How to shape a pepper bush to speed up the ripening of delicious fruits
Experienced gardeners know that in order to obtain a bountiful harvest of bell peppers, it is recommended to carry out the shrub formation procedure. It has a positive effect on plants, many large fruits with good taste ripen on them.
Remove the first bud
If the summer resident is not engaged in the formation of pepper, then the bushes give a large number of sterile processes. Although there are exceptions to this rule. Some varieties do not need forming. These include:
- weakly branching varieties;
- weakly branching hybrids;
- undersized, dwarf species.
It is important not to let the growth and development of vegetable crops take their course. Extra branches create a large green mass and take away nutrients from the plant. They worsen the growth conditions for the shoots on which the fruits are tied. Bushes are less ventilated, which leads to the emergence of pests and diseases, especially for tall varieties, the height of which can be up to 1-2 meters. For normal nutrition, lighting and air exchange, they must be thinned and shaped. The formation is carried out in several stages, this is the regular cutting and pinching of the leaves. The initial stage is the removal of the first bud. When the pepper seedlings grow up to 20 cm, the stem is divided into two branches, and a bud is tied at the split point. Such a bud is called a crown bud, if you leave it on the plant, then even before transferring the seedlings to the beds, it can bloom. It is the crown bud that must be removed so that the plant has the opportunity to grow strong shoots on which fruits will set in the future. If you plan to get seeds from yours. peppers, you can leave 1-2 bushes with crown buds, the healthiest seeds will form in it. In the next season, you can grow beautiful seedlings from them.
Pinch weak shoots
Before starting the formation of plants, make sure that they are healthy and have well adapted to the new location. After transplanting into the ground, the formation process consists of cutting, pinching and removing barren shoots. The lateral branches of the bush, obtained after dividing the trunk into two shoots, are branches of the first horizontal level or skeletal. They have a central stem and leaves. In the axils of these leaves, new shoots appear - stepchildren. They are removed by pinching. The main, central stalk of the pepper branches into two shoots. The stronger one is left, and the weaker one is pinched. The remaining shoot will be skeletal, supporting other branches with leaves and fruits.
Remove barren shoots
Below the level of branching, shoots are formed on the main stems. Over time, they become overgrown with leaves and shade the bushes. Infertile shoots are gradually removed, no more than one or two leaves a day, first those that interfere with the flow of sunlight. This is done until the bushes grow to the planned height, usually up to 1.2 meters. To make it easier for the skeletal processes to hold shoots and fruits, a trellis is installed in advance in the greenhouse, which will give them support. When ripe, large peppers can break branches, so each transverse level is attached to a support.
Pinch the growth points
Pinching the growing point helps to obtain a large number of ovaries, from which large fruits with good taste will emerge. After a lot of fruits have formed on the plant, the top is cut off at a level above the 7th leaf. Use a sharp and disinfected instrument for this. The next day it is useful to treat the pepper with a growth stimulant, this will accelerate the growth of the fruit, and the plant will more easily tolerate the procedure.
Remove diseased and excess leaves
If yellowed, deformed or insect-damaged leaves appear on the plant, they must be removed. Healthy leaves that do not take part in the nutrition of the set fruits are also not needed. They take up nutrients and impair ventilation, interfere with the normal pollination of the ovaries.
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How to pinch a petunia and shape its bush correctly
Petunia is one of those plants that respond well to pinching and shoot formation, becoming only more beautiful. In this article, we will show you how to pinch a petunia so that it blooms gorgeous, and when to do it. Features of pinching petunia varieties and what to do with the cuttings.
Petunia, which is not pinched, but allowed to grow freely, can form an elongated bush that will fall to one side. If you form the crown of a plant correctly, you can get a lush flower with many flowering shoots.
How to shape bell peppers
The purpose of growing bell peppers is to obtain a large number of large and sweet peppers, saturated with moisture, sweet and mouth-watering. For this, the bush must be rationally arranged by removing unnecessary shoots. This will reduce the consumption of nutrients, which will be spent on the formation of fruits, and not ballast green mass. In this case, a balance must be observed, since the same green mass in a certain percentage of the crop is simply necessary. A "naked" bush will not be able to synthesize enough energy to grow a decent amount of fruit. Hence the conclusion - it is necessary to form pepper rationally and rationally, without removing unnecessary shoots, but also without leaving too much greenery. Let's take a look at how to shape bell peppers under different conditions.
Forming into two stems
In order for each plant to produce the largest possible number of fruits, it needs to create comfortable growing conditions, providing all the means to direct forces towards fruiting. The purpose of the formation is to create a fairly compact bush with powerful shoots that can withstand the considerable weight of the resulting fruits and "feed" them. On average, each good, healthy and well-formed bush gives up to 25 large and sweet peppers during the fruiting season.
