To get a premium, fruit-bearing lemon, there is a simple and reliable way to make it from a cuttings. It is really not difficult at all, even a beginner can handle it, which cannot be said about methods such as grafting or breeding by branches.
Such reproduction can be done throughout the year, but it is still better to do it in March-April. You need to take cuttings from a lemon, which is already bearing fruit and the next cycle of its growth is over - the plant's growth activity is in cycles, 3-4 per year. They must be somewhat hardened, and at the same time quite flexible, with a green bark. Before cutting off the process, the knife must be disinfected, it can be ignited on fire, and it must be sharp. The knife is placed under the sheet and an oblique cut is made. The stalk should be with 3-4 leaves, and its length is 8-10 cm. If the cut is upper, then it must be 1.5-2 cm higher than the bud.
For planting the cuttings, it is best to use a mixed soil of sphagnum moss and sand - equal parts are taken. Such soil gives the process the necessary moisture in the right amount and evenly, and it keeps firmly in it. If there is no sphagnum, then high moor peat can perfectly replace it. But this is only a layer on top, and you also need a nutritious one.
The process of planting a lemon cutting is as follows: the bottom of a vessel, a box, a pot or a flowerpot is covered with a layer of drainage, here you can apply expanded clay, clay shards, porous vermoculite, etc.; then a layer of nutritious soil, this is a five-centimeter thick layer of identical parts of sod and forest soil with the addition of one-sixth of the sand; then mixed moss (or peat) and sand and then the cutting is planted.
If several shoots are planted in one container at once, then the distance between them should be 5-6 cm, this so that the leaves of the shoots do not shade each other. At the end of planting, lemon sprouts are sprayed with warm water, the soil should be moist during planting and placed in a greenhouse. It is very easy to make from wire and polyethylene. The wire frame is placed on top of a vessel in which the processes are planted, and covered with polyethylene, which allows light to pass through itself, that's all the wisdom.
Until the cutting takes root, it needs systematic spraying, twice a day with water, slightly warmed up. It is better to choose a light place for the appendix, but there should be no direct rays. For the rooting process to take place normally, a room temperature of 20-25 degrees is quite enough. The stalk takes 3-4 weeks to take root.
Next, a little lemon sapling needs to be accustomed to the air in the room. At first, open the homemade greenhouse only for an hour and gradually increase the time. One to one and a half weeks and you can open the pot completely. After another week, the rooted lemon sprout must be transplanted into a larger 9-10 cm pot with permanent nutrient soil.
The transplanting process is the same as for other indoor plants. It is important to remember that the root collar (the junction of the stem with the root) of the plant should not be covered with earth. Such a transplant is more like a transshipment, here it is necessary to leave the ground on the roots. When a year passes and the lemon grows older, it needs to be transplanted into a flowerpot 1-2 cm larger than the previous one. The lemon (own-rooted) growing from the cuttings begins to bloom and then bear fruit after 3-4 years.
You can also propagate other citrus fruits. Only orange and tangerine are not very suitable here. Propagating them by cuttings is a little problematic. These fruits take much longer to take root (about six months), and it is not known whether they will take root or not.
Reproduction of lemons by seeds: cultivation features
Seed propagation of lemons is the lot of patient and hardworking citrus growers. For the patient, because lemons "from seeds" begin to bear fruit years after planting.
Not all lemon seeds are suitable for seed propagation - seeds extracted from lemons brought from the hot tropics will germinate, but the seedlings will have difficulty adapting to life in indoor conditions. Therefore, it is recommended to choose indoor lemon seeds.
It is advisable to take seeds from indoor lemons - they are zoned for indoor conditions. Photo: growingwildceeds.wordpress.com
It is desirable that the lemon tree bears fruit well, can grow in conditions of insufficient light and low temperatures. The genome of this plant already contains all the necessary information to adapt the seedling to the difficult life in captivity.
The seeds are planted in a previously prepared substrate for lemons, preventing the zest from drying out, immediately after the parent is removed from the fruit. Lemon seeds quickly lose their germination. For example, to restore a dried lemon seed, you need to soak it in warm water for 24 hours.
