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How to prepare garlic for planting and soil

How to prepare garlic for planting and soil


Preparing garlic for planting is a very important process, since the quality of the seed depends on what the harvest will be and whether it will be at all. During pre-processing, disinfection, storage, garlic can either lose its beneficial qualities or gain, depending on what you are doing. We will talk about how to prepare garlic and soil for planting in this article.

Garlic preparation

A reliable fact: how garlic is stored depends on how it will grow later. Cloves or whole bulbs should be properly dried in the fall and placed in a cool, dry place such as a refrigerator or cellar. If they are damaged by insects, covered with mold or rot, they cannot be used. Even if the plant grows, it will be frail, small and completely unsuitable for further propagation or consumption.

Preparing spring garlic

Spring garlic cloves should be well dried in autumn, and then packed in fabric bags, cardboard or wooden boxes. The air temperature during storage should not exceed +7 degrees, and the humidity should tend to zero, since it is in such an environment that garlic continues to produce all the chemical compounds necessary for rapid growth. If you process the cloves correctly in the fall, then in the spring you will have first-class planting material.

The largest teeth should be selected, while giving preference to those that are on the outer circle - the best plants grow from them. Carefully inspect each tooth so that there are no wormholes, rot, dents on it. Disinfect in a pink solution of potassium permanganate or ash lye.

For planting, you can choose the varieties "Degtyarsky", "Kledor", "Flavor", "Messidor".

Choosing a landing site

Garlic is incredibly fond of heat, but at the same time it does not tolerate arid heat, which damages its leaves. Therefore, when choosing a place for planting, make sure that it is either at least a little shaded, or it is well moisturized.

Garlic also has a special relationship with water: during the active growing season, it needs a lot of moisture, but it cannot “swim” in water - the bulbs immediately begin to rot. Thus, an elevation can be made from the soil so that the water goes slightly lower than the underground part of the plant.

It is important to observe crop rotation, that is, replant the garlic every time, so as not to infect the earth with fungus and not to lure harmful insects. It is good if early ripening crops - potatoes, tomatoes or annual plants like melons and peppers - grew in the garden before the garlic. They saturate the soil with nitrogen and phosphorus, which allows the crop to feast on as it grows. Be that as it may, the preparation of planting material and soil for planting begins in the fall.

Soil preparation

Garlic prefers a loamy soil rich in organic debris with neutral to low acidity. At the same time, fertilizers should be applied in late autumn, so that they are well transformed during the winter, and in the spring the cloves get an ideal soil rich in useful compounds.

For 1 square meter of land, you will need at least 1 bucket of compost or humus, you can use mullein or horse manure. Add 1 tablespoon of double superphosphate and nitrophosphate to the compost. You can also add 1 cup of dolomite flour to reduce the acidity of the soil.

The site is dug onto a shovel bayonet, then leveled with a garden rake and watered with a solution of copper sulfate. For its preparation, 40 grams of vitriol granules are diluted in 10 liters of water so that 1 liter of solution is consumed per 1 square meter.

Until spring, the beds are covered with plastic wrap.

Video "Preparing winter garlic for planting"

In this video, the secrets of preparing various types of seed for planting.


Preparing garlic for planting - tillage and tines

Growing winter garlic is no big deal. Even a novice gardener can cope with it. But if you do not study all the intricacies of sowing garlic in the fall, then agricultural productivity may suffer.

In the article I will tell you how to prepare garlic for planting, what activities are important to perform before sowing in order to get a full harvest rich in vitamins in early spring?


How winter garlic differs from spring garlic

Exist winter garlic (planted in autumn, harvest next year) and spring (planting is carried out exclusively in spring, harvest in the same year).

This article will focus on winter garlic., which is planted in the fall. The following characteristics and differences will help to distinguish 2 types of spicy culture:

  • Winter garlic is thick and firm scales, and spring - soft and thin.
  • The color of the husk of the winter variety can be yellow-white, purple, and in the spring variety it can be white.
  • Winter garlic can happen shooters (it grows an arrow with air bulbs (bulbs) for reproduction, but if bulbs are not needed, then the arrow is broken out before ripening) and non-firing... Spring garlic is exceptionally non-shooting (except for the Gulliver variety).
  • Winter garlic has larger cloves, they have in the center rod (i.e. arrow)... The spring does not have such a rod (arrows).
  • They have different breeding methods. Spring garlic reproduces only by cloves. But winter can be propagate with cloves and air bulbs (below is a photo of the bulbs).

