Raspberry care in August September - the main steps
Most people are convinced that raspberry unpretentious plant, but any gardener knows perfectly well how the lack of attention to her "majesty" affects the harvest.
Anyone who wants to savor sweet berries should arm themselves with the necessary knowledge and the desire to provide the raspberries with the necessary care.
Good care of raspberries in August and September: pruning, pruning, fertilizing and more
List of necessary actions for raspberries is as follows:
- removal of pests;
- pruning and trimming;
- control of the growth of bushes;
- garter and bending.
It is difficult to say which care is a priority, all of the above is important.
Fertilization is necessaryso that the root of the plant receives the necessary minerals and nutrients, without which it will not be able to fully develop. Thanks to feeding, the raspberry stems will be able to thicken and fill with fructose, helping to survive the frost.
Removal of harmful insects, fungi and other ill-wishers are done by pruning, because most of them settle on the tops of plants.
If you do not get rid of the pests, the plant may die or become weak, infertile. Spraying is also carried out to surely destroy enemies.
Pruning is needed not only to remove pests, but also to harvest old raspberry shoots. Old-timers will slow down the development of the plant, will not give the desired yield, because the ability to give birth in biennial branches is greatly reduced.
With the help of pruning, the height of the plant is regulated, on which the saturation of the branches with nutrients depends. Depending on the variety, the height varies between 1.2 and 1.7 m.
Control over the growth of bushes is necessary for a tasty harvest. Raspberries grow at a fast pace and if you do not follow this, then in a year a neat row will turn into abandoned thickets.
With a dense neighborhood, young berries do not receive the necessary sunlight, they ripen slowly and, as a result, acidify. The ideal distance between the bushes is 60–70 cm, and the rows are 1.5 m.
Mulching is carried out by covering the ground with straw, sawdust, foliage, peat, crushed tree bark or special purchased material.
This layer will help to effectively fight the weed, save moisture in the soil, and improve the water-air regime.
The garter and buckle are two steps in one step. - prepare and save the bushes from frost and winter drafts. Their essence is to tie the stems of the bushes together and bend them to the ground, which is the best heater.
How to properly care for raspberries after harvest
We barely had time to enjoy this season's harvest when we immediately need to think about the next one. Raspberry care after picking berries in August means:
- pruning shoots and dried branches;
- loosening of the soil;
- fertilizing with fertilizers;
- tying up bushes.
The first thing to do after picking the last berries is cut the branches where they grew... All the same, next summer, young shoots will actively reproduce.
For this manipulation, it is better to choose a pruner with long handles, thanks to which you can reach the hinterland of the bush. The cut branches are thrown away or burned in an iron container.
Raspberry ash is used as a top dressing for the future generation.
You need to prune not only old shoots, but also diseased branches. A properly pruned plant should have 6–7 young shoots.
If necessary, you need thin out the bushes, giving the raspberry tree a well-groomed look... This will not only add aesthetic beauty, but also allow the plant to breathe better.
Now it's time to lightly loosen the soil. The raspberry root is shallow, so it is forbidden to do a thorough digging with a shovel.
The ideal option would be shallow loosening with small forks... After this action, the roots will receive more oxygen, and the growth of weeds will decrease.
Loose soil is an excellent base for fertilization... Phosphorus or potassium is suitable, which is scattered around the circumference of the bushes. For each bush use 1 tbsp. l. fertilizers.
To prevent the appearance of fungal diseases it will not hurt to spray the raspberry with insecticide solution, for example, 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Those who want to fertilize raspberries with liquid organic matter or nitrogen should leave their thoughts until spring, in winter they will not be useful. Nitrogen fertilizers are used up to a maximum of mid-September.
A garter remains at the finish line, which consists in the fact that strong wind and snow drifts do not break the branches of the bushes.
It is necessary to build a support, for example, it can be a lattice fence, and in several places tie each bush to it. The garter will give the plants extra strength.
Such simple actions will help the raspberries to overwinter, and in the summer to pamper them with delicious berries.
Autumn processing scheme
Processing raspberries in autumn is not much different from leaving after harvest. Basically, all varieties of raspberries are finished in the fall, after which processing begins: pruning, thinning, loosening, fertilizing, tying.