The most common method of forming a bush is in two stems. Work with the plant begins when it reaches about 20 cm in height. If before that the bell pepper looked like one shoot, then at about this height, lateral shoots begin to form. At the same time, a growth point remains in the center, capable of continuing its development. It is removed in order to direct all the forces of the plant to the formation of lateral shoots. They must create "skeletal" branches, which will account for the entire mass of future fruits, along with herbs and shoots. A properly formed bush should have a very strong main trunk that will hold the plant well in an upright position. The bush is usually tied to a trellis or stakes for reliability. When fixing each shoot with a trellis, when fixing, you need to try to gently turn, scroll - this contributes not only to its strengthening, but also to better flowering and fruiting. Tying peppers during formation is mandatory in areas where strong winds and rains occur, which can break the plant or damage its branches. In general, the process of forming a bush resembles the same action with larger plants - trees, only accelerated hundreds of times.
When the lateral shoots of the first and second order are formed, the two strongest, healthiest and most powerful are selected from them. All other shoots are pinched. You can do this with your hands if the shoots are still soft enough, or you can use scissors with rounded edges of the blades. You need to do the procedure slowly and carefully, calculating your actions. On how correctly the bush will be decorated, its life and your harvest depend.
The resulting shoots will become skeletal. Then each of the skeletal shoots will begin to branch out, forming a bifurcation. In each such pair of branches, a weak shoot must be removed, leaving only a strong and strong one. A weak shoot is pinched after the first leaf, so as not to awaken the dormant bud. The same operation is carried out with each subsequent forked shoot.
In the process of plant growth, pinching is also carried out - the removal of sterile shoots that are formed from dormant buds. It is especially important to remove stepchildren below the site of growth of skeletal branches. Such shoots are useless, moreover, they harm, taking away nutrients and water from fruiting branches and ripening fruits. Stepchildren should be removed as early as possible, while the shoots are still very tender and soft, and pinching does not leave deep wounds.
Features of the formation of sweet pepper
We examined the basic rules on how to form Bulgarian pepper bushes, now we need to dwell on some of the subtleties that will help a novice gardener.
· It is necessary to form a bush gradually. If you let it grow and then begin to mercilessly cut off the "extra" branches from it, then it will not survive such treatment and will inevitably perish. With a phased formation, all shoots must be removed as early as possible, until they have developed too much, have not become coarse and have not taken away too much strength from the mother plant.
· If a shoot of sufficient length was found on the bush without a single flower or ovary, remove it, it is useless for you. Such shoots are called fattening and for good reason - they take away from the plant a lot of strength and nutrients, without giving anything in return, only the "empty" green mass.
· It is best to pinch the shoots in dry weather - this way the "wounds" dry up faster without injuring the plant. In wet weather or when spraying or irrigating immediately after pinching or crown formation, pathogens can get into the wounds. They are capable of destroying all plantings.
· Plucked leaves and removed shoots should not be left on the beds, they must be removed from the site and disposed of. Plant residues and the smell of juice can attract pests, which are especially dangerous to plants injured after pinching.
· Formation of pepper is not a dogma, but only a hint on how to do it better. You can form both in 4 shoots and in 2, the main goal is a healthy and well-bearing garden culture.
What peppers require shaping
There are many varieties and hybrids of peppers, they differ from each other in the height of the bushes, the period of fruiting, the shape and color of the fruit. Many undersized varieties do not differ in a lush green part, they are rarely stepchildren and formed. But tall plants, on the contrary, require mandatory formation, since without this procedure they will not be able to grow.
Peculiarities of pinching and formation depend, first of all, on the height of the bushes. For low-growing varieties (height no more than 0.5 m), shaping is not necessary, provided that they are located at a distance from each other. If the seedlings are planted too close, then excess shoots and leaves will need to be removed.
Medium-sized varieties grow up to 1 m. In this case, the lower tier of shoots is removed, vegetables are rarely formed on them. Cut the leaves so they don't shade the peppers.
Tall varieties (up to 2 m) must be cut and shaped. Use one of the schemes - 1-3 stems. Choose an option, focusing on the density of the seedlings.
Formation of tall varieties of pepper
In greenhouses, all-grade and hybrid peppers are often grown, which are distinguished by a significant height - up to 1.5-2 meters. Such plants, as a rule, are distinguished by the presence of large leaf blades and increased branching. This often causes plantings to become very dense, causing shading.
The yield of this vegetable directly depends on the amount of light. To increase growth and accelerate ripening of fruits, it is necessary to form tall, slender bushes of peppers. Novice gardeners are advised to adhere to the following detailed description.
- After the plant has the 9th or 10th leaf (it depends on the variety), it will grow three (sometimes more) lateral stems of the first order. Of these, the two strongest are chosen and left. Excess lateral branches are pinched onto one leaf (or fruit).
- Next, the pepper is formed into two stalks. These two shoots become basic (skeletal). When each of them begins to branch, then only one is left as the main one - the strongest. Other lateral shoots of the second level are also pinched on one leaf. With shoots of the third, fourth order, they do the same.
- From time to time, all sterile shoots, which are called stepchildren, are removed on the bush. Lateral branches and leaves growing below the branching point of the main trunk are also removed.
- The lower flowers and ovaries formed before the first lower ramification of the main stem are also removed. The main axial shoots of sweet pepper are tied to a trellis and twisted from time to time.
- Shoots on tall bushes at the end of summer (a month before the end of the growing season) need to be pinched. This will slow down the formation of new ovaries and accelerate the ripening of the fruits that have already appeared.
If you properly form a pepper bush in two trunks, you can create optimal lighting conditions in plantings and prevent the plant from wasting nutrients. In this case, all the forces of the pepper will be "thrown" into flowering and full ripening of the fruit.
Basic shaping techniques
When forming bushes of sweet pepper, 3 fundamental techniques are used: pinching, pruning, pinching. Rules are used for each procedure.
This technique involves cutting off additional lateral processes that grow in the sinuses of the leaves. If you leave all the additional branches, then the plant will spend a lot of energy on their growth, and not on the formation of vegetables and their ripening.
The main recommendations when performing pinning are as follows.
- they begin to pinch the peppers in the greenhouse, as the bush reaches more than 30 cm
- all small shoots that grow to the point of branching of the stem are cut
- so that new stepsons do not grow from old sinuses, they leave hemp about 3 mm
- stepchildren peppers in the morning, loosening and watering are carried out near the bush after the procedure
- disinfected sharp instruments are used to remove stepchildren.
Very often, dense foliage interferes with the flow of sunlight to the fruits, so excess greens are periodically cut off. Also, this procedure ensures free air flow.
- without fail remove all dried and damaged leaves
- the leaves on the first stem are cut when the peppers on the first level shoots reach the stage of technical maturity
- leaves under the stems of the second order are removed when the peppers reach technical maturity on the bottom (similarly, removing leaves for all other orders)
- removal of green leaves is performed only on healthy bushes, since this can become severe stress for diseased plants
- no more than 2 leaves are cut at a time
- due to green leaves, the fruit is nourished, therefore, 1-2 leaves should remain above each vegetable.
Leaves are stopped about 1.5 months before the vegetables are fully ripe.
Yield indicators determine the number of formed vegetables, but also their timely ripening. If too many ovaries form on the plant, then they will simply pull the force, but they will not have time to form everything fully. To prevent the formation of unnecessary shoots and fruits, pinching is performed.
- After branching the main bush into several parts, 2-3 of the strongest processes are retained. They form the skeleton of the bush.
- When a new branch is formed on the main skeleton, then all the shoots are pinched, and the most developed one is left for growth.
- For second-tier stems, a similar procedure is followed. The most powerful shoot is left on them, and the rest are cut off above the flower bud.
- After the formation of the required amount of vegetables on the bush, all growing stems are pinched at the point of growth.
The last time the peppers are pinched about 1-1.5 months before the end of fruiting. By this time, 20-25 fruits should be formed.
What to do with cut off shoots?
They can be rooted and used to obtain planting material. For this, not very short shoots are suitable, at least with a couple of internodes. To successfully root petunia cuttings you need:
- remove the lower leaves, if any, leaving only a couple of the upper ones
- place the cuttings in water so that the stem only touches the water surface, in order to avoid decay
- when the stalk gives roots, plant the seedlings in the right place.
You can root the cutting in a light substrate of two-thirds sand (or vermiculite) and a third of garden soil. A cut of a petunia stalk is powdered with root, stuck into a pot with a substrate and covered with a transparent jar, bag or plastic bottle.
Watering is carried out through the pallet. Usually after 10-12 days, petunia takes root successfully.
Video: Formation of ampelous petunia and its propagation by cuttings
An important lesson from the “Do-it-yourself garden, vegetable garden” channel about how to pinch petunia with double benefit - we begin to form an ampelous plant, and also propagate the flower by cuttings. What to do with the cuttings later.
The beautiful petunia flower can be a decoration for any garden or balcony. But in order for the plant to show itself in all its glory, to form a lush bush and to please with abundant flowering, you need to properly care for it.
Now you know how to pinch a petunia and how to prune it. If you follow the rules set out above, you can enjoy the beautiful view and long flowering of the queen of the summer season - petunias.