  • The winter species has one row of large teeth... The spring variety has several rows with smaller teeth, they decrease closer to the center.
  • As for the taste, then winter garlic is hotter, and spring garlic is sweeter.

By the way! It is believed that spring garlic, planted in spring, is stored better and longer (but only under optimal storage conditions). But winter garlic has a higher yield (but it is stored less).

The picture below shows a diagram illustrating how winter garlic differs from spring garlic:


How to distinguish winter garlic from spring garlic

Naturally, the main difference is that winter garlic planted before winter, and spring - in the spring.

In addition, they can be distinguished by their external features.

Winter garlicSpring garlic
The head consists of 4-12 large denticles covered with a pinkish-purple sheath. They are arranged in one row around a hard core. Burning taste. It is eaten in summer and autumn, suitable for harvesting and as a seed. Not stored in winter. Head without stem. Consists of 25 small teeth arranged in several rows. The taste is softer. Stores well all winter until spring.

How to process

Both natural and chemical agents are used to process garlic. In any case, it is important to adhere to the dosages indicated in the recipes. If the concentration of the active ingredient is too low, then the result will not be achieved. Excessive dosage can burn the seed, making it unsuitable for planting.

Ash liquor

To get ash, spruce or birch firewood is used. When ash powder is dissolved in water, dust particles go to the bottom. The liquid absorbs calcium and potassium hydroxides, which are alkaline. This agent effectively protects the crop from nematode damage and at the same time acts as a fertilizer that stimulates growth. The solution is prepared as follows: 1 glass of ash is poured into 1 liter of water and mixed, then heated over low heat, but not brought to a boil. After cooling, the clear liquid is poured into a clean container. Garlic cloves are immersed there for 2 hours.

Manganese

It fights against disease-causing fungi and pathogenic microbes, saturates the garlic cloves with potassium. The solution is not difficult to prepare. To do this, dissolve such an amount of powder in water, after which the liquid acquires a pale pink hue. If the seed is healthy and there is no damage on it, then it is immersed in the solution for an hour. Otherwise, the processing of the teeth takes up to 10 hours.

Copper sulfate

This remedy protects garlic from all diseases. To obtain a disinfectant solution in 1 liter of water, pour 5 g of vitriol and stir thoroughly. The cloves are dipped into the finished liquid for no more than 10 minutes. This time is enough for the active substances to penetrate into the skin. Finally, remove the vegetable and lay it out on paper or a towel to dry out.

Fungicide "Maxim"

The drug is not toxic to humans. It is odorless and dissolves quickly in water. It cannot be used to treat germinated, already infected or cracked seeds. It prevents diseases, but does not cure them. The solution is prepared in glass or plastic containers. Add 2 ml of the preparation to 1 liter of water and mix thoroughly. This volume is sufficient to disinfect 1 kg of planting material. You need to use the prepared liquid within 24 hours. Maxim protects garlic from black, penicillous and gray rot.

Fitosporin

This is a popular drug that belongs to the group of biofungicides. The manufacturer produces it in liquid form, in the form of powder and paste. Experts advise choosing the latter option, since it is easy to breed and at the same time it is economically consumed. The powder is difficult to dilute and cannot be stored after opening the package. The drug in liquid form is weaker in action.

Work on the preparation of disinfection solutions and processing of planting material is carried out with gloves. After the end of the procedure, hands are washed with soap.

The tool is prepared as follows: 200 g of paste is dissolved in 400 ml of water. This is a stock solution. You can store it for a long time. When there are leftovers before winter, they are diluted with water, and then watered with it in a compost pit or soil near trees and bushes. For disinfection of garlic, 0.4 g of the mother liquor is diluted in 0.5 l of water. The vegetable is soaked in the resulting product for 30-60 minutes. If the drug was purchased in powder form, then it is in the amount of ½ tsp. dissolved in 1 liter of water. The teeth are soaked in the prepared liquid for 15 minutes.

