Magnificent Catalpa: Learning to Grow a Southern Beauty
Do you want some exotic in your garden? Plant a catalpa in it, an extraordinarily beautiful tree native to North America. There, overseas, catalpa is very popular as a decoration for personal plots. Nowadays, it is adapted to the climate conditions of central Russia, so it would be a mistake at least not to try to get to know this plant better. Let's learn how to grow and care for catalpa together.
Description and characteristics of catalpa
Catalpa is of purely decorative interest. It does not belong to fruit plants, and it also has no useful properties. But due to its appearance, the plant is actively used for landscaping household plots, parks and city streets.
You can easily give the crown of the catalpa the desired shape so that the tree becomes a real decoration of your site.
A representative of the genus Bignonium, catalpa is found naturally not only in North America, but also in Japan, China and other countries of Southeast Asia. The long, slender trunk of the tree is covered with fine fibrous bark, which is prone to cracking. The crown is wide, branched, it can be in the form of a ball or a tent. The leaves are large, about 25 cm in diameter, heart-shaped, bright green in color, the surface is smooth.
The peculiarity of the catalpa is in its unusually beautiful funnel-shaped flowers, collected in dense inflorescences. In some species, the inflorescence can have up to 50 flowers, which is why their length is 20-30 cm. Catalpa flowering can last from 2 weeks to 2.5 months.
Catalpa flowers look like chestnut inflorescences
The fruits of the plant are pods-boxes up to 50 cm long. They can hang on the tree all winter, giving it an unusual exotic look. The pods contain seeds that can be used to propagate the catalpa.
Long thin pods with seeds give the catalpa an unusual, fabulous look
The catalpa has several interesting names "from the people". For example, grass does not grow under it, which is why the near-trunk circle looks like a halo. Because of this similarity, the catalpa is called the "heavenly tree." But the Indians adopted the name "The tree of elephants and monkeys", because of the similarity of leaves with elephant ears, and pods - with monkey tails. Although it is believed that catalpa has no benefits other than beauty, the North American Indians used it to treat diseases such as whooping cough and malaria. They called the plant "katoba", but Skopoli, an Italian physician and botanist who first studied and described this species, changed this name to "catalpa". Maybe he just heard wrong, but he certainly did it without malice.
The height of the catalpa grown in the middle lane varies from 1.5 to 12 meters. This can depend on several factors:
- catalpa variety;
- climatic conditions in the growing region;
- correct landing;
In their homeland, in the wild, almost all types of catalpa reach their maximum height. But in Russia and Ukraine, you can achieve this result only if you live in the southern regions with short, mild winters and long hot summers. In the northern regions, the catalpa is likely to reach only medium growth. But this does not at all belittle its merits: even at a height of 2-3 m, with a beautifully designed crown, it will still add charm to your garden.
Winter-hardy catalpa species, the most suitable for growing in Russia and Ukraine
In our latitudes, catalpa began to gain popularity since the middle of the 19th century. At first, the plant was grown mainly in botanical gardens, where the necessary conditions were provided for the thermophilic tree. But over time, with the help of selection, the catalpa was adapted to our climate. Many species can easily endure winter even at temperatures as low as -25 ° C.
Five types of catalpa are ideal for Russia and Ukraine:
- catalpa is bignoniform;
- the catalpa is magnificent;
- the catalpa is ovoid;
- catalpa fargesa;
- catalpa hybrid (spherical).
In our temperate climate, they can grow up to 7-12 meters.
A tree of this species can reach a height of 10–12 m. The trunk is high, straight, topped with a lush spherical crown. The length of the leaf plates is 20 cm. The flowering of the bignonium catalpa lasts up to 40 days, from July to August. The flowers are pale white with yellow stripes and purple dots. The species has 4 decorative forms:
- Aurea, a distinctive feature is the golden color of the leaves at the beginning of the growing season;
- Nana is a plant with a crown in the form of a compact ball with a diameter of 2–4 m;
- Kene is a yellow leaf plate with a green center;
- Purpurea - its leaves, blooming, take on a red-brown hue.
The bignonium catalpa has four decorative forms: Aurea, Nana, Kene and Purpurea.
Forms are characterized by slow growth and good winter hardiness.