If you ignore these actions, then even remontant varieties will lose the ability to give birth twice.
To the previously described care should be added:
- treatment of plants from pests.
Pinching is done to form bushes. and accelerate the ripening of annual shoots, which contribute to productivity.
Thanks to this agrotechnical technique, the growth of preserved uncut branches is enhanced, the buds awaken, contributing to the growth of lateral branches.
It is worth pinching only tall varieties of raspberries, which are not prone to branching, but stunted plants do not need this technique.
So that the pinching does not harm the raspberries, they are made from the second year after planting a healthy strong seedling. For pinching, two tops of young shoots 7-10 cm long are connected together.
In addition to cleaning the territory, digging and thinning, you should take care of the destruction of dangerous insects or make prevention... If there are infected leaves and branches, they should be torn off and be sure to burn.
To combat diseases or pests, the following means are used:
- Fufanon - spray solution, prepared in a proportion of 10 ml of insecticide per 10 liters of water. Consumption - 1–1,250 liters per 1 bush.
- Actellic - ampoules, 1 ampoule is used for 2 liters of water. For 1 bush, use 1.5 liters of ready-made solution.
- Intavir - pills. Before processing, dilute 1 tablet in a bucket of water.
- Iron / copper sulfate will help to defeat moss, lichen. The solution is poured over the ground near the bushes.
A separate item is the shelter of the raspberry tree from the harsh winter.
How to prepare bushes for shelter
The following preparation measures are referred to the wintering of raspberry bushes:
- tying up;
- snow retention.
In mid-October, the ground is covered with mulch by an average of 15 cmthis will help the root system to keep warm and moisture it needs.
In addition, when it begins to decompose, it will perform the function of organic materials, contributing to the growth of the root system, rich fruiting.
The main purpose of mulch is to prevent young shoots from growing in winter, so that they do not die. For mulching plants, one of many materials is used: manure, peat, sawdust, hay, needles, cut grass or shredded branches.
You need to tie up the branches of the plantso that they do not break under the weight of the snow. Different materials and structures are used as a support, for example, ordinary wooden posts, and pull a wire between them.
The lower wire must maintain a distance of 18–21 cm from the ground. You need to do this in the fall before frost, so that the stems do not become numb and can bend.
Bushes are tied up in several places, bending the branches with an arc, using a strong cord or nylon thread.
Raspberry shelter important for gardeners living in particularly cold, harsh regions, with insufficient snowfall. This is done at the last moment after bending the plants.
To provide additional warmth, stretch a spandbond or lutarsil over the bushes, then press it down with something heavy around the edges so that it is not blown away by the wind.
Alternatively, you can build a protective structure made of polycarbonate that bends.
Snow retention is a measure taken to accumulate snow in regions where it is in short supply in winter. For raspberries, the snow level should not exceed 100 cm.
Melt snow water is of great importance for the land and plants themselves, therefore it is so important to delay the moment of its separation.
To do this it is necessary in February, at a temperature of about 0 degrees, build heaps of snow and cover them with a shield or use different items for a hedge.
How to bend down - the right stage of preparation for winter
It is advisable to bend down all varieties, even frost-resistant, because in reality many of them do not survive the winters. Bending down is done so that the bushes are completely covered with snow and do not freeze, and also to protect them from drafts.
The easiest way, which is used in mid-October:
- Trim the tops of the branches and the leaves carefully.
- Slowly, so as not to damage the plant, roll the bushes into a heap with a thick rope.
- Tie a weight on the other end and put it on the ground.
The plant will immediately lean to the ground. If everything is correct, then the bushes will be inclined in an arc in one direction.
As a second method you can offer to tie the branches together, and then tie them to the wire on the support.
Raspberries should not lie on the ground, the distance between it and the soil is on average 20 cm.
How to prune and prune in the fall
Pruning is carried out in late autumn, before the onset of the first frost. There are different types of pruning, but the most commonly used are two:
- regular cropping.
Shortening involves removing the tops of the plants., suitable for common varieties. With standard pruning, 60–70% of the stem is removed, and if this is the case with a remontant variety, it can be shortened almost to the ground.