Salt

A concentrated saline solution is made to disinfect the garlic. To do this, dissolve 2 tbsp in 1 liter of water. l. salt. To achieve the best result, add another 1 tsp to the finished liquid. soda. The teeth are immersed in water for half an hour and then allowed to dry naturally. This solution softens the garlic shell and kills pathogens not only on the surface, but also inside.

Fundazol

It is a fungicide that is used not only for prevention, but also for the treatment of plant diseases. The drug is toxic to humans, so use it with extreme caution. The manufacturer releases it in the form of a white powder with a specific aroma. The solution is prepared as follows: dilute 10 g of the drug in 500 ml of water. The teeth are soaked in it for a day.

Tar

This remedy helps prevent onion flies and rot. Moreover, it is safe for both humans and the environment. The solution is prepared as follows: dissolve 1 tsp in 1 liter of water. facilities. The teeth are soaked in it for 30 minutes just before planting. Also, the area between the rows is watered with a tar solution after the germination of the culture. To do this, dilute 1 tbsp in 10 liters of water. l. tar and 30 g of soap. After 2 weeks, the procedure is repeated.

Ammonia

To prepare a disinfectant, 30 ml of alcohol is diluted in a bucket of water. The prepared liquid is sprayed with planting material from a spray bottle. For the best effect, plantings are also watered with an alcohol solution in May. Prepare it like this: dissolve 5 tbsp in 10 liters of water. l. facilities. This not only destroys pathogens, but also saturates plants with nitrogen and stimulates their growth. The procedure is carried out in the evening after morning watering and loosening of the soil.

Processing according to Ganichkina

Oktyabrina Ganichkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, recommends processing garlic with a Homa solution (copper oxychloride). Do it like this: 1 tsp. the funds are dissolved in 3 liters of water. Planting material is placed in the finished liquid for 10-15 minutes. After this time, the teeth are not washed. They are laid out on a towel and allowed to dry naturally.


How to properly prepare the soil for spring planting

Gardeners and summer residents are looking forward to the spring period. Soil cultivation for planting begins. And because, how correctly it will be prepared, the future harvest depends.

How to determine soil maturity

It is necessary to start cultivating the soil when it begins to change its color from black to gray. There are other ways to determine its maturity:

• the leg does not drown in the earthen porridge, it leaves a slight imprint on the soil

• A handful of soil, taken at a depth of 8 cm and thrown from a height of 1 m, will crumble into several lumps when it falls.

But, if the soil does not form a dense lump when squeezed, and crumbles when the palm is opened, it is overripe. When sowing it must be watered.

It is important not to be late in preparing the soil for planting. If there are crops on the site before winter, then in the first warm spring days they are sprinkled with ash and covered with a black film. This coating allows the earth to warm up faster. As a result, seedlings begin to appear earlier and it will be possible to harvest faster.

The soil allotted for other beds is covered in an identical way. You can sow cold-resistant plants when the soil warms up to 5 degrees.

If the garden was dug up in the fall, then in the spring it is imperative to harrow. To do this, carry out the following actions:

• crust formed on the soil is broken with a rake

• remove the remaining garbage from the garden - last year's leaves, the remains of late harvested plants.

This is important to destroy the roots of the weeds and retain moisture in the soil. If the soil in the garden is heavy, then in the spring before planting it must be dug up again.

The successful development of plants and early fruiting depends on timely and well-prepared soil. It is necessary to dig the ground not deeply, but on a half-bayonet of a shovel, so as not to lift up the fertilizers introduced in the fall and leave moisture in the ground. Before digging, you can sprinkle mineral and organic fertilizers over the soil. Dolomite flour can be added to acidic soil. During digging, you need to carefully inspect the soil, picking out insect larvae and weed roots with your hands.

To reduce moisture evaporation, the dug surface must be immediately loosened with a rake, large lumps must be broken. Now you can start preparing the beds.

