Growing potatoes from seeds - is it worth it?
Is it worth the candle?
Remember how we usually propagate potatoes on the site? That's right, vegetatively. We select the best tubers and plant them. And meanwhile, from year to year, they degenerate, accumulating bunches of diseases, and the yield is getting smaller and smaller - "two buckets have been planted, one and a half have been dug out, and besides it is necessary to spud".
This situation continues to deteriorate sharply as the spectrum expands. viral diseases of potatoesleading to its complete degeneration. Yields are falling, some of the gardeners have long been forced to simply give up growing everyone's favorite potatoes. Due to the defeat of viruses, many, even valuable potato varieties are removed from production. for this reason, its yield is reduced by 2-3 times; shortage from late blight reaches up to 30-40%. It does considerable damage to the crop and scab damage to tubers.
In addition to a decrease in yield due to diseases, potatoes lose their taste. It becomes simply pointless to grow it.
Where do potato diseases come from?
In no other vegetable crop, seed quality affects yield and storage as strongly as potatoes.
Currently, about 40 viral, viroid and phytoplasmic diseases of the potato are known.
In summer cottages and backyards, gardeners, as a rule, propagate tubers of mass reproduction, in which many infections of a bacterial-viral and fungal nature have accumulated, as well as gene mutations that worsen the quality of offspring. Various bacterial and fungal diseases, penetrating into the tuber and overcoming its natural immunity, accumulate every year in increasing numbers and are transmitted from one generation to another. Viral and nematode infections... As a result, the potato rapidly degenerates over a number of generations; as a result, productivity is greatly reduced; in winter, tubers are poorly stored and rot.
How to restore the quality of potato planting material?
It is recommended to carry out a radical improvement of potato planting material with high-quality elite material once every 5-7 years. Otherwise, it simply does not make sense to grow its tubers. Therefore, the question is where to get elite tubersgardeners are increasingly worried about getting a good harvest of potatoes. Theoretically, there are three options, in practice, for most gardeners, two.
Option 1. Purchase of elite potato tubers
They can be grown in two ways - either the seed potatoes discussed in the article, or grown in vitro in test tubes from plant cells, and then the potato is often called test tube. This option is much simpler, but the potato superelite is expensive, and you can't buy many elite tubers. In addition, there are two more interesting points. The first is that, alas, quite often, under the guise of the elite, you can be sold not at all elite potatoes (at least I have come across this more than once or twice). And outwardly, you often do not distinguish that the tubers you purchase for planting have nothing to do with the super-elite or elite. Alas, the small-sized, healthy planting material obtained when growing potatoes from seeds has nothing to do with small tubers of ordinary potatoes, which are sifted out during sorting. Such tubers can only be fed to livestock. It is necessary to learn well that the tuber tuber is different, and to acquire healthy seed material from well-known and reliable producers.
The second point is that even if you are lucky, and the tubers you purchased are really super elite, then in reality you can then propagate potatoes with tubers for 5-7 years. The drop in yields starts from 4-5 and intensifies after 6-7 years of cultivation (or, scientifically, after the 7th reproduction). Compared to the elite, varietal qualities are noticeably deteriorating and viral diseases are significantly spreading. And then everything starts all over again, there is a search for high-quality elite tubers - and so on in a circle.
Option 2. Growing elite potatoes from seeds
This method is more reliable than purchasing elite tubers, and much more effective from a variety of points of view. However, before, gardeners did not have the opportunity to try it. And all because there were simply no seeds.
The first mentions of seed potatoes in the vegetable growing press date back to 1989. It was at this time that the Institute of Potato Economy, located in the Moscow region, announced the practical possibility of growing potatoes from seeds. It is clear that potato-growers had previously obtained new varieties of potatoes from seeds, but for a mere mortal, all this was behind seven locks. And, in fact, there was no particular need for potato growers to deal with this rather laborious process. Everything was much simpler, and no one really complained about the harvests.
Today everything has changed dramatically - in stores what varieties of potatoes no, even the eyes run up. Moreover, restless breeders brought exclusive hybrids potatoes that can be sown with seeds and get huge yields.
