The garden buttercup or ranunculus is well known to professional florists and simply flower lovers. This plant can decorate any flower garden or flower bed. In appearance, buttercups are very similar to small roses. These flowers are original in appearance and varied in color.
This herbaceous plant was bred in the course of breeding work. Wild species differ from the garden buttercup in smaller sizes. The plant is unpretentious and does not require special care. The flower belongs to perennial plants.
In appearance, the plant resembles a low shrub (from 40 centimeters to 1 meter in height) with a straight stem and tuberous root system. Medium-sized buttercups flowers (about 10 centimeters in diameter) come in a wide variety of colors other than shades of blue.
Before planting buttercups in your backyard, weigh the pros and cons well, because the plant is considered poisonous. Adults will be able to take precautions, but it is not recommended to grow a garden buttercup in a house with children.
Popular species and varieties
- Asiatic buttercup - this variety is distinguished by its beautiful double flowers, which bear a great resemblance to roses. The shrub grows to about forty centimeters in height.
- African buttercup - this variety is very similar to a peony. Its distinctive features are flower petals, which, as it were, are wrapped inward and bright green leaves of large size.
- Pungent buttercup - This species is often found in the wild, prefers moist meadow or forest soils and partial shade areas. The plant is frost-resistant and has medicinal properties. Active flowering begins in early summer, the flowers are golden yellow in color.
- Aconitol buttercup - This species is distinguished by flowering white or yellow. The shrub reaches a height of almost 80 centimeters.
- Anemoliferous buttercup - This is a low-growing bush plant (no more than 30 centimeters in height).
- Multi-flowered buttercup - This perennial type of shrub blooms throughout the summer, medium in height (about half a meter), blooms with shiny yellow flowers.
Garden buttercups retain their decorative properties for 3-4 years, after which it is advisable to update the varieties.
When and where to plant buttercups in open ground
Already at the end of winter, it is worth taking care of the acquisition of planting material. Until the beginning of April, it is recommended to store the tubers in a cool (no more than seventeen degrees Celsius), but well-ventilated area. It is advisable to plant the plant (for seedlings) in an individual pot or peat tablet, since buttercups do not tolerate transplanting well.
You can plant the tubers immediately in open ground, but you need to do this a little later, around the second half of May. At this time, warm weather already sets in, which is very important for garden buttercups, since they are thermophilic plants and will not tolerate low night temperatures.
The place for planting flowers should be in partial shade, preferably not in a draft or in an open area. The plant does not like strong gusts of wind. The site can be located near a low tree or shrub. In open space under direct sunlight, the decorative qualities of a buttercup will suffer. Its flowering will be short-lived and not abundant.
Neighborhood with other plants and flowers
Garden buttercup goes well in a flower bed with various plants. Its color scheme allows it to be a self-sufficient flower, but in combination with flowering plants of blue and light blue, it looks even more gorgeous.
Experienced growers are advised to pay attention to the "aggressiveness" of the plant's root system. It can grow very quickly and can harm neighboring crops by occupying their territory.
Requirements for the composition of the soil
Before planting tubers in open ground, it is recommended to take care of its nutritional value. Use humus as a fertilizer. The acidity of the soil should be neutral, and the soil itself should be loose and light.
Planting rules for buttercups
The tubers of the plant, which were stored in a cool room for about 1-1.5 months, now need to be soaked in a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate or in a growth accelerator. Within twelve hours, the planting material is saturated with the required amount of moisture, and the roots will swell a little.
On the prepared land plot, you can prepare small holes in advance at a distance of about 20 centimeters from each other. Plant one tuber (roots down) in each hole to a depth of 4-5 centimeters. The first shoots will appear in about a couple of weeks.
With unfavorable forecasts of weather forecasters and the threat of a cold snap, it is better to insulate the beds with plants.
Buttercup flower care outdoors
It does not take much time and special attention to care for this garden herb.
Watering should be done regularly, but in moderation. Excess moisture is not allowed. With prolonged rainy weather, the roots of the plant may begin to rot, so you need to use a film cover. At the end of the summer season, watering should be gradually reduced, and then completely stopped (with the appearance of wilting leaves).
For abundant flowering, good air exchange is necessary for the root system, so loosening of the soil will be needed.
Good flowering depends on the availability of essential nutrients in the soil. As top dressing, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are used (at the initial stage of plant development) and complex fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus (during the flowering period). Top dressing is recommended to be applied twice a month at intervals of two weeks.
In order for the flowering period to be longer, it is necessary to timely rid the plant of dried flowers.
How to store tubers
Garden buttercups do not withstand subzero winter temperatures, so their tubers need to be dug out at the end of September, thoroughly cleaned of soil and dried. Then each tuber can be placed in a pot of dry peat soil or wrapped in any natural fabric. In this way, at a temperature of twenty to twenty-two degrees, you can save the plants until the next season.
Reproduction of buttercups
The most popular and uncomplicated way to propagate a garden buttercup is to split the root. This method allows you to get several young bushes at once.
The seed propagation method is used extremely rarely due to the low germination of seeds. First, the seeds are sown in large planting boxes (in the last winter days) in a soil mixture consisting of peat, sand and garden soil to a depth of no more than 2 centimeters. For fifteen days, containers are kept at a temperature of 10 to 15 degrees, maintaining constant soil moisture.
The first shoots should appear in about 25-30 days. Their appearance is the time when the boxes are transferred to a warm room (more than 20 degrees). Now young seedlings need a lot of light and warmth. If necessary, you can supplement the illumination of plants with additional lighting.
Garden buttercup seedlings can only be transferred to the garden plot during the last week of May or early June. The plant grown in this way does not bloom in the first year.
Buttercups flowers in landscape design
Garden buttercups are a unique decoration in a flower bed, garden plot, lawn or in a flower pot. Its multi-colored palette allows you to create extraordinarily beautiful flower arrangements. This plant goes well with various plant crops.
This flower is readily used in their work by landscape designers and bouquets, florists and decorators of special occasions.
Growing buttercup at home
For growing at home, only varieties of buttercups with small growth, no more than 40 centimeters, are suitable. Such species can grow in a regular flower pot and do not require additional support. You can also keep the plant on a glassed-in balcony or a warm loggia.
One bush needs about one liter of soil. Its composition is the same as on an open land plot. As for care, it will be necessary to water the plant more often, since due to the small amount of soil mixture in the container, the earth dries out quickly.
At the end of the flowering and foliage period, the container with the root tuber must be stored in a dry, dark place for two months. In late February - early March, the aboveground part of the plant will begin to appear.
Diseases and pests
Basically, all diseases of the garden buttercup arise from improper care. The most common reason is too waterlogged soil. From this, the roots begin to rot, flower buds fall off and powdery mildew appears.
In the fight against powdery mildew, various insecticidal solutions and aerosols will help. So that water does not stagnate in the soil, it is necessary to take care of drainage during planting and do not forget about loosening the soil. Sometimes the usual drying of the soil can save a wilting plant.
Excessive watering is indicated by the appearance of mold on the leafy part of the plant. In this case, you need to completely abandon watering for a while. The soil will dry out a little, and the flower will again delight with its flowering.
The most common pests in the garden buttercup are spider mites and nematodes.
Signs of a mite are spots on the leaves (silver or yellow). In this case, urgent treatment with special drugs is needed.
Signs of the appearance of a nematode are leaves curling into tubes, slow growth of the plant. The roots of such plants urgently need manganese treatment. It is enough to rinse the roots of the plant extracted from the ground in a pink solution and the pest will die.
How to grow anemones and ranunculus. Garden World site
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Your grandmother probably raised this reliable, high-yielding species in her backyard. Ideal for grilling, toasting or baking quick bread and cakes.
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Ranunculus - the basics of care
Ranunculus care is not very difficult. It is important to choose the right place for their planting.
Grown ranunculus in the shade have a long flowering time and retain their color for a long time.
Timely removal of faded inflorescences allows you to extend the decorative effect of the plant.
After the leaves completely die off, the ranunculus tubers are dug up, since they do not tolerate cold weather at all.
It is very important to do this while the leaves are still visible above the ground, as it will be very difficult to find the tubers in the ground later.
The dug tubers are washed with water, soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate, dried for 5-7 days, and then stored in a cool place in containers with sand, sawdust, peat. You can also store the tubers in a paper bag in the refrigerator.
Buttercup is responsive to feeding. Complex mineral fertilizers with a high potassium content, which are added to the soil at the rate of 40-50 grams per square meter, have a good effect on the plant.
Watering the ranunculus is carried out regularly, since this flower does not like dry land, but at the same time, excessive moisture can harm it.
The tubers can grow moldy and start to rot. Optimal for him will be a rich organic and well-moistened soil.
Watering is very important for the buttercup during its growth. Complete drying of the soil at this moment will be extremely dangerous for the ranunculus.
Caution! Buttercup pungent!
Buttercup caustic is a herbaceous perennial weed plant of the buttercup family. The stem is single, straight, branched, leafy, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Usually about 50cm high. The flowers of the plant are 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter, with five sepals and five petals of golden yellow color. The receptacle is hemispherical. Fruits are spherical multi-roots. Nuts are oblique with a curved or straight spout. The leaves of the flower are palmate-separated, with the upper ones almost sessile, the lower ones, on the contrary, on long petioles.
The caustic buttercup propagates by seeds. The plant's root system is fibrous and consists of numerous adventitious roots. Flowering begins in late spring and ends in June. Buttercup flowers are widespread everywhere: in Russia - in the European part (excluding the Far North) and in Western Siberia, as well as in Belarus and Ukraine. Occurs in glades, meadows, forest edges, litters gardens, crops, pastures ...
In scientific medicine, caustic buttercup is not used, it is used only in folk medicine. For medicinal purposes, stems, leaves, flowers harvested during flowering are used.
The fresh herb of the plant contains the glycoside ranunculin, which is broken down by hydrolysis into protoanemonin and glucose. Due to the content of protoanemonin in its composition, the buttercup flower belongs to an extremely poisonous plant. The very name of the plant, derived from the word "fierce", characterizes its properties
In addition, fresh grass contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and their glycosides), alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, vitamin C, carotene. Fatty little was found in the fruits, and carotenoids (flavoxanthin, alpha-carotene-epoxy, chrysanthemaxanthin, taraxanthin) in the flowers.
Ingestion of caustic buttercup preparations provokes irritation of the digestive tract (hemorrhagic gastroenteritis). When exposed to the heart, there is a decrease in the amplitude and frequency of heart contractions. In folk medicine, caustic buttercup is used as a local irritant and abscess, as well as for the treatment of wounds, burns, rheumatism, gout, headaches, furunculosis and as a tonic.
When applied topically, protoanemonin can cause severe irritation to the larynx, nose, mucous membranes of the eyes and skin around the eyes. In this case, there is lacrimation, pain in the eyes, cough, spasm of the larynx, discharge from the nose. When the buttercup is injected under the skin at the injection sites, necrosis occurs - a deep destruction of tissues. At the same time, the phenomena of general poisoning are also noted, namely: dizziness, weak and fast pulse, fainting.
Fresh buttercup herb in homeopathy is used for neuralgia, skin diseases, gout. The ointment from its flowers is used for the speedy healing of festering wounds, for some skin diseases and for colds, lubricate the neck when the throat is sore. Cotton wool moistened with plant juice can be applied to aching teeth. In small doses, a decoction of flowers was used earlier for liver disease. The beneficial effect of the plant preparations for cutaneous tuberculosis was established, explained by the presence of a very significant amount of carotene in its leaves.
It has been experimentally established that in small doses protoanemonin stimulates the central nervous system, increases the amount of hemoglobin and erythrocytes, and has fungistatic and antimicrobial (against E. coli and staphylococci) effects.
In veterinary medicine, caustic buttercup is used to treat neglected wounds in animals. The broth is used as an insecticidal agent.
When using drugs and infusions from buttercup, the strictest precautions should be observed (especially with internal use). Even the external use of an ointment or infusion should be carried out under the supervision of a herbalist.
Treatment with buttercup preparations is contraindicated for pregnant women, children and nursing mothers.
Providing first aid to animals in case of poisoning
If your livestock is poisoned, then immediately you need to slow down the absorption of the poison into the bloodstream and, if possible, remove it from the body. There are many ways, for example, induce vomiting by irritating the root of the tongue and give the cow a few buckets of warm salt water to drink. You can also use a solution of potassium permanganate for gastric lavage and oxidation of toxic substances.
If there are no special products at hand, you can use activated carbon. For this, several packs of tablets are crushed (according to the weight of the animal), mixed with a small amount of water and given to the victim to drink. It will not be superfluous to make a cleansing enema. After providing first aid, be sure to contact a veterinary clinic.