Before digging, you can add last year's compost to it, evenly distributing it over the entire area of ​​the site. The calculation is carried out taking into account the following - per 1 sq. m compost bucket. Special additives are sprinkled on top. Granular works best, they don't cake and disperse better when applied.

They are different for different crops: nitroammophoska and double superphosphate are introduced under carrots and beets, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate under onions. The fertilizer proportions are as follows:

• superphosphate - 1 tablespoon

• nitroammophoska and ammonium nitrate - 20 g per 1 sq. m.

Plants need both mineral and organic fertilizers. They cannot grow normally without the presence of available nutrients in the soil, which dissolve easily. Without mineral nutrition, the plant is starving. If the soil was fertilized for digging in the fall, then this is not required in the spring.

Siderata - green vitamins

Not everyone has the opportunity to add organic fertilization to the soil. This business is troublesome and expensive. Sowing green manure can serve as a substitute for them. They are plants that saturate the soil with rapidly decomposing organic matter.Siderata have very strong roots that loosen the soil, thereby improving the access of moisture and oxygen to the soil. If sown in early spring, then after a month they can be mowed and used as green fertilizer or mulch. Siderata allow you to enrich the land by filling:

• phosphorus and other useful elements.

Also, in a short period of time, the soil is saturated with organic matter. The latter, in the process of decomposition, forms humus, which is the main component of fertile land.

Sowing cold-resistant green manure can be carried out in early spring, immediately after the snow melts. Among the varieties:

You can sow them separately or mix 2-3 green manure seeds in a container and sow. Their green mass accumulates a lot of nitrogen, which remains after decay in the ground. The green 2-week composition is mowed and laid by digging into the soil.

The garden bed is an indispensable attribute of any suburban area. There are many ways to make them. After the soil is dug up or plowed, it must be well leveled with a rake, forming the sides of the future bed. The beds do not have dimensions along the length and are created based on the conditions of the site, and in width they should not be more than 90 cm. Between the fences, paths with a width of 40-60 cm are left. After applying special fertilizers, they are dug up and leveled.

They are annually treated with a solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 1 tsp. 10 liters of water. Once every two to three years, instead of potassium permanganate, you can use copper sulfate for soil cultivation. Proportions 1 tsp. 10 liters of water. After that, the beds must be tightly covered with foil to allow the soil to warm up and absorb useful additives.

To get an early harvest, gardeners make warm beds. For this, the top layer of the earth is removed. In the resulting trench, straw is laid in an even layer mixed with manure. A layer of soil is poured back from above. For faster heating, you can pour hot water from a watering can.

The formation of the beds depends on the conditions of the site. On a dry surface, preference is given to a low one, and on a damp, swampy area it is better to raise it.

Fencing is an important condition for a good harvest

A fence is needed not only for beauty, but also for convenience. They must be properly buried, then the weeds from one bed will not move to another. And also the paths between the beds and nutrients will not be overgrown with weeds, only plants will get moisture. This is especially important if the site is located on a slope.

Fences prevent intruders such as mice and snails from entering the garden. Fences are different. Usually wooden planks are used for this. Their long-term use is impossible due to the fact that mold and fungi form on the material from waterlogging, which also spread to the soil. Therefore, they need to be changed every 2-3 years. For the purpose of fencing the beds, you can apply:

Fences can also be made from other auxiliary means or bought in specialized stores. It is important that they go deep into the ground and can maintain the shape of the garden.

The spring day feeds the year, so they said in the old days. This saying is relevant to this day. If the preparation of the land is done correctly, then you can enjoy a good harvest.


Preparing the beds for planting winter garlic.

1. Preparing the soil for garlic
In late August - early September, it is necessary to fertilize the soil: 10 kg of humus, 1 glass of chalk and 2 glasses of ash are added to each square meter of area, 2 tablespoons are added. potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. superphosphate. Having evenly distributed all the components on the soil, it must be dug up. The digging depth should be at least 20 cm.
2. We form a garden
The ideal bed for winter garlic will be up to 1 m wide and up to 25 cm high.
3. We give time for soil shrinkage
Next, the bed is left alone until the soil has settled after digging. If there is little precipitation in September, then for better shrinkage, you can water the prepared bed with water several times.
Some gardeners are in a hurry and plant the garlic immediately after digging.

