
Before sowing, poppy seeds are mixed with sand at a ratio of 1:10. Then the mixture is distributed on the prepared flower bed and sprinkled with earth on top. It is not necessary to excavate the rows or grooves in advance. Crops are regularly moistened. On the eighth or tenth day, green shoots appear. They are thinned out in such a way that the flower can subsequently receive sufficient nutrition. The optimal spacing between young seedlings should be 15-20 cm.
It is worth waiting for the poppy to bloom at least three months after sowing, and budding continues for about six weeks.
Planting and caring for poppy seeds is not a hassle. The roots require watering only under conditions of established dry weather. Wet soil is loosened and weeded, getting rid of weeds. Mulching the site allows you to do these procedures much less often. The plant responds positively to fertilization.
Poppy after flowering
Annuals of poppy after flowering are to be destroyed. In order for the inflorescences to decorate the bush for a longer time, it is recommended to remove the seed boxes. The testes remaining on the stems, by self-seeding, will give their own shoots the next year. With the onset of autumn, the flower bed is plowed, and the remains of the plants are raked into a heap and taken out from the site.
The decorative properties of the perennial poppy are lost when the last buds wither. The bushes are cut at the very root. Representatives of the perennial forms of the Poppy do without protective shelter in winter. If severe frosts are expected, it is better to throw dry leaves or spruce trees on the poppy plantings.
Diseases and pests
Bad weather, prolonged rains cause many poppy diseases.
Powdery mildew - fungal plaque that covers the surface of the leaf blades in the form of a white bloom. Over time, the plaque disappears, but black dots form in its place. The disease has a depressing effect on poppy bushes and affects the yield. If traces of the fungus are found, the stems and leaves are sprayed with a copper or soda solution. To combat powdery mildew, a drug called "Medex" is used. Traditional methods of treatment include garlic infusion and mustard, which are used to treat infected bushes.
Peronosporosis - no less dangerous fungal disease. Its signs are red-brown spots that can deform the shape of peduncles, leaves and stems, as well as gray bloom that accumulates on the inner surface of the plates. Young seedlings may die as a result of infection with fungal spores. In mature shrubs, there is a decrease in yield and a decrease in the size of the seed pods. The same means as in the previous case help to stop the spread of the disease.
Fusarium wilting - an infectious disease that manifests itself in the form of dark spots on the surface of the ground parts of the plant. As a result, the flower dries up, the boxes shrink and do not fully ripen. Fusarium spores affect the vessels of the stems and change their structure. It is almost impossible to cope with the disease. Infected poppy bushes are removed. The flowerbed is treated with fungicidal preparations.
Alternaria - olive-colored spot of fungal origin. To stop it, it is necessary to treat diseased plantings with Bordeaux mixture, Cuproxat, Oxychloride and Fundazol.
Insects that harm the plant include the weevil. This beetle eats the roots, and the larvae eat the leaves. From time to time, the stems are attacked by aphids.
The drug Bazudin in granules or 7% Chlorophos can save the crop from weevils. They are brought into the flowerbed before sowing. To defeat aphids, use Antitlin, Aktara or Aktellik.
Types and varieties of poppy with a photo
Consider the most common types and varieties of poppy cultivated by gardeners:
Holostem poppy (Papaver nudicaule)
The flower began its population around the world from the east of Siberia, Mongolia and Altai. The height of the stems can reach up to 30 cm. The pinnate leaf blades are greenish-gray. The diameter of the flowers ranges from 2.5-5 cm. The inflorescences are white, yellow or orange. The flowering period is 3-3.5 months. The plant should be handled very carefully as it is considered poisonous. The late varieties of saffron poppy deserve attention: Popskyle, Cardinal, Sulfureum, Atlant, Roseum.
Self-seeding poppy (Papaver rhoeas)
It was first seen in the central corners of Russia, in Europe and in the countries of Asia Minor. Straight, spreading stems grow up to 60 cm long. The leaves, located near the bedding, are wide with sharp ends. The leaf blades on the surface of the stem have feathery dissected lobes. Hair cover predominates both on the stems and on the leaves. The diameter of the double flowers is about 6 cm. The color of the species is predominantly red, pink or white. There are varieties with dark spots at the base of the petals. The plant has been cultivated since the end of the 15th century. In horticulture, self-seeded varieties are often used, for example, Shirley and Silk Moire.
Sleeping poppy (Papaver somniferum)
Wild flower plantations live mainly in Mediterranean countries. Straight stems one meter in height have a gray waxy bloom. Leaves near the root part branch slightly, and those that are higher, look in the form of an ellipse. At the top of the head, the leaves are triangular or curly. Flowers grow singly. Their colors can be varied. Often, the base of wide petals looks spotty. Peduncles open in the early morning, and in the evening they lower their heads. The species blooms for no more than one month. The following varieties are popular: the Danish flag and the Merry family.
Oriental poppy (Papaver orientale)
Among perennial poppies, the oriental poppy deserves special attention. Its origin is associated with the countries of Asia Minor. Strong rectilinear stems are covered with a bristly sheath. The height of the bushes reaches one meter. The deciduous layer is shorter on the stem than near the roots. The size of the terry baskets is about 18 cm. The petals are colored deep red, and the middle of the bud is as if marked with black paint. Inflorescences replace each other for two weeks. Flower pollen attracts insects due to its bright purple color.