The substrate for seed propagation of indoor lemons should be light, prepared on the basis of leaf humus and sand, in a ratio of 2: 1 (for more details, see the article "Preparing the soil for lemons"). Be sure to check the acidity of the finished substrate before planting.
The pot or seed box is small, in diameter, fill with soil and compact slightly. In the soil, make grooves approximately twice the diameter of the seed and place the seeds in them at a distance
When the seeds are laid and covered with soil, moisten the substrate with a spray bottle. It is necessary to moisten it regularly, preventing the soil from drying out. Lemon shoots appear in months from the moment of seeding.
Lemon seedlings can be dived in the phase of 4 true leaves. Photo: growingwildceeds.wordpress.com
Often the seeds of lemons form as a result of citrus polyembryony (the formation of several embryos in one seed). From the sprouts, choose the strongest, and remove the weak without regret.
Lemon seedlings can be dived into separate pots when true leaves appear. Plant one seedling in one pot so as not to damage the root system. Try not to loose the earthen ball and do not bury the root collar too deep. Details about planting and transplanting lemons.
Lemon seedlings dive carefully. Photo: growingwildceeds.wordpress.com
There are no miracles when growing citrus fruits from seeds - lemons grown by a seed method begin to bear fruit much later than lemons grown by cuttings. There may be exceptions to the rule, but usually you have to wait a decade before you can taste lemon from such a tree.
You can accelerate the fruiting of indoor lemons grown from seeds, observing agricultural techniques: forming a crown, observing the lighting and humidity regimes, caring for the lemons taking into account the seasonality, and regularly feeding the plants.
To stimulate the fruiting of a seedling, graft with a cuttings, using shoots or buds (eyes) taken from a fruiting citrus tree as a scion. The grafted seedlings are hardy, develop well and can bloom as early as the third year.
Lemon varieties for growing at home
First things first, you need to figure it out what kind of lemon suits your apartment or insulated loggia... Breeders have long bred decorative dwarf lemons capable of producing generous fruit yields. The most common among them are:
- "Novogruzinsky lemon" bears fruit all year round, has a delicate, delicate aroma, the fruits contain almost no seeds, and a large number of thorns grow on the trunk,
- Mayer, a dwarf lemon famous for its particularly sour lemons, which are eaten in an unripe state
- Genoa also good for its fertility, fruit juiciness and decorativeness
- Lunario gives a good harvest of oblong lemons
- "Maykop lemon" is distinguished by fertility, fast growth rates and excellent decorative properties
- "Pavlovsky lemon" - a time-tested, reliable variety, long mastered by lovers of home floriculture, grows up to 2 meters in height, it has thin-skinned, fragrant, large fruits.
In this article we want to describe all the subtleties and nuances of growing Pavlovsky lemon as the most common and highly productive.
Planting trench preparation
In contrast to the southern regions of cultivation, where lemon seedlings are planted in standard pits measuring 60 x 80, in the middle lane the preparation of the future place of residence for subtropical exotic plants plays a decisive role. A warm, bright place should be taken away for planting, but in no case in the sun: lemon does not like strong heat (from + 30 °). Further preparatory work is carried out using the following technology:
- Dig a trench with a depth of at least 1.5 m and a width of about 1.3–1.5 m. In the process of digging, the excavated soil is thrown on two sides: the upper fertile one - to the south, the lower poor - to the north.
- The northern wall of the trench is made strictly perpendicular, and the southern wall is cut at an angle of 45 °, thereby narrowing the bottom of the pit to 80 cm.
- When planting on heavy clay soils, provide good drainage, which can be used as gravel, river pebbles or coarse sand.
- The northern steep slope of the trench is sewn up with boards, covered with slate sheets or covered with bricks, and then whitewashed with lime mortar. Reflecting from the white surface, the sun's rays will penetrate into the shelter.
- Agrofibre or a dense black film is spread along the southern slope to prevent the rapid development of weeds.
- From the north, as an additional protection from the cold wind, a shaft 40-50 cm high is poured using the reclaimed soil. A nutritious substrate is prepared from the "southern" soil, mixing with compost, peat or humus.
- A polycarbonate "gazebo" is installed above the trench.