The main thing is that the vegetative power of raspberries is high, and then it quickly grows back. When pruning varieties of common and standard raspberries with pruners, two-year shoots are completely removed.
Taking care of raspberries in the fall is not as laborious and difficult as it might seem. Of course, you need to work a little, but by summer fatigue will be forgotten, and a rich harvest of ripe sweet berries will delight.
The main thing is not to forget to quickly remove possible shelters in the spring so that the branches can align and develop unhindered.
If the protective shelters are not removed, the soil will suffer from lack of oxygen, ventilation, and will also be susceptible to fungal infections and dampness.
Rules for caring for raspberries after harvest in July than to process
Raspberries are a popular plant that many gardeners grow. In order for a crop to consistently produce a rich harvest, it must be properly cared for. At the same time, experts advise to perform a whole range of procedures. Thanks to proper care of raspberries after the harvest in July, it is possible to prevent dangerous diseases, strengthen the plant's immunity and ensure a good harvest for the next year.
- 1 Timing of harvesting raspberries
- 1.1 Depending on the area of growth
- 1.2 Depending on the variety
- 2 Ripening period
- 2.1 Early
- 2.2 Medium-fruited
- 2.3 Late ripening
- 2.4 Renovation
- 3 Caring for raspberries after harvest
- 3.1 Cropping
- 3.2 Removal of root growth
- 3.3 Top dressing after fruiting
- 3.4 Watering and mulching
- 3.5 Pests and diseases: autumn processing of raspberries
We cut off the bushes and form the correct row
Pruning work is considered a priority in September. This is exactly the action that a gardener who dreams of large raspberries should never miss: autumn pruning is carried out from year to year, and this procedure has many undeniable advantages. Which ones? More on this below.
- Fight against harmful insects.Perhaps you did not know, but 85% of harmful insects, which later become the cause of plant disease, accumulate on the apical leaves by September. There they sit until the frost, and then fall directly into the ground under the raspberries - and winter in it. There are, however, those who do not move into the ground and spend the whole winter exactly on the plant. This, by the way, applies not only to insects, but also to fungi. To get rid of this horde of pests, it is enough to take care of the September raspberry pruning. By cutting off the apical leaves, you eliminate 85% of the dangers, which are instantly activated with the arrival of spring.
- Cleaning the bush. Raspberries grow actively during the growing season. As a result, by the end of summer, the raspberry tree turns into an impenetrable jungle. Of course, this should not be so, and raspberries should enter the new season peeled and trimmed. Experts recommend leaving at least seven, but no more than nine shoots on the bush when pruning. They consider it necessary to remove all other shoots. It is also important that when cleaning the bush, the aisle is also cleared. After all, you should be comfortable moving around the raspberry tree while harvesting and caring for the berry tree.
- Increased yield.With this moment, everything is not as clear as we would like. The fact is that, say, on remontant raspberry bushes, berries are formed directly on young, one-year-old stems. Other varieties of raspberries allow fruit to ripen on young shoots, which, in turn, are located on branches that are two years old. In this regard, experts recommend either cutting the raspberries completely, cutting off its entire aerial part by the end of September, or leaving hemp no more than 0.3 meters high.
Both the first and second methods in spring will give excellent results: raspberries will start branching into annual stalks, which will be an ideal location for the formation of berries.
Pruning raspberries is the same stump pruning we mentioned above. As a rule, it is used if ordinary raspberry varieties grow in the raspberry tree. This pruning stimulates two-year-old shoots to grow more vigorously. It is very helpful if the grower is dealing with plants that are very reluctant to branch. However, this is far from the only type of pruning. There are at least two more popular methods. The first is regular cropping and the second is double cropping.
- Regular cropping.This method of "cutting" raspberries in autumn means removing the maximum number of shoots. For some varieties, the maximum is considered to be 60% of the stems. For some - 80%. But there are also varieties that need to cut off the entire aerial part. We already wrote about this above. The latter, as a rule, include varieties of the berry, which have great vegetative strength, that is, they are actively branching. With remontant raspberries, in general, everything is as simple as possible: we cut it off at the root and cover it with sawdust or any other mulch, so that if there is little or no snow in winter, the raspberry does not freeze.