Catalpa is magnificent
Representatives of the species can reach a height of 10 m. The trunk of the catalpa is magnificently straight and slender, the crown is lush, in the form of a tent. The oval leaves are 25 cm long. Flowering begins in mid-June and can last from 2 weeks to a month, depending on the climate in the region. The flowers are white or light cream, with yellow stripes and brown specks.
The leaves of some varieties of gorgeous catalpa seem to be powdered
At the end of flowering, the inflorescences are replaced by narrow pods up to 40 cm long. Their full maturation occurs in October, but after that the pods do not fall off, but hang on the branches until spring.
The magnificent catalpa has an interesting decorative variety - pulverulent. Its distinctive feature is that the surface of the leaves looks as if powdered.
This species is considered the most frost-resistant. Its growing season is short in comparison with the magnificent and bignoniform catalpa, so young shoots have time to woody by the time of the onset of cold weather, so that the plant does not freeze in winter. Catalpa ovoid easily withstands frosts down to -29 ° C. It exists in both shrub and multi-barreled form.
Catalpa ovate flowers, white with a purple mouth, are collected in inflorescences, the length of which can reach 25 cm
Catalpa ovoid is photophilous and demanding on moisture and soil fertility. Due to non-observance of these conditions, the tree may not grow more than 1.5 m in height.
The spreading hip-shaped crown of the ovate catalpa is made up of large three-lobed dark green leaves 20–30 cm long and up to 15 cm wide. Inflorescences of creamy white flowers with a purple pharynx reach a length of 25 cm.
The highly decorative species of Catalpa Fargesa is distinguished by abundant flowering, which begins a month earlier than other species. Flowers can be pink or purple-pink with dark spots inside the corolla. Each inflorescence can contain up to 15 flowers. The leaves are simple, whole-edged and opposite, have an external resemblance to lilac foliage.
Catalpa Fargesa is very beautiful, but not resistant to cold weather
In the wild, Capalpa Fargeza is found in the warm forests of Western China. The species cannot be called winter-hardy, therefore it is better to grow it in the southern regions of Russia and Ukraine: in the northern regions and even central Fargez it may not take root.
Catalpa hybrid, or spherical
The plant of this species was created by crossing the common catalpa with the ovate catalpa. The variety turned out to be quite resistant to the climatic conditions of the Middle Lane, therefore it is often used in landscape design in almost all regions of Russia and Ukraine.
Catalpa hybrid is very popular in landscape design.
The hybrid catalpa can reach 16 m in height. Its rounded crown consists of pale green leaves with pubescence on the underside of the plate. Inflorescences are large, loose, flowers reach a length of 25 mm.
Video: catalpa in your garden
How to grow catalpa from seeds
The simplest and therefore the most popular way to propagate catalpa, like many other garden crops, is cuttings. But reproduction by seeds is also possible, it just requires a little more time and attention from you.
Note! Catalpa seeds do not require special preparation and processing before planting due to the fact that they ripen under the protection of the pod shell.
Dense pod shell protects catalpa seeds well
Landing can be carried out:
- in spring, preferably in late February or early March, with preliminary soaking of seeds in warm water for 8-12 hours;
- in the fall, in the second half of September - early October, without soaking before.
For sowing, universal purchased soil is suitable. It will be most convenient to plant seeds in long rectangular containers in which we usually grow seedlings. You can buy them in the store or make your own from planks. But you can get by with ordinary pots.
- Place the container with crops in a room with good lighting without direct sunlight. A window sill on the west or southwest side works well. It is also important to maintain the temperature regime within 20-22 ° C and regular ventilation in the room where the catalpa seeds germinate. Water your plantings every time you notice that the ground is dry. It is better to water more often (2-3 times a week) with less water, especially if the air in the room is dry.
- Pour the soil into a container, moisten it. Make grooves so that there is a distance of 6-8 cm between them. If the planting container is narrow, it is better to leave one groove. Place the seeds in the groove 5 cm apart and cover them with soil. On top, place a suitable piece of glass or stretch plastic wrap to create a greenhouse effect.
- In one season, the seeds will germinate and turn into high-quality seedlings suitable for planting in open ground. Landing should be done in the spring, in the second half of May - at this time, warm weather is already setting, and the risks of late frosts are significantly reduced.
With proper care, you will get strong, healthy seedlings from the seeds.
Reproduction of catalpa by cuttings
Another simple and inexpensive way to reproduce catalpa is growing from cuttings. Only mature trees are suitable for this. Harvesting is carried out in the second half of summer, at the height of the growing season.
Cut several twigs about 8 cm long. Each of them should have several buds. Place them for rooting in a container of soil mixture, consisting of equal parts of sand and peat. Provide a greenhouse effect by covering the top of the container with a transparent cover, such as a glass jar.
Catalpa can be propagated by cuttings, especially since it is very simple
Care for cuttings should be the same as for seedlings: good lighting, timely watering, protection from cold and drafts. When young leaves appear on the branches, it can be assumed that the cuttings have already taken root. You can land them in open ground until the beginning of May.
How to plant a catalpa correctly
It is not enough just to plant catalpa seedlings in the garden, it does not guarantee you the successful growth of the tree. Planting this culture, like any other, has its own rules. They are simple and do not require much work from you, but they must be observed if you want the tree to grow healthy and really decorate your garden over time.
The most suitable place to land
Catalpa grown in the garden for ornamental purposes should not grow too much during the growing season. Too quickly regrown branches that form the crown can freeze and die in the winter, without having time to lignify. To avoid this, choose an area with poor soil and pH7 acidity.
By the way, do you know how to determine the acidity of the soil in your area? You have probably heard this term many times, and most often we associate it with shampoos thanks to advertising. But it turns out that we have to pay attention to the level of acidity even when we are working in the garden. You can find out what is the pH level in the soil of your garden using a special device - an acid meter, or litmus indicator strips. Both can be purchased at specialized gardening stores. But what if there are no such shops nearby? Do not be surprised, this is possible. For example, I live in a small settlement, where no one will open retail outlets of such a narrow focus because of their unprofitability - everyone prefers to use “grandmother's” methods and improvised means. So we have our own proven methods. For example, you can put some vinegar on the ground. The appearance of small bubbles indicates that the soil is neutral or non-acidic. Grape juice can also be used by dipping a clod of earth into it. If the color of the juice changes, and bubbles appear on the surface, then the soil is neutral. Even red cabbage will help you: chop the head, boil for 10 minutes in distilled water and strain the broth (the resulting purple solution has a neutral pH). Pour a spoonful of earth into a glass of broth, and after half an hour look at the color of the juice. If it hasn't changed, the soil is neutral.
For planting catalpas, choose a well-lit and wind-sheltered place.
In addition to a suitable level of soil acidity, the site should be open to good lighting and warmth. But keep in mind that catalpa does not tolerate drafts and cold winds, therefore, a place where a shadow often falls, completely fenced off at least on one side, is categorically not suitable. In addition, strong gusts of wind can break off thin branches and damage wide leaf plates. And the close location of groundwater will create the danger of decay of the root system or strong growth of branches, which should also be avoided.
How not to be mistaken in choosing seedlings
If you yourself grew seedlings from catalpa seeds, and at the same time did everything correctly, there will be no problems with planting material. But what if there was no such opportunity, and you want to plant an almost finished tree? Then you need to pay attention to the seedlings obtained by cuttings or layering.
It is best to apply for planting material to nurseries or to people who have been professionally engaged in growing catalpa for a long time. Their seedlings are more adapted to the conditions of your particular region, since they are grown there. That is, the first thing you should pay attention to is the winter hardiness of the culture, because in our latitudes the problem for catalpa is not only severe winters, but also short and not always hot summers. A young seedling of a variety that is not adapted to our climatic conditions may simply not survive adaptation and die before the onset of autumn.
Good, healthy catalpa seedlings are best purchased in specialized nurseries.
To ensure that the plant is guaranteed to take root (naturally, subject to the rules of care at the first stages), choose seedlings 1–2 years old, 1 meter high. The root system should be wide, well developed and open.
The best time to plant a catalpa is spring. Over the summer, the seedling will be able to get stronger, and the frosting of the shoots will not be scary to him. You can plant a tree in the fall, but in this case the risk is too great that it will not survive the winter.
Prepare the seedling hole 2 weeks before planting.Since the catalpa has wide fibrous roots, the hole should be voluminous, about 70 cm in diameter and about 0.8–1.2 m deep. Please note that this plant needs space. Keep the catalpa 4–5 meters away from other trees and shrubs.
To plant a catalpa, you need to prepare soil from the following components:
- 2 pieces of sand;
- 3 parts of humus;
- 1 part peat;
- 2 pieces of leafy land.
To increase the nutritional value of the potting mix, add 5–8 kg of wood ash and 50 g of phosphate rock to it.
Lay the bottom of the pit with drainage material (crushed stone, broken brick). Its layer should be 15 cm. Fill the hole 3/4 full with soil mixture, lower the roots of the seedling on it. Fill the remaining space with soil, compact and spill with plenty of water.
The seedling must be placed in the hole so that the root collar is just above the soil level. The position of the tree will level out when the ground subsides after watering.
Wait until the water is completely absorbed, and mulch the space around the seedling within a radius of 50 cm. Peat is best used as mulch for catalpa.
Video: sowing catalpa seeds and planting
Catalpa care rules
Since catalpa is a southern heat-loving plant, it needs care in our latitudes. There is nothing complicated about this, the rules are simple: watering, protection from cold weather, weed removal and pest control. But in the first 2-3 years after planting, care needs to be given special attention, since a young, not yet strong tree is exposed to many destructive factors.
After planting, the seedling should be watered regularly, at least once a week, and in a dry hot period - if necessary, after the soil has completely dried out. Pour 1-2 buckets of water each time. An adult tree also needs systematic watering with the same period, while more water will be needed. But avoid stagnant water in the trunk circle. If necessary, make a drainage by breaking the groove away from the tree.
Catalpa does not need feeding for some time after planting. The soil mixture in which the tree was planted is sufficiently saturated with nutrients.
After 1-2 years, feed the plant at the beginning of the growing season with manure in a ratio of 1 liter to 20 liters of water. Each seedling will need 1 bucket of solution.
Top dressing of an adult tree is carried out 2-3 times during the growing season. To do this, you need a manure solution in a ratio of 1 liter to 10 liters of water. For feeding each tree, 5–6 liters of solution will be required, the first time - at the beginning of the growing season, the next - in its second half. During the flowering period, apply mineral fertilizers once according to the instructions after watering the plant.
Pruning and shaping the crown
In the climatic conditions of our region, vegetative activity in catalps begins later than in other plants. The growth of seedlings after planting is slow, leaves begin to appear only in May, flowering occurs at 5-7 years. Therefore, the catalpa needs pruning, mainly medicinal, during which diseased and frozen branches will be removed.
Be sure to carry out medical pruning of catalpa, removing frozen and damaged branches
The best time for healing catalpa pruning is early spring, before the buds begin to swell. Affected branches are pruned to a level just above the extreme living bud. In late spring and early summer, formative pruning should be done. The height of the trunk should be 1.2–2 m, from this point the catalpa should branch into 4–5 skeletal branches forming a low spreading crown. Over time, skeletal branches can be shortened, and thickening shoots can be cut out.
Note! Do not be afraid that pruning will damage the shape of the crown. Catalpa recovers very quickly, growing young shoots with a lot of leaves.
Video: the formation of a spherical crown in a catalpa. Part 1
Video: the formation of a spherical crown in a catalpa. Part 2
Preparing for the winter period
Before the onset of frost, wrap young catalpa seedlings with sacking or spruce branches. Mulch the soil around the trunks with a layer of leaves. In the spring, remove the insulation as soon as warm weather sets in, and thoroughly loosen the soil: this will help to avoid the occurrence of fungus.
If the winter is harsh and severe frosts have come, immediately cover the seedlings completely. You can cover them with burlap or a lot of spruce branches.
A few years later, when the catalpa grows and becomes thoroughly stronger, the need for preparation for winter will disappear.
Diseases and pests characteristic of catalpa: control and preventive measures
Catalpa is quite resistant to diseases and pests. But in cases where the plant is weakened due to freezing, lack of moisture or improper care, some diseases and insects can harm it.
- The Spaniard fly is the most likely and very common pest of the catalpa. To get rid of these pests, treat the infected plant with Decis or Fastak. The treatment must be carried out twice: the first time - when insects are found, the second - after 5-7 days.
Spanny fly - seemingly quite a pretty beetle, but in fact a very dangerous pest for catalpa
- Horn-tails are hymenoptera insects that mainly damage the trunk of a tree. Their appearance can be detrimental to the catalpa. The danger also lies in the fact that it is not easy to recognize this pest: its adults are similar to ordinary hornets. The destructive effect for the plant is that the larvae, laid by the female horntail under the bark, gnaw passages in the wood and clog them with waste products - drill meal. If the horntail has already settled in the catalpa, most likely it will not be possible to save it. But you can take preventive measures to preserve a beautiful tree. take care of it correctly, and a healthy plant will not be afraid of stalk tails.
A tree infected with horntail and its larvae cannot be saved.
- Towards the end of July, symptoms of wilting may be noticeable on the catalpa: the leaves at the bottom of the crown are drooping, turning yellow and falling off. The plant can lose all foliage on one side. This may be a sign of a wilt infection, or a fungus of the Verticillus genus. The disease is serious, but at an early stage it can be cured. To do this, the tree trunk and crown must be treated with Topsin-M and Fundazol, and poured with Maxim or Roval under the root according to the instructions. As a preventive measure against fungus, regularly loosen the soil around the catalpa to ensure good air and water permeability, and also treat the plant with fungicidal preparations Falcon, Previkur or Quadris, strictly following the recommendations on the package.
The rapid wilting of catalpa leaves in the middle of summer indicates infection with a fungal disease.
Catalpa is quite finicky in the middle lane. After all, she is a native of southern latitudes, and constant warmth and high humidity are familiar to her. But just look how gorgeous she looks in the garden! And caring for this plant, it turns out, is not at all difficult. So maybe it is worth trying to decorate your site with exotic catalpa, what do you think? Share your opinion with us in the comments. Good luck!
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Mallow can always be seen behind the fences of summer cottages; its tall stems can transform any garden plot. This plant has good resistance to severe frosts and prolonged drought, it is easy to care for it. This flower is also called the stem-rose.
All cultivated mallows are annual or perennial herbaceous plants. A large number of varieties can satisfy the interest of not only an amateur gardener, but also a specialist in landscape design. Malva blooms with very bright and beautiful large buds of pink, snow-white, bright red, dark purple, lilac and yellow flowers in pure colors, or in harmonious combinations.
Nice in winter and summer!
Catalpa is a very beautiful and spectacular deciduous tree, reaching a height of 5-6 meters in the climate of the Middle zone. Grows without problems in rich, light and well-drained soils, in fully illuminated places, hygrophilous. Duration of flowering 25-30 days (from mid-June). Each inflorescence contains up to 50 flowers. The fruits, thin long (up to 40 cm) green "icicles", remain hanging on the branches almost all winter, giving the tree an original look and arousing the curiosity of passers-by. The genus has 10 species. Basically, three varieties are cultivated.
Beautiful Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa).
- Homeland - USA, where it reaches 35 m in height. In Central Russia, it grows in a small tree or large shrub. Beautiful, large, up to 7 cm, fragrant flowers of a creamy white color, with a wavy edge, inside with two yellow stripes and numerous purple-brown dots. Fruits, up to 45 cm long, adorn the tree from the second half of summer. Resistant to dust, smoke and gases in urban environments.
Catalpa bignonioidny, or ordinary (Catalpa bignonioides).
- Originally from the southeast of North America. The tree is up to 20 m tall, with spreading branches forming a wide-round crown. It grows pretty quickly. The first flowering is in the fifth year of life.
Catalpa ovate (Catalpa ovata).
- Comes from China. It reaches a height of 6-10 meters. The crown is spreading. The flowers are fragrant, creamy white, in panicles, up to 25 cm long. Blooms in July-August. Photophilous, demanding on moisture and soil fertility.
Using: catalpa is successfully combined with oak, deciduous magnolias, but also looks impressive in single plantings.
Location: Recommended sunny places, protected from the wind, as large and delicate leaves of catalpa are severely damaged in drafts (distance between plants is 4-5 m).
The root collar should be at ground level, and the root ball should be 10-20 cm above ground level (after planting, soil subsidence and compaction occurs). Before planting, the root system must be saturated with moisture.
Soil mix: humus, leafy soil, peat, sand (3: 2: 1: 2). When planting, ash (5-8 kg) and phosphoric flour (50 g) are also added. Mulch with peat (5-7 cm).
Top dressing: during the season they are fed 2-3 times with slurry (1:10), 1 bucket for each adult plant. One organic fertilizing can be replaced with a station wagon (120 g / sq. M). Before feeding - abundant watering.
Watering: in the heat, watered once a week, 2 buckets for each plant. If the summer is not hot, watering can be reduced to 2-3 times a month.
Loosening: onto the bayonet of the shovel while removing weeds.
Haircut, trim: cut dry and damaged branches in spring.
Diseases and pests: stable. Occasionally it can be damaged by a spanish fly (spraying: kinmix, decis, karbofos, - twice).
Preparing for winter: Tie young plants with spruce branches and cover with dry leaves (remove in spring). To protect against frost, wrap standard plants with sacking in two layers or lutrasil. In mature trees, it is advisable to mulch the trunk circles (with a dry leaf with a layer of 15 cm).
Vegetation: from mid-May. Shoot growth stops in August. Leaf fall occurs after frost. The leaves fall completely green.
Reproduction: Catalps reproduce successfully without any special treatment with seeds and summer cuttings (survival rate is about 50%).
- Desktop magazine of the florist "I love flowers"No. 1 January 2009
Aquilegia: flower care
In the care of aquilegia, an undemanding inhabitant of the flower bed. But for any plant, fertile soil is the key to good development and growth.
To improve soil quality during digging humus or compost is recommended. For 1 square meter, 1 bucket of humus will be enough. An area of 1m2 can accommodate up to 10 catchment bushes. For tall varieties of aquilegia, a distance of 40 cm should be maintained between plants, and low-growing varieties can be planted denser.
What is remarkable about aquilegia is that it thrives on self-seeding. Therefore, in the spring it is worth digging up young plants that have grown around the mother bush and replanting to a new place. This method is the most effective and fastest way to get a new inhabitant of the flower bed, which will delight you with its flowering next year.
Photo of transplanting aquilegia to a new place
The main rules for the care of the catchment are very simple. The plant needs watering, weeding, infrequent feeding and sunlight. Moisturizing aquilegia is often not worth it. Its root system is able to penetrate deeply into the soil and feed on moisture from there. A short drought will not harm her.
Weeds will cause a lot of problems for a young plant, which can be "drowned out".
Growing and caring for aquilegia - video
Aquilegia needs fertilization only twice a season: the first time in the spring before flowering, and the second time after flowering to recuperate. In the spring, the plant must be fertilized with a mineral complex consisting of superphosphate (50 g), potassium salt (15 g), saltpeter (25 g). This amount of fertilizer will be enough for 1m2.
High-yielding early Dutch cucumbers "Pasadena f1"
Cucumber "Pasadena f1" bred by Dutch breeders. This mid-early parthenocarpic hybrid is capable of long-term fruiting, and the main crop is formed by plants on the 48-50th day after the emergence of mass shoots.
The hybrid is included in the State Register of Russia and is recommended for cultivation in the Central and Middle Volga regions. The variety is in demand for growing in garden plots, home gardens and small farms.
Cucumber of hybrid form "Pasadena f1" is intended for fresh consumption, as well as for pickling and canning. Parthenocarpic cucumber has a high degree of resistance to cladosporia, and also has relative immunity to powdery mildew and cucumber mosaic virus.
Bushes are fast-growing, well-leafy, with a predominantly female flowering type. The average length of a ripe fruit can vary from 6 cm to 9 cm. Fruits are cylindrical in shape, with a pronounced tuberous surface. The average weight of the fruit is 65-95 g. The pulp has no bitterness and voids. Taste and market indicators are very high. The total yield, depending on the type of soil and the quality of care, is about 11-14 kg per square meter.
Pasadena f1 cucumber is suitable for cultivation in open and closed grounds. Seeds should be sown after the threat of frost and after the soil has warmed up to a depth of 10 cm to 10-12 ° C. The standard sowing pattern for prepared seed material is 3-5 plants per square meter.
One of the primary sources of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases of cucumber in the home garden is the use of infected seeds for planting. The description of the variety, the rules for the pre-sowing preparation of seed material, as well as the features of direct sowing and growing by seedlings from the originator Syngenta are as follows:
- the seeds of this variety are sold after treatment with the fungicide "Tiram", therefore, when planting, the seed should not be soaked and subjected to additional processing
- planting cucumbers for seedlings is an excellent way to significantly accelerate the emergence of seedlings of vegetable crops, as well as harvesting
- cucumber seeds are sown when the temperature of the soil at a depth of 10-12 cm is approximately 12-14 ° C, and also when the risk of recurrent frost has passed during germination
- when planting on ridges of open ground, it is recommended to add 500 g of manure-poured or humus to each planting hole, supplemented with wood ash
- seeds are sown to a depth of 1-2 cm according to the standard planting scheme 30x60 cm.
Pasadena f1 cucumbers are responsive to proper care at all stages of the growing season:
- at the initial stage of the growing season, irrigation is carried out once every 2-3 days, while for each square meter it is required to consume about 7 liters of warm water
- at the stage of budding, watering should be reduced, and the previous frequency of irrigation measures will be required for cucumbers only at the phase of mass formation of greens
- in the first two weeks, cucumbers need enhanced nutrition with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, and at the flowering stage, nitrogen fertilizers should be replaced with phosphorus
- in case of insufficient flowering, it is desirable to feed the cucumbers with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, and also high efficiency was noted when making additional dressings based on urea and humus
- the temperature regime is very important for cucumbers, therefore, during the fruiting phase, the temperature should be 18-24 ° C.
Cucumbers have proven themselves very well when grown on vertical trellises
It is also important to use the pinching method. The formation of cucumber bushes should be started after 6-8 leaves appear on the plant.
Before planting, you must carefully choose a place, since the Kene variety is more demanding than the usual ordinary mountain ash.
You can plant rowan Kene both in early spring (March) and in autumn (October, in the south - November). The choice of a specific period depends on the characteristics of the seedling:
- If the seedling has open roots, it can be planted both in autumn and spring.
- If there is an earthen lump on the roots, such a seedling can be planted at any time, including in summer.
Choosing the right place
When choosing a place for a seedling, it is advisable to pay attention to the following recommendations:
- the site must be open - no shade from bushes, trees, fence or house
- it is preferable to choose the southern and western parts of the garden
- lowlands where sediments accumulate, as well as soils with a high groundwater table are not suitable for this tree.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Tree seedlings are purchased from nurseries or specialized stores. When buying mountain ash, pay attention to the appearance of the shoots and the root system. They should be free of serious defects (cracks, fiber breaks, and others).
The soil should be fairly fertile, with a moderate reaction of the environment (pH around 7). If groundwater passes nearby, the ground must be drained, since the accumulation of liquid can lead to root rot. For planting, you can choose the following soil composition:
- 3 pieces of turf land
- 2 parts humus
- 2 pieces of sand.
Planting instructions are standard:
- They clean and carefully dig up the area.
- Dig a hole with a diameter and depth of 50 cm.If you want to lay drainage from stones, the depth will be 70-80 cm.
- 200 g of superphosphate, half a glass of wood ash, 2 shovels of rotted manure are added to the soil mixture.
- Root the seedling in the center and bury the family. In this case, the root collar should remain on the surface.
- Water abundantly (1-2 buckets).
- dividing the bush
When propagated by seeds young plants are more hardy than seedlings obtained by other methods. The bean berries ripen from September to October. The sowing of the obtained seeds is carried out in the spring. Their viability is 85%, and soil germination is very low - only 8%, since the seeds have a dense shell.
To increase germination and speed up the germination process, bean seeds must first be stratified.
- scalding with boiling water
- stratification in a cellar or refrigerator in wet sand for 1.5-2 months or sowing seeds before winter in open ground
- treatment for 30-60 minutes with concentrated sulfuric acid (this method gives the best results)
- scarification - mechanical damage to the integrity of the seed shell (in this case, the beans must be rubbed with sandpaper)
Bean seeds can also be sown in containers with a loose, organic-free substrate. Planting is carried out to a depth of 0.5-1 cm. As a rule, seedlings appear within a month, and young plants develop quite quickly.
In the spring, they are transplanted into the ground to a permanent place. In the Caucasus and Crimea, the legume can reproduce well even by self-seeding. Such plants, grown from seeds, bloom for 5-6 years.
Diseases and pests
The plant is quite resistant to damage by pests and diseases. Among the problems that may arise, there are:
- Spanish fly. Its appearance is fraught with deformation of the branches. To get rid of it, you should treat the tree with an insecticide.
- verticillus fungus, which develops against the background of illiterate care of the near-stem circle. This can lead to partial drying or death of the culture. To avoid this, all care recommendations should be followed, as well as spraying with fungicides.