Option 3. Growing test tube plants
Theoretically, it is possible to buy directly test-tube plants, although in potato-growing institutes they are grown mainly for farms, and not for gardeners. But with a very strong desire and a lot of enthusiasm, you can find them. However, fiddling with test-tube plants is also not sugar: their planted in a greenhouse, and this is a very painstaking and responsible job. From each test tube, you need to get a fragile plant with tweezers and plant it in the ground, at a distance of 15 cm from each other. At first, you will have to water it daily with warm water from a spoon, then the technology is common, but the plants will have to spend the first year in a greenhouse.
Effective techniques for improving potato planting material
Benefits of growing potatoes from seed
For those who have not yet heard about this method of obtaining potatoes, we will briefly dwell on its advantages:
- the price of one seed is 25 times less than the cost of a mini-tuber equal to it in quality;
- seeds take up very little space, and for storage they do not require a basement or cellar;
- seeds can be stored for a very long time - from 6 to 10 years;
- the yield of hybrids grown using seeds is 8-23% higher than that of vegetatively propagated tubers;
- plants grown from seeds are completely free from concomitant diseases, more resistant to unfavorable environmental factors and late blight.
Thus, the tubers obtained from seeds correspond to the highest quality elite material, having planted which, you can get large yields of potatoes for several years (usually up to five years), and all just because the planting material you use will be free from viral, fungal and bacterial diseases.
Inevitable difficulties in growing potatoes
If you have never grown potatoes from seed, then sowing them will be unpleasantly surprised. The fact is that growing potato seedlings is much more difficult than seedlings of the same tomatoes, or pepper, or eggplant... And there are a lot of reasons.
- Potato seedlings are very small and therefore more difficult to plant in pots (it is more difficult not to damage small sprouts).
- Seedlings grow extremely slowly and strive to be capricious on any occasion. Apparently, they have a worse and slower root system than tomatoes - the roots suffocate more easily in insufficiently loose soil. Therefore, the soil should be extremely loose, and even better - germinate the seeds first.
, and only when the seedlings reach about 3 cm, transplant into ordinary pots on a fertile substrate.
- Potato seedlings are more susceptible to diseases, primarilyblack leg
... As a result, you have to more carefully monitor their development and regularly use biological products (planriz, black yeast and trichodermin) and be sure to add trichodermin to the soil when planting (you can buy ready-made soil with this drug).
- Seedlings are very much stretched from lack of light, much stronger than tomatoes or peppers. Therefore, I now grow potatoes not together with all other seedlings underspecially made lamp
with fluorescent lamps, and in a greenhouse, where at other times there are cacti. Here the distance between plants and lamps is very small, about 25 cm, and plants develop much more actively.
- The grown potato seedlings are difficult to transport. The problem is that you have to sow potato seeds very early, back in February, and before planting the plants become quite tall, and at the same time they do not have the power of the trunk, like tomatoes or peppers, and by their nature they bend, cling for each other, etc. As a result, it is also not easy to pack them for transportation and then unpack them.
- The next problem is that in the first decade of May, the seedlings of the same tomatoes can be planted in a greenhouse for biofuel and additional shelters can be installed. And where to plant potato seedlings at this time? He no longer wants to grow in pots, the greenhouse is not intended for him, and planting heat-loving potato seedlings in the ground at this moment will lead to the obvious death of plants from frost. I found a way out andI put him in a greenhouse
, and in the end I solved many problems and got rid of many headaches associated with potatoes (more on this below).
Obviously, a certain laboriousness in growing potato seedlings can alienate gardeners from the method of seed propagation of this crop. However, those who still want to have a lot of tasty potatoes of their own, and not a store-bought one, which you cannot take in your mouth, will not be stopped by difficulties.
By the way, it is worth noting that all of the above problems occur only in the first year of growing potatoes from seeds. And from the second year everything will be as usual, tk. you will switch again from seed reproduction to habitual cultivation of tubers.
Minitubers, super elite, elite ...
Let's understand the terminology in a nutshell. The fact is that if you buy elite potatoes in a store, then you often come across a lot of terms that do not say anything to a mere mortal: minitubers, superelite, elite, etc.
Everything is very simple here. From seed in the first year of cultivation get minitubers - in them, depending on the growing conditions and variety, the weight can be very different, but more often minitubers have a weight of 6-10 g. In fact, growing potatoes from seeds on your own, you can get tubers much larger - weighing 30 -40 and even in 110-120 g. For me, for example, small minitubers of 10 g make up about 1/3 in the total volume, and the remaining 2/3 fall on medium-sized minitubers from 30 to 50 g, 10-20 percent are for large minitubers weighing up to 120 g. But everyone will have their own situation here. Previously, say, when I grew potatoes from seeds not in a greenhouse, but in the open field, I had more small tubers, and the yield itself is much lower (but more on that separately).