A properly equipped seat is the most important condition for the cultivation of lemon in the open field of mid-latitudes, so you should not spare time and effort in preparing it.
Breeding methods for indoor lemongrass
|From seed||Sowing is best done before winter, at least in spring. For this, it is recommended to prepare a seedling soil mixture in advance, into which the seeds are planted to a depth of 0.5 cm. Cover with paper and water daily. The first shoots should be expected in the second week. It is important to provide the seedlings with protection from direct sunlight and treat it several times with a light solution of potassium permanganate. After the formation of the third leaf, you can transplant the seedlings into a new container.|
|From cuttings||The tops of the young stems are best and should be cut in mid-summer. Cut cuttings are recommended to be placed in a growth stimulator (Kornevin) to activate root growth. After a few days, the cuttings are planted in pre-moistened sand, covered with film or cut bottles|
|From root suckers||For this, offspring are suitable, as far as possible from the mother plant. They are dug up and planted in pre-prepared containers with soil mixture. At the same time, it is important to do everything as quickly as possible, in no case should the offspring be stored in the air for a long time, this can negatively affect the state of the root system and lead to its death. During the first month, young seedlings need abundant watering and protection from direct sunlight, which can dry out the soil and leaves.|
When preparing the potting mix for planting seedlings, it is important to keep in mind that ordinary garden soil is not suitable for this plant.
Since its homeland is a different climatic zone with appropriate soils, it is better to purchase a special substrate that will best suit the needs of lemongrass.
Propagated by air layers
For lemon propagation, there is a method with air layers. It is much simpler than the previous ones. But it is believed that plants obtained from such roots grow weak. To plant a plant with layering, you need:
- make an incision near the base of the branch on the bud
- remove the bark from the incision
- take cling film and tightly wrap the air layers on the plant in the cling film there should be peat.
After 1-2 months, the formed roots will be visible through the film.
The next step is planting roots in the ground. To root them, they are cut below the cocoon and placed in neutral, non-acidic soil. Rooting takes place in a greenhouse. The transplant of such plants occurs as they grow.
Growing lemons at home is not an easy task. Care for both young and mature plants should be appropriate.
Introduction of the thesis (part of the abstract) on the topic "Bioecological features of the growth and development of sour lemon (citrus aurantifolia L.) in greenhouses"
Relevance of the topic. Socio-economic stability in the region is largely determined by the standard of living of all strata of the population and, first of all, by the degree of satisfaction of human needs for food. One of the main links in food production is fruit growing, the level of development of which largely determines the range of fruit and berry products necessary to maintain human health.
In 1995, the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences calculated the annual consumption rate of fruits and berries at 113 kg per person. Actual consumption in Russia is currently 28% of the norm. Low consumption of fruits and berries, deficiency of vitamins and microelements, disrupt the structure of nutrition and imbalance between nutrients. This leads to an increase in negative trends in the state of human health, a decrease in the efficiency and active longevity of the adult population. It is necessary to create a concept for a system for the selection of crops and plant varieties, an adaptive assortment in Western Siberia, and the development of technologies for the production of environmentally friendly fruits for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.
This task can be solved both by increasing the yield of traditionally grown fruit and berry crops, and by introducing and introducing new species into agricultural production.
In the course of economic transformations in our country, a situation has developed when the bulk of fruits and berries sold in wholesale markets and from store shelves are produced abroad. Lemons have always been imported into Kuzbass (according to market estimates) from such "citrus powers" as Morocco, Turkey, Italy, Spain, Georgia, but it became possible to grow our own fruits, and immediately the question arose about the nutritional value of this product and the economic feasibility of its cultivation ... The value of lemon fruits lies in the high content of organic acids, essential oils, pectin substances, trace elements, vitamins C, B9, E, P and other biologically active substances used in the pharmaceutical, perfumery, cosmetic and food industries.
In the conditions of Western Siberia, E.I. Panteleeva (2002) obtained the main results on the introduction of the lemon culture. We have not found literary data on the industrial cultivation of lemon culture in the conditions of the Kemerovo region. In this regard, we have chosen for research an unconventional fruit crop for the Kemerovo region - sour lemon (Citrus aurantifolia L.). The climatic conditions of Siