People have been growing common cherry everywhere since ancient times, and it is impossible to know for certain where the first wild tree grew, which was later domesticated. Today, more than twenty countries of the world produce cherries on a large economic scale. This is a unique tree that uses not only fruits, but also leaves, bark and wood.
Brief description of the plant
- Appearance: deciduous tree or shrub from 1.5 to 5 meters tall, sheds foliage in the autumn-winter period.
- Fruit: sweet and sour juicy drupe of red, dark red or black color, containing one stone.
- Origin: a subgenus of plants of the Plum genus, the Pink family.
- Life span: twenty five to thirty years.
- Frost resistance: high.
- Watering: moderate, drought-resistant plant.
- Soil: neutral, well fertilized.
- Attitude to light: light-loving plant.
Common cherry blossoms
Cherry blossoms in spring are a beautiful sight. No wonder this tree is found in the literary works of various writers. Shevchenko's Ukrainian hut in the village is necessarily decorated with a cherry orchard. Everyone knows the work of AP Chekhov "The Cherry Orchard". Small white or pink cherry flowers are collected in umbrella inflorescences, bloom in early or late May, early June, depending on the variety and climate. Fragrant flowers are good honey plants. Bees collect pollen and nectar from them.
In Japan, cherry blossom is a national holiday celebrated at home and at work. They celebrate right in nature near trees fragrant with pink flowers, spreading warm blankets on the ground. Sakura blooms in March, early April. It is an ornamental tree, but some varieties bear small, sour fruits, similar to cherries, which the Japanese find very useful and highly prized.
Common cherry, which is the ancestor of most varieties, is also useful and has not only good taste, but also healing properties.
The chemical composition of cherry fruits
There are early, medium and late varieties of cherries. Early varieties bear fruit in June, middle ones - in July, late ones - at the end of July and August. The fruits contain:
- 7-17% sugars
- 0.8-2.5% acids
- 0.15-0.88% tannins
- Vitamin complex consisting of carotene, folic acid, B vitamins, vitamin C
Sugars are found in fruits in the form of glucose and fructose. Organic acids - citric and malic. Ionisite is a metabolic regulator. Anthocyanins strengthen the walls of blood vessels and capillaries. Vitamins have a general strengthening and regulating effect on the entire body.
The use of cherry fruits
Who hasn't tasted the delicious cherry jam? This is a traditional cherry preparation, which is prepared in many countries. In addition to jam, compotes, juice and wine are made, dried, added as a filling to dumplings and pies. Cherry fruits are eaten fresh. Many varieties have good taste and health benefits due to the high content of vitamins, minerals and other useful substances.
There are also contraindications. You can not eat cherries for people suffering from stomach ulcers and gastritis with high acidity. If there is a tendency to allergies, cherries should also be eaten with caution, like all fruits that have a red color.
Cherry foliage and wood
Cherry leaves, harvested in spring and dried, are used to brew vitamin tea. They contain tannins (leaf stalks), dextrose, sucrose, organic acids and coumarins. Leaves are used for salting and pickling various vegetables.
Cherry wood kitchen set
Cherry wood is used to make furniture and various wooden everyday objects. It has a pleasant dark brown color in various shades and is easy to process. Highly appreciated by both consumers and craftsmen.
Planting and leaving
Cherry does not like waterlogging of the root system due to groundwater close to the surface. Grows poorly in the shade. The tree is planted in April or September on neutral, fertilized, not very moist soils, in a well-lit place, protected from the wind.
Scheme of planting cherry seedlings and preparation for winter
If a seedling is bought in late autumn, it is dug into the ground at an angle of forty-five degrees and covered with spruce branches on top, with needles outward, so that the seedling does not freeze in winter and is not damaged by mice. Most cherry varieties begin to bear fruit in the third or fourth year after planting. A young tree needs good care, which consists in loosening the soil in the near-trunk circle, applying mineral fertilizers, regular watering, pruning branches and preventive treatments against diseases with a solution of Bordeaux liquid and copper chloride.
There are a large number (about 150) cherry varieties, differing in the weight and taste of the fruit, the yield of the tree, disease resistance, frost resistance and the timing of flowering and fruiting. Consider three varieties common in Russia.
Self-fertile, high-yielding variety, bred in Russia in 1996. The height of the tree is up to two and a half meters. The annual growth is seventy centimeters in height. Fruits are dark burgundy, almost black, weighing three and a half grams. The taste of the berries is sweet and sour. Blooms in early May. The fruits ripen in mid-July. In cooking, it is widely used for making preserves, jam, dried berries and compotes. This variety is frost and drought tolerant.
It is considered a symbol of the City of Vladimir, where it has been cultivated since the sixteenth century. It is a tree consisting of several trunks, from three to five meters in height. The amount of harvest depends on the growing region.
Up to twenty kilograms of berries can be harvested from each tree. The variety is self-fertile. In order for the fruit to set, a pollinator cherry variety growing in the neighborhood is needed, blooming at the same time as the self-infertile variety. The size of the fruit is small or larger, the color is dark red. The taste is sweet and sour, very pleasant. The berries are used to make preserves and jams, dried and frozen. Planting and care conditions are the same as for most varieties.
Bred in Ukraine by the method of folk selection, a hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry. A tall tree with a rounded crown, self-fertile. Fruiting is abundant, from an adult tree, which begins to bear fruit in the sixth or seventh year of life, up to 45 kg of cherries are regularly harvested. Red fruits have a colorless, yellowish pulp with a sweet and sour taste. Fruit weight is about 5 grams. In addition to traditional preparations from cherries of this variety, good quality wine is obtained.
Tree care and planting is no different from other varieties. The variety tolerates severe frosts well, bears fruit better with regular watering and application of mineral fertilizers, as well as taking preventive measures against various diseases.
Cherries begin to bear fruit four years after planting. Before planting it, dig a hole to fit the root system of the seedling. After that, fertilizer is put in, which includes nitrogen, manure and phosphate. For four years, the kidney is treated with lime. After planting the seedling, make a hole and mulch with humus, small bricks or sawdust. Thanks to this, moisture is retained, and the soil does not dry out or crack. To keep the tree from drying out, it is watered abundantly, especially on dry days. Before planting, the roots of the seedling are carefully inspected so that they are not damaged. If there are any, they are carefully removed.
History [edit | edit code]
An entry under 1473 in the Pskov Chronicle: "... and they planted a stone hedge and planted apple trees in a garden."
From the statement of the landowner s. Ilyitsyn of the Zaraisk district of the Ryazan governorship in 1784, you can find out that in the greenhouses were grown: peaches, apricots, almonds, grapes, orange, rosemary, laurel .
State of the art [edit | edit code]
In accordance with the order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation of August 19, 2016 No. 614 "On the approval of recommendations on rational standards for the consumption of food products that meet modern requirements for a healthy diet" each person needs 100 kg of fresh fruit per year, including: grapes - 6 kg, citrus fruits - 6, stone fruits - 8, berries - 7, apples - 50, pears - 8, other fruits - 5, dried fruits in terms of fresh fruits - 10 kg However, the actual per capita consumption of fresh fruits in 2017 was 59 kg, more than half of this amount is imported fruit and berry products. To reduce import dependence on fruit and berry products, the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia in the new edition of the Doctrine of Food Security of the Russian Federation includes fruits and berries, the threshold value for which is determined at the level of 70% (the share of domestically produced fruits and berries to their volume of domestic consumption) 
At present, horticulture is one of the most important branches of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian economy, the main products of which (fruits, berries and products of their processing). The range of rational consumption rates recommended by nutritionists is 90-100 kg per person per year. The actual consumption of fruit and berry products in Russia averages about 53 kg per capita, while in economically developed countries this figure reaches 120-180 kg. The deficit of horticultural products (85%) Russia is forced to make up through imports, being in sixth place in the world in terms of import of fruits from abroad.
According to the Federal State Statistics Service and the Ministry of Agriculture, there is a steady downward trend in the area under fruit and berry crops, which in 2006–2010 compared to 2001–2005 decreased by 20%. The main production areas of fruit and berry plantations are concentrated in the Central, Southern and Volga Federal Districts - 32.5, 17.2 and 17.3%, respectively. More than 70% of the fruits and berries of Russia are grown here, which is explained by both climatic and consumer characteristics of these regions. In the structure of perennial plantations in farms of all categories of ownership, the dominant position is occupied by the apple tree. For stone fruit crops, cherries remain the leader, while strawberries predominate among berry crops. Large agricultural organizations account for 28% of the land allotted for gardening. The main producers of fruit and berry products are households - more than 60% of the area, while the production efficiency in them is lower in comparison with other forms of management.
In agricultural enterprises, pome crops prevail - 79.4%, the share of stone fruits is 10.8, berry crops - 8.6%. In farms, pome crops account for 61.9%, stone fruit - 19.0, berry - 8.0%. In households, the share of pome crops is 35.7%, stone fruit - 30.6, berry - 32.2%.
The gross harvest of fruit and berry crops in the Russian Federation in 2010 amounted to 21.5 million centners, and the average yield in horticulture reached 49.2 centners / ha   .
In 2018, the gross harvest of fruits and berries in farms of all categories of the Russian Federation amounted to 3337 thousand tons, and the average yield of fruits and berries amounted to 96.0 c / ha (stone fruit crops 615.6 thousand tons, yield - 60.8 c / ha , fruits of nut crops 20 thousand tons, fruits of citrus crops - 80 tons). The area of fruit and berry plantations was 465.8 thousand hectares (at a fruiting age 364.4 thousand hectares), of which the area of berry stands was 101.3 thousand hectares. The gross collection of berries in farms of all categories is 701.77 thousand tons, the yield is 75.5 c / ha. In the category of garden berries, currants prevail, then - in descending order: strawberries and raspberries, in total, these three species account for 92-94%.
Cherry tree in gardening: planting and caring for various varieties of cherries
We all love to feast on cherries. Cherry is a beautiful tree that often decorates gardens and orchards in Ukraine. It is always good: when it blooms in spring and when it bears fruit in summer. Cherry has inspired Japanese poets, Russian poets of the Silver Age, and Chekhov's Cherry Orchard is a symbol of Russian culture. How to get a cherry tree to take root in your garden?
The cherry tree is a very useful purchase for your garden. True, this tree does not like extreme heat or frost. And you need to look after him. Cherries are generally not only tree-like, but also bush-like. A tree cherry can reach a height of six meters, a bush cherry - four meters. Cherries begin to bear fruit in the third or fourth year after planting. Although sometimes there are times when a huge tree grows from a cherry seed that accidentally fell into your flower bed. But there must be favorable conditions for this.
If you do not rely on chance, then you need to go to the market and choose seedlings. It is best to buy cherry seedlings with a well-branched crown, without frozen branches and mechanical damage on the bark. The best seedlings are two-year-old, although many one-year seedlings are also sold. If you plan to place a garden on a plot of six acres, then it is enough to buy four or five cherry seedlings. Cherry grows quickly, and after a couple of years you will see a small cherry orchard on your plot.
Cherry blossoms are a stunning sight in the spring. Especially if the tree is tall. All showered with white flowers, she seems to be a fabulous beauty who, no one knows how, appeared in an ordinary garden or on the street. It is impossible to look away from her. Then, after a while, the flowers crumble, and a little later small green cherries appear, which, under the sun's rays, are filled with juice and turn into juicy red fruits.
Cherry is sour and sweet. Next of kin sweet cherry - cherries. Both cherries and sweet cherries have similar properties. They are low in calories, they quench thirst, can relieve nausea and vomiting, help with gout, atherosclerosis, and sore joints. Cherries contribute to weight loss - you can gorge on cherries and feel full (this is better than eating flour). But cherries are best consumed before meals, and they are not recommended for gastritis, stomach ulcers, cystitis, increased acidity of gastric juice. Cherries are used to prepare various dishes (dumplings, preserves, compote, etc.), and fresh fruits are a source of vitamins.
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It has been established that sweet cherries are good pollinators for many cherry varieties. This makes it possible to combine the planting of these two trees in order to increase the yield of cherries. Self-fertile varieties have been bred, among them the Molodezhnaya cherry - she does not need pollinators.
Among all the existing varieties, there is no one that could have the positive characteristics that the Molodezhnaya cherry has. The description of the variety allows us to say that it has a number of indisputable advantages: high winter hardiness in combination with the dessert taste of the fruit, immunity to coccomycosis, dry separation of the berry from the stalk, resistance of flower buds to climatic changes. This fruit tree loves sun and moderate moisture.
The homeland of the sand cherry is North America. Just like Japanese, it is used to decorate gardens and parks. Sand cherry is a shrub that reaches only 1.5 meters in height.Its crown is wide, branches are spreading, dense, reddish in color. Leaves are oval, oblong and pointed at the end. In summer they have a dark green color, and by autumn they turn bright red, which gives the cherry bush a special charm. The flowers are small, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, bloom in late spring. The petals are white, and the fruits are dark, almost black.