Then, the next year, super-super-elite seed potatoes are obtained from minitubers (agronomists call this the first reproduction, i.e. this is considered the first year in the open field), in the second year in the open field they get super-elite potatoes, in the third - elite.
On average, according to official data, from 1 minituber weighing 6-10 g in 1 year you can get 1-2 kg of elite seed potatoes. After three years from 1 minituber you can get high-quality high-yielding seed potatoes for planting in a field of 300 m2.
How much can you get from seed-grown potato plants?
Official data indicate that with proper care, potato seedlings are capable of producing 0.5 kg or more tubers from a bush, weighing from 10 to 100 g. Large ones are used for food, and small tubers (10-30 g), called sevk, are left as a planting stuff for next year. Despite the small size of the set, highly productive plants grow from it. They are practically free from viral and other diseases, many of them show increased resistance to late blight. Subject to agricultural technology for the next year, you can get 250-350 kg of potatoes from a hundred parts. At the same time, seeding is required for planting by weight 2-3 times less than ordinary tubers.
I personally did not keep any statistics in this regard, and did not take into account how much each potato plant gives. True, I can say that, for example, last year, from an area of 3 m2, where about two dozen plants grew (this is just half of the greenhouse that I take for potatoes from seeds), I collected more than two 10-liter buckets of seed potatoes. But in the greenhouse, of course, the conditions for potatoes were great. At the same time, in previous years, and I have been growing potatoes from seeds for about 8 years, my harvest from about the same area did not even reach a bucket - in different years it was different: from half a bucket to 3/4 of a bucket. But here a lot of the above problems affected. First of all, not all plantings could be protected from spring frosts, even despite all kinds of shelters, the potatoes still froze (the ground is very cold in May and does not warm during frosts, but biofuel warms in the greenhouse), and the yield, accordingly, decreased ...
Features of seed reproduction of potatoes
It must also be remembered that when planting potatoes with seeds, you cannot get the same type of offspring. This is a biological feature of potato plants. Individual bushes will differ in the intensity of development and yield, in the shape and color of tubers, in resistance to diseases. In principle, such a variation of useful traits can be considered not a minus, but a plus of potatoes, because it makes it possible to select the best bushes right at the root, focusing on yield, disease resistance, depth of eyes, etc. As a result, taking tubers from the bushes you like as planting material, next year you will get a fairly evened offspring.
The peculiarity of the seed progeny of potatoes: the spread of useful traits, namely, the different shape and color of tubers, great differences in yield and resistance to diseases. As a result, by breeding potatoes from seeds, the gardener becomes a real expert, testing new plants and selecting the most productive ones, resistant to diseases and pests. True, this is not entirely simple and requires at the first stage (in the first year of life, when you have to grow seedlings) additional time and labor.
Read the next part. Growing potatoes from seeds - agricultural technology →
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
The neighbors plant 20 acres of potatoes, I’m only two and a half, but our harvest is comparable. After all, each bush of potatoes gives 14-15 large tubers. I would like to tell you about how I take care of plants in summer.
Of course, tubers have to be prepared in a special way for planting in order to get the maximum number of shoots. My potatoes grow in box beds measuring 1 × 4 m and one board high. For many years, the soil has been made fertile, loose.
Usually I plant potatoes on a ridge in 2 rows, each row has 10-11 tubers.Thus, on an area of 4 sq. m accommodates from 20 to 22 potato bushes.If I know that the variety is fruitful and large-fruited, it forms many stems, I plant the tubers in one row, in the middle of the ridge, and 10 potato bushes fit in the same area.
Someone will think that I am using the land inefficiently. But I believe that it is better to plant the plants less often, then the yield will be larger and the tubers will grow larger. With a more rare planting, it is more convenient to take care of potatoes, so that each bush on my 2.5 acres, I “know in person.
When planting under each tuber, I dig a wide hole deep into the bayonet of a shovel. I put humus, ash, onion husks, a little ammonium nitrate and superphosphate in the hole. Every year I experiment and add other fertilizers. Then I spill all the holes with plenty of water, and when the water is absorbed, I put the tuber on a burdock leaf and press a little into the slurry at the bottom of the hole. Thus, the tuber is at a depth of 25-30 cm from the surface of the earth, but the shoots of the tuber are long and almost reach the edge of the hole. Next, I carefully fill the tubers with my hands. I scatter ash or humus over the ridge. That's it, the potatoes are planted. Seedlings will be in two weeks. From one ridge, and depending on the variety, I collect 30-50 kg.
So what is the advantage of planting potatoes in box ridges? Is it worth the candle? The advantage is freedom.
It is needed not only by people, but also by plants. Plants in the ridge grow wherever they want, scattering their stolons with tubers everywhere, I do not limit their growth by hilling, that is, by raking all the stems into a heap. And for this freedom granted to them, they delight me with a good harvest. When the time comes for digging potatoes, for me it is just like my holiday, invisible to others. I dig carefully, with a wooden spatula, because with such a planting tubers can be everywhere, at any distance from the bush.
By the way, with regard to hilling. For several years I have not spud potatoes at all. When the tubers grew and began to appear a little out of the ground, I covered them with earth, pus, peat or sawdust so that they would not turn green. But in 2015, I had varieties of potatoes in which at the very bottom the stem is not green (stolons do not grow on the green part of the stem), but some kind of brown. And I saw that a white horizontal stolon was growing on this part. He immediately fell asleep with earth and thought.
Previously, I did not understand why people, as soon as seedlings appear, immediately huddle them. I started looking for information. Here's what we found out. Some agricultural scientists write that with such an early hilling, the yield is higher, but why? They honestly admit they don't know. Others write that at the same time, additional sprouts awaken in the tuber and there are more stems in the bush. This year I will try. As soon as the cone of the plant appears, I will fill it up, make a small mound.
A seedless way to grow potatoes from seed
In the south of Russia, they practice sowing seeds directly into open ground. This method is considered less reliable, since not all planting material often germinates.
For potatoes choose the most illuminated area of the garden... Groundwater in this place should not run close to the surface.
The soil for planting is prepared from the end of summer.... It is dug up and cleaned of plant residues. To enrich the soil composition, green manure plants (lupine, rye, beans) are sown on the beds or 6 kg of humus are added for each 1 m². If the acidity of the soil is increased, additionally add 2 tbsp. ash for every 1 m².
Advice! Some summer residents bury the tops (without signs of disease) of last year's cultivated plants and weeds. This "trick" allows you to get rich soil without any extra effort.
In the spring, the soil is dug up and cleaned of weeds... If siderates have been sown, they are buried in the ground and watered with a means that accelerates their decomposition ("Baikal").
For every 1 m² in spring, 25 g of superphosphate and 15 g of urea are added... The soil is watered with a hot solution of copper sulfate - 1 tbsp. l. on a bucket of water. Additionally, it is recommended to treat the soil with "Fitosporin" and "Trichodermin". This will reduce the likelihood of plant infections.
Note! The rules for choosing a garden site and preparing beds for potatoes also apply when picking seedlings into the ground.
The beds for potatoes are formed in rows, keeping a distance of 70 cm between them... The seeds are sown at a distance of 20 cm from each other. Before planting, the soil is watered abundantly with warm water. Sowing is started when the liquid is completely absorbed.
The seeds are buried 1 cm... 3-4 seeds are sown for every 20 cm. After the emergence of 2 true leaves on the shoots, the excess plants are removed, leaving the strongest seedlings. Weak specimens do not pull out, but break off.
After sowing the seeds, the beds are covered film. It is removed when shoots appear. Further, the plants are covered only with the threat of night frosts. Water them as the soil dries up. It is important to remove weeds around the seedlings.
Brief description of cultivation
- Landing... For seedlings, seeds are sown in the last days of January or in the first days of February, seedlings are planted in open soil from mid to late May.
- Illumination... Needs bright sunlight.
- Priming... Loamy or sandy loam soil, which contains a large amount of nitrogen, is excellent.
- Watering... After transplanting seedlings into open ground, for the first 4 weeks, it is watered regularly and abundantly, and starting from the middle of the summer period, watering is carried out 1 time per decade, but if it rains systematically, then the plant will have enough natural precipitation. The last time the bushes need to be watered 15–20 days before harvest.
- Fertilizer... Top dressing is carried out during the formation of tubers (approximately in mid-August), the plant needs potassium, for this, a solution of wood ash should be added to the soil, for its preparation it is necessary to combine 1 bucket of water and 1-2 tbsp. ash, the mixture should be infused for 7 days, while it must be systematically stirred. To feed 1 bush, 1 liter of the mixture is poured under it.
- Reproduction... As a rule, tubers or parts thereof.
- Harmful insects... Khrushchev (May beetle larvae), slugs, spider mites and wireworms.
- Diseases... Blackleg.
- Properties... It has a high nutritional value, is considered a dietary product and has medicinal properties.
Popular varieties grown from seeds
Virtually all existing potato varieties can be grown using the seed method.... However, most varieties in the first year give very modest yields, which are subsequently used as seed for tuber cultivation.
Involvement of the younger generation in the process
However, from the whole variety of potato varieties, you can choose several dozen varieties that are capable of producing quite acceptable yields already in the first year of cultivation. Consider these varieties:
- The variety is considered early, versatile. Ilona has oblong roots, about 6-10 cm in size, the mass of tubers can reach 120 g, the number of eyes on the tubers is small. The pulp of the fruit has good taste, it is crumbly, with pronounced starchy properties.
- Considering that the fruits of this variety almost always have almost the same proportions, the variety can be used both for personal consumption and for sale. The yield of root crops from one bush in the first year of seed sowing can be up to 700 g.
- A distinctive feature of this variety is its early ripening. In fact, this is the earliest ripening variety in our climate. The plant has a tall shrub with a lot of foliage. Tubers are predominantly elongated, slightly flattened. Their size can reach up to 12 cm in dyne, and weight up to 150 g. The peel of root crops has some "roughness".
- Good taste, medium friability. Starchiness is weak. The plant adapts well to almost any environmental conditions, it is not particularly demanding on the soil. An additional advantage of Velina is its high resistance to fungal diseases.
- In the first year, Velina produces a few large root crops, its yield is about 500 g per bush. However, unlike many other varieties, Velina's fruits have several eyes and have excellent germination.
- Early variety, with medium sized tubers (about 8-10 cm) and smooth skin. It has excellent taste and low starchiness. A versatile variety that ripens early. Productivity is high: in the first year, it can produce up to 600 g of fruits of medium and small size, most of which have good germination.
- I mainly use ausonia for commercial cultivation for early implementation. It tolerates frost well and is practically not vulnerable to root parasites. It prefers slightly acidic soils, but in general, it is not demanding in care: for the entire cultivation time, several loosening of the soil is used and one hilling is of moderate watering.
- A variety with good yields from year to year. A very stable variety, since after successful seed cultivation, 5-6 generations of potatoes grown with tubers can be replaced, but its quality will remain at the proper level.
- It has elongated oval-shaped potatoes of a light shade. The size of the root crops can be up to 16 cm. The tubers have a dense consistency, the pulp is crumbly, moderately starchy. The taste is excellent.
- The plant is capable of tolerating quite severe cold snaps. In the first year of cultivation, the yield is about 800 g per bush. The size of the tubers is small, but they all produce offspring, so the gain in the seed method of growing for this variety turns out to be huge: next year one bush can give seed for almost half a hundred.
- It resists late blight and other diseases well. Drought does not tolerate well, watering should be regular. Mid-season variety.
- The bushes of this potato variety are relatively small, however, the mass of tubers can reach 150 g. Tubers are elongated oval, with a smooth skin and a small number of eyes. The flesh of the potato boils well and has moderate starchiness.
- In the first year, when growing by seed, about 600 g of tubers can be removed from the bush, which can already be eaten. The variety is resistant to drought and fungal diseases.
- One of the few varieties that, in addition to an early harvest in early July, is capable of giving a second harvest in mid or late September. The implementation of such an opportunity is carried out with proper digging and timely hilling of the plant in June and August, respectively.
- It is quite problematic to get a re-crop in the first year with seed growing, however, with the right approach to loosening the soil, hilling and applying organic fertilizers, it is quite possible.
- An unpretentious variety with a good yield. In the first year, it can give up to 650 g of tubers from one bush. The peel of the tubers has a yellow-white tint, the flesh itself is white. The variety is very early and disease resistant.