A varietal poppy called Pizzicato is one of the favorite perennials of gardeners. Plant of medium height with strong stems. The color palette of inflorescences is represented by the most daring shades: pink, white, red, orange. Oriental poppy varieties include: Beauty Queen, Blue Moon, Curlilok and Allegro.
Useful properties of poppy
The secret of the opium poppy was discovered in ancient times. On the basis of poppy seeds, healers prepared various pain relieving and sleeping pills. The ancient Greeks claimed that the gods Morpheus and Hera used poppy seeds. When the flower was brought to Europe, local rulers became aware of the value of raw poppy seeds. The peasants were obliged to pay the quitrent in the form of poppy seeds.
Plant tissues contain sugars, proteins, vitamins, trace elements, oils, glycosides, flavonoids and organic acids. Seed oil is considered very valuable and has found its application in cosmetology and paint production.
Poppy infusions are advised to be used for toothache and ear pain. Preparations made with the addition of poppy seeds cure insomnia, hemorrhoids, and inflammatory processes in the stomach. As a result, digestion is normalized. In pharmacology, many potent drugs are produced on the basis of flower grains: codeine, morphine, papaverine, narcein and narcotine. Since drugs can be addictive and overdose has serious consequences, you should definitely consult a doctor.
There is a separate category of people who are prohibited from taking medications that contain traces of poppy seeds. We are talking about young children and drug addicts. Doctors advise to refrain from using these drugs for the elderly, people suffering from bronchial asthma, anoxemia and cholelithiasis.
Perennial poppy: description, planting and care, cultivation features, photo
The perennial poppy is a beautiful plant with exquisite flowers. Despite the short flowering period, it is still popular with some flower growers. The flower has been known since ancient Rome. In those days, as now, it was successfully used in medicine.
Poppy is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Poppy family. It can be perennial, one-year and biennial. In total, there are about 100 of its species in nature, and in our country and in the near abroad - about 75.
The flowers are solitary, regular in shape, the stem is long and thin, sometimes pubescent, sometimes smooth.
Carved leaves are in perfect harmony with delicate shades of pink, scarlet, yellow, orange, white and even two-tone flowers.
Poppy fruits are capsules, as if closed on top with a carved round lid.
The average diameter of the flowers is 5-7.5 cm, in large-flowered flowers - about 20 cm, in some cases they can reach 25 cm.The flowers are collected in racemes or paniculate inflorescences of various colors: deep blue, azure, blue, lavender, purple, white, yellow tint. Up to 4 weeks, the blue Himalayan meconopsis poppy blooms. The seeds ripen in a dry capsule.
Important! The stems and leaves of plants contain milky sap, which does not possess narcotic properties, but contains poisonous compounds, which is why this flower belongs to the group of poisonous plants.
Violet Chic Poppy: reviews and features
So, the chic poppy violet is distinguished by the following features:
- decorative variegation
- fringed and wavy petals
- intense pink-orange color of flowers.
And flower growers who got acquainted with this subspecies firsthand, note the following advantages of the seedling:
- cuttings root well
- children grow up soon and generously
- flowering occurs quickly, often it is very abundant - the opened buds completely cover the outlet
- long flowering.
Grandis large great is a species of Himalayan blue poppy, cultivated by man and cultivated according to agricultural technology since 1895. Joseph Hooker was the first to reveal this delicate flowering plant to the world. A British plant hunter led an expedition to the highest mountain in the world to find the amazing sky blue flower. The work of breeders, lasting more than a century, has allowed the world to discover a large number of forms and hybrids of the Himalayan poppy.
Mekonopsis grandis is a semi-rosette type of plants, the flowering period of which lasts from May to August. The height of adult plants is up to 60 cm. The leaves are elliptical, the edges are indented with denticles. Peduncles are lowered, the average length is 10 cm. Flowers in diameter can reach 10-13 cm. They are blue, bluish, lilac, pink, white.
Save your energy
Another reserve - distribution of labor costs... It is convenient to proceed from the principle “rest is a change of occupation”. If we divide the amount of work into blocks of 30-40 minutes, we will avoid mental fatigue and physical overload. This makes it easier to determine a reasonable and feasible amount of care work, refusing an excessive amount of plants or the area under them. You can call this option the "completed small business" method.
I would like to add that with this formula one can have labor-intensive crops, the main thing - in such quantity that caring for them fits into the given time frame. In reality, it will most likely be 1-3 plants, no more.
Learn to save energy
Considering the structure of labor costs for gardening, it is easy to find where the greatest reserves of savings lie. Of course it is weed control, watering and soil cultivation... These are the ones you should focus on first.
Estimated labor efficiency for different agrotechnical approaches
Let's see what you can do in the garden in 30 minutes
- With proper mulching, earthworms will do the job.
- Digging the soil with a shovel - 2 sq. M
- Cultivation / loosening - 15 sq.m
- Rake spreading - 20 sq.m
- An automatic irrigation system can handle it without a man
- Watering from a watering can - 60 sq.m
- Watering from a hose with a spray - 200 sq.m
- In an adult garden, weeds hardly appear
- Weeding by hand - 3 sq.m
- Weeding with a hoe with loosening - 30 m2
- Weeding with a flat cutter or cultivator - 300 m2
- Herbicide spraying - 300 m2
- Petrol lawn mowing - 600 m2
You may also be interested in articles:
- 10 golden rules for the lazy gardener
- "Lazy" garden and its inhabitants
- Ornamental shrubs for the "lazy" garden
- Rest or work? Find 10 differences
- Making life easier for plants and ourselves