- Double cropping.This method of cleaning raspberries in the autumn period is used for both remontant and regular varieties. In the case of the latter, however, they resort to double pruning less often than in the case of the latter. How do you know if your raspberries need a double pruning? And it's very simple: if its shoots develop very quickly and grow back in the spring, then boldly “chick” it in the fall.
By the way, pruning is relevant for raspberries not only in September, but also in the spring. This will allow you to get a harvest of about 50%.True, in the spring, the gardener faces a slightly different task: to shorten the growth point, forcing the bushes to branch not upwards, but to the sides. Thanks to this manipulation, shortly after pruning, a large number of young lateral stems appear on raspberries, on which new berries ripen by the end of August and the beginning of September.
How to deal with pests in the country
Only those orchards where the number of pests is constantly monitored can be considered a safe and healthy site.
It is important to understand it is impossible to completely isolate the area from insects
, and in a minimal amount, they cannot cause significant harm.
Plum is often struck
- shoot moth
- plum moth
- ringed silkworm.
All these pests lay hibernating eggs.
, and in some species, adults hibernate in cracks in the bark, layers of mulch or soil.
For complete pest control, you need throughout the life of the tree carry out destructive and preventive treatments
Insecticide spraying in different seasons is done for a specific purpose and complements each other.
Autumn activities for future harvest
The trunk circle is completely dug up
, fallen leaves are collected and burned. If you look closely in cracks or in layers of foliage, you will find clutches of eggs. They are destroyed by hand.
If there are not many insects on the drain, processing is carried out with folk remedies
- infusion of garlic, aged for 1 day (200 g / 10 l)
- solution of water and onion husks (300 g / 10 l), aged for 5 days
- ash and soap solution (400 g / 50 g / 10 l).
Additionally you need to spend fumigation with tobacco smoke
... To do this, a small pile of straw is placed near the fruit tree, tobacco is scattered over the surface and set on fire. The procedure takes 2 hours.
If the defeat is massive
, you cannot do without the use of chemicals. For this, drugs are used: "Karbofos", "Actellik", "Fufanon".
The selected drug must be used in accordance with the norms strictly specified in the instructions.
Another important event in the fall - plum treatment with fungicides
... Fungal spores begin to actively develop with the first warming and quickly spread throughout the site. An epidemic can be prevented only with the constant suppression of microorganisms and bacteria.
For this, the plum and the periosteal circle sprayed with bordeaux liquid
... Consumption for one tree up to 6 years - up to 2 liters, for older trees up to 10 liters.
After the soil warms up to + 15 ° C, new individuals begin to appear from the eggs laid by pests in the fall, which feed on young shoots. This leads to a strong slowdown in the development of plums and the rapid spread of pests throughout the site.
therefore the first treatment must be done before bud break
, around mid-March.
Subsequent treatments are carried out if there is an active pest activity on the drain. Focusing on the volume of reproduction, use folk remedies or chemicals
Treatment by any means is stopped 30 days before fruiting and the same period of time is not carried out after.
Proper autumn care is the key to a good harvest
Seasonal cherry care activities should be started immediately after harvest, starting in August. This will help you to properly allocate time for the stage-by-stage processing of the tree and preparation for winter.
Moisture charging irrigation
In the absence of heavy rains in the fall, a moisture deficit is formed in the soil... This is a dangerous phenomenon during the autumn growth of the root system, which leads to the lack of development and death of certain sections of it. At the same time, cherries do not go through the hardening period well and, after its completion, are severely damaged by frost.
Autumn water-charging cherry irrigation
Water-charging irrigation should be carried out in the third decade of September... The watering rate, depending on the size of the tree, is from 18 to 24 buckets of water. The procedure is excluded during the rainy season.
Fertilization and feeding
The main elements required by cherries in the fall are phosphorus, potassium and calcium.... Each of these minerals is important in preparing the tree for the next season. The ovary of flowers, winter hardiness, resistance to diseases and the quality of fruiting of the tree depend on the abundance of these elements, so the tree should be fed. How to fertilize fruit trees?
Fertilization scheme for the near-stem circle of cherries
To feed cherries, water solutions are introduced into the trunk circle:
- superphosphate (300g / 10 l)
- potassium chloride (150 g / 10 l)
- sulfate, nitrate, calcium chloride (25g / 25g / 25g / 10L).