- Fruit ripening with proper agricultural technology is about 70 days. The starchiness of the fruits is average, the tubers weigh about 100 g, their size is about 6-10 cm. Up to 15 tubers can be located on the bush. Milena is ideal for frying and baking, it practically does not boil over. Milena tastes good.
- For cultivation, soil of almost any composition and acidity is suitable. Drought does not tolerate well - frequent and abundant watering is recommended. During the season, the plant requires three hilling. Milena has an increased resistance to nematodes and viruses, however, it is often affected by blackleg and rot.
- One of the most successful potato hybrids. A characteristic feature is stable and high yields, regardless of the climatic zone. Already in the first year, this hybrid can give up to 700 g from one bush. A distinctive feature of the hybrid is that its color can be very diverse: from pure white and all its possible shades to red and purple.
- The tubers have an oval shape, however, not elongated, but approaching round, slightly flattened. Their size is average, but there are some varieties with a fairly large diameter (up to 8-10 cm). The starch content in the tuber is high, the pulp has a yellowish tint and is crumbly. It is considered a variety with excellent taste.
- It grows on any soil, tolerates drought well. Cold snaps and wind are also not afraid of him. The variety is resistant to almost all diseases, but can rot. For seed cultivation, the variety requires mandatory stratification and seed soaking.
- An early versatile variety. The size of the bush is compact, but the leaves are relatively large. Recommended for commercial cultivation. In the first year, when grown by seed, it can give up to 700 g from one bush.
- Tubers are medium in size, slightly elongated, oval. The color is usually pale yellow, but light yellow varieties are occasionally found. The size of the tubers can be up to 15 cm in length, and the mass - up to 200 g. The plant has a large number of tubers per bush - up to 25 pieces.
- The starchiness is low, the taste is high. The pulp is medium-boiled, it is recommended for baking and soups.
- It grows on any soil, but reaches its maximum yields (up to 450 kg per hundred square meters) on light loams. Shows good resistance to scab, nematodes and viruses prone to rot, therefore infrequent and moderate watering is recommended.
- It is considered one of the most productive varieties for commercial use. When grown from seeds in the first year, it gives up to 800g per bush. The yield during cultivation in subsequent years is obtained at the level of 200-500 kg per weave, depending on agricultural technology and applied dressings.
- The size of tubers is small, from 6 to 8 cm, weight is 90-100 g. Tubers are quite uniform, their number on a bush rarely exceeds 15 pieces. The skin color varies from yellow to light yellow.
- Possesses excellent taste. It boils down poorly, so it is ideal for frying. Starchiness is low, which makes it a part of the diet for weight loss.
- The variety was bred specifically for cultivation in temperate continental climates. It is not picky about soils, although it prefers slightly acidic loams.
- It can grow with minimal care, with occasional watering and one hilling, while yielding yields of about 200 kg per one hundred square meters. However, it responds very well to abundant watering and fertilizing, increasing the yield by almost 2.5 times.
- It is grown from seeds without problems, while in the first harvest, most of the tubers will be quite edible.
- Refers to mid-season. High-yielding variety that tolerates winter storage well. Tubers of average size 8-10 cm, weighing about 100 g. In the first year of seed cultivation, about 600 g of the crop can be removed from the bush.
- The color of the flesh is pale yellow, the peel is white, with a slight yellowness. The taste is excellent, the starchiness is average, it boils well.
- Unpretentious in cultivation, but regular watering is necessary. Mixed feeding is required. It is best to use compost as an organic fertilizer. Well resistant to late blight and viruses.
SEEDING FOR SEEDLING
Growing potatoes from seeds: is it necessary? Full description of the technological process, suitable for this variety (Photo & Video) + Reviews
The constant use of the offspring of the same potato leads to its degeneration, and, consequently, a significant drop in yield. Even under ideal conditions, potatoes degenerate, and the quality of the seed deteriorates already in 3-4 generations. Therefore, growing potatoes from seed is often the only way to get a healthy crop.In addition, seed potato cultivation is an indispensable choice for those who need to get early harvests of this crop. Feedback from our readers is very important for us. If you disagree with these ratings, leave your rating in the comments with the reasons for your choice. Thank you for your participation. Your opinion will be useful to other users.