This affects the growth and development of the plant: when the soil subsides, the cloves of garlic end up deep in the ground, and in the spring the germination time of the shoots increases and the yield of the crop decreases.
4. We cultivate the soil
In order to prevent diseases of garlic, treat the ground with a 1% solution of copper sulfate (dilute 1 tablespoon of the substance in 10 liters of water). Spill the entire area of ​​the garden with the resulting solution using a watering can. Then cover it with foil.
On average, 2 square meters will require 1 bucket of such a solution.
On the eve of planting garlic, scatter urea on the surface of the garden at the rate of 10-20 g per square meter and pour water over the soil.
How to prepare garlic for planting
We have already figured out how to prepare a bed for planting and when to plant winter garlic, now is the time to decide how to prepare the planting material itself.
1. We disassemble the head into teeth
Firstly, it is important to carefully examine the garlic and disassemble the heads into separate cloves, from which the largest, healthy ones need to be selected for planting.
If you are planting non-shooting garlic varieties, use only the outer tier cloves.
2. We disinfect garlic
The selected cloves must be soaked for a day in a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate or 1% solution of copper sulfate.
After these procedures, the garlic can be considered ready for winter planting.
Planting one clove of winter garlic correctly
Now we proceed directly to the technology of planting garlic in the fall.
1. Making holes
On a bed prepared in advance, we outline the planting site for winter garlic. To do this, make holes in the ground with a stick at a distance of 10 cm from each other. The depth of the holes is from 3 to 15 cm, depending on the method and time of planting. We already discussed this at the beginning of the article.
The distance between the rows is 20-25 cm.
2. We deepen the chives
Place the garlic cloves in the holes.
It is not worth pressing them into the ground, as this delays root formation.
3. We cultivate the land
If the soil is dry, you can spill it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
4. We fill the holes
It is necessary to cover the holes with rotted compost.
5. Mulch the garden
The optimal mulch layer is about 10 cm. For mulching it is best to use peat, pine needles or spruce branches, fallen leaves.
In warm regions, you do not need to mulch winter garlic.
Alternative method of planting winter garlic
There is another, less familiar approach to preparing a garden for winter garlic.
1. We apply fertilizers for planting garlic
At the end of August, it is necessary to apply fertilizer to the garden bed:
potassium sulfate (2 tablespoons per square meter)
superphosphate (1 tablespoon per square meter)
wood ash (2 cups per sqm)
chalk (1 glass per sqm)
humus (10 kg per square meter).
All fertilizers are applied dry and scattered over the soil surface.
Alternative method of planting winter garlic
There is another, less familiar approach to preparing a garden for winter garlic.
1. We apply fertilizers for planting garlic
At the end of August, it is necessary to apply fertilizer to the garden bed:
potassium sulfate (2 tablespoons per square meter)
superphosphate (1 tablespoon per square meter)
wood ash (2 cups per sqm)
chalk (1 glass per sqm)
humus (10 kg per square meter).
All fertilizers are applied dry and scattered over the soil surface.
2. Cultivating the soil
After that, the earth must be carefully dug up. Again, for a speedy shrinkage, the soil is watered abundantly. If the weather is rainy, watering is optional.
3. We fill the garden
The first step is to sow rows of peas, oats and white mustard along the prepared bed, 35-45 cm from it.
4. We cultivate the soil before planting
1-2 days before planting the garlic, you need to make a top dressing. To do this, urea is applied to the beds (10-20 g per square meter). Then the earth is generously watered.
5. We plant winter garlic
In early October, when the sprouts of peas and oats reach 20 cm or more, it is time to plant garlic between their green rows.
This method of planting garlic in winter is quite effective. Greens will trap snow in the beds, so that in winter the garlic will be covered with a snow coat, and in the spring it will receive sufficient moisture.


Watch the video: GARLIC - BED PREPARATION u0026 PLANTING OAG 2015