Treatment against pests and diseases
Autumn treatment against pests must begin with cleaning the trunk and branches from layers of moss, lichen and exfoliated parts of the bark. This can be done with a wire brush.
Removing moss and lichens from cherry branches
You also need to collect all plant residues from the trunk circle, while removing weeds. It is often possible to find areas with clutches of eggs that need to be destroyed by hand.
If the number of pests does not exceed the established threshold, folk remedies are used:
- ash and soap solution (400g / 50g / 10l)
- aqueous solution of birch tar (10 ml / 50g / 10l)
- drug from chamomile pharmacy, infused for 12 hours (1kg / 10l).
If cherries are severely damaged by pests, the tree must be treated with chemicals: Karbofos, Aktellik, Prestige, Bankol.
Another important treatment for cherries is spraying with fungicides... Cherries are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid. Consumption for young trees up to 2 liters, for plants over 6 years old up to 10 liters. The trunk circle is also processed in parallel.
After fertilizing, the soil in the raspberry tree must be loosened. It is recommended to do this shallowly, since the root system of raspberries is located close to the surface of the earth.
You cannot dig the soil with a shovel, otherwise you will provoke the appearance of a large number of shoots that thicken the bushes.
How to properly thin out the bushes of berries, I already told you, in one of the previous articles. In addition, the loose earth facilitates the penetration of oxygen and nutrients to the roots of the plant.
Caring for raspberries after harvest: preparing the bush for next year
In autumn, care after harvesting raspberries consists in abundant irrigation of the shrubs, because during this period buds are formed, which will bear fruit and bring a new harvest next year. The last, autumn watering is carried out when the first frosts come.
The raspberry tree is watered abundantly with water for the last time before wintering at the rate of at least 35 liters for each plant.
From the video you will learn about the correct post-harvest care.
Autumn feeding of raspberries is an important and necessary event in caring for bushes after picking raspberries. Since the bushes were actively bearing fruit and growing intensively, the soil gave them a lot of nutrients. And in order to saturate the depleted, poor soil with useful, nutritious components, top dressing is made.
Gardeners, observing certain signs of plants, know what to do with raspberries, how to fertilize them, what kind of feeding they need.
Symptoms of a lack of macronutrients: nitrogen, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus are external signs on the lowest leaves.
With a nitrogen deficiency, the lower leaves turn yellow, their growth is gradually suppressed, the leaf border curls inward, the shrub looks unhealthy. However, in the fall, nitrogen fertilization should not be carried out, even if the plant has all the signs of a lack of nitrogen on its face.
This type of feeding will provoke the activation of the growth of young shoots, which will not survive the winter, as they will be too young and weak. As a rule, nitrogen fertilization is carried out in the spring.
The lack of phosphorus is manifested by a change in the color of the leaves in the lower layers of the shrub. The leaves turn crimson, purple, with a lilac tint. To compensate for the deficiency, preparations containing phosphorus should be added - to saturate the soil with this microelement.
Potassium deficiency is characterized by foliar disease - marginal necrosis, in which the edges of the leaf plate turn brown and die off. After the application of potash fertilizers, the affected parts of the plant will not recover, but the deficiency of the trace element will be replenished, the culture will get stronger and prepare for the cold weather and successfully overwinter.
If, for some reason, feeding with ready-made raspberry preparations is not possible in the fall, many carry it out at the expense of green manure plants. These plants include - blue lupine, vetch-oats, mustard.
These crops are sown between rows of shrubs in early summer, and at the end of autumn, grown green manure plants are dug up with the soil.
During the winter, the crop will rot and saturate the soil with nutrients, which will bring a generous raspberry harvest for the next season.
At this time of the year, raspberries are also fed with manure at the rate of three buckets per square meter of land. At the end of autumn, be sure to remove the fallen leaves under the bushes so that insects do not hide there in the winter. Dig up the soil under the bushes, mulch can be collected or also dug up.
Pruning raspberries in the fall is a key step in how to care for your raspberries. After the last harvest is ripe, the raspberries are harvested and pruning begins.
Thin, dry and weak branches of the bush must be cut off.
If the bushes are tall, the raspberries are trimmed in stages, the branches are shortened at the height to which you reach with the pruning shears, and then shortened to a distance of 25-30 cm above the soil surface.
Often in preparation for winter, gardeners make a mistake - they do not need to collect raspberries in bunches, tie them, and send them to winter in this state. This is fraught with freezing of flower buds on the shoots, which will not be covered with snow.
Before the onset of the first frost, the raspberry bushes are bent to the ground as low as possible, and fixed in this position at the level of the lower wire of the trellis, removing all leaves from the branches. For these purposes, they put on a household mitten, firmly clamp and embrace the shoot, passing the hand from the bottom up.
The leaves are harvested only in this way, it is unacceptable to pluck the leaves, since the flower buds on the branches grow from the bottom up, and in this case there is a risk of damage and fragility.
Leaves on shrubs, after collecting raspberries, cannot be left on the shoots, since they will cover the buds, which during the rains will cause the leaves to get wet and further burn the buds.
Autumn pruning of raspberries is necessary to prepare shrubs for winter. After correct pruning, the location of various pests decreases on them, the plants tolerate winter better. Fruiting shoots are cut with a pruner at the root.
Pruning remontant raspberries is slightly different depending on how many crops you plan to harvest in the coming season. If there are two, prune the shrub like a regular raspberry, and if one is large in late summer, cut out all the shoots.
Reproduction of raspberries at home is a procedure that does not require financial costs, if at the very beginning you purchased seedlings or roots of the required variety, then in the future there is no particular trouble in increasing the raspberry.
An overview of several effective breeding methods used by experienced gardeners.
The garden is prepared and filled with organic matter, a trench is dug with a depth of 30 - 50 cm. Place the roots in the trenches, laying them out in a row along the entire length. Sprinkle over and sprinkle with earth.
During autumn planting, it should be spudded to protect it from frost. On average, up to 100 seedlings are obtained from one kilogram of roots. In the fall, all seedlings are dug up and planted in a permanent place.
Thus, in the spring, in place of one seedling, 6-7 young plants will appear. They will serve as a breeding center, on which new seedlings will grow, for more than one year. Every year, at the end of summer, they will need to be dug up and transplanted to an empty place.
To propagate raspberries in this way, cuttings 10 cm long are cut. Before the autumn planting, they are treated with agents for fungal diseases, covered with peat and placed in a basement or cellar, where the shoots will wait for spring. Peat periodically needs watering.
- Reproduction directly on plantations.
This breeding method is carried out in the spring and is applicable only to shrubs of the second cycle. All young shoots are removed from the site with a rag or flat cutter.
New shoots, forming in late spring, are more resistant to diseases and pests, and are also more productive, more fruits ripen on them.
- Reproduction of raspberries from the mother bush.
Young shoots, up to 8 cm high, are separated from the mother bush, and dug out together with a small piece of soil, without damaging the roots. It is advisable to do this in the early morning, after which the seedlings are immediately folded into a plastic bag, which will prevent the evaporation of moisture in the soil.
It is advisable to plant seedlings in a greenhouse until they take root. If landing in a greenhouse is not possible, then they are planted in separate tanks.
You can plant all the seedlings in one large box, only then it is necessary to take into account that the distance between them should be 10 - 15 cm. The soil is compacted along the diameter of the raspberry seedlings and watered with water. Then the box is covered with transparent polyethylene. Twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, you should open the film for airing.
On average, after two weeks, young leaves appear on the seedlings. This indicates the beginning of the formation and development of the root system. At the end of the third week, all planting material is transplanted to a garden bed, protected from the sun and wind.
In order to eliminate insect pests, after the last harvest, the plants and the soil under them should be treated. To do this, the bushes are sprayed with a solution prepared from the drug "Fufanon", 10 ml per 10 liters of water, spending 1.5 liters of the resulting solution for one bush.
To treat raspberries in the winter from lichen and moss, the soil under the plants is watered with a solution of copper or iron sulfate.
In order to avoid various insects that can hide in weeds and last year's leaves under the bushes, everything must be removed and cleaned before wintering.
If this is not done, then the pests in this form will winter there, bring irreparable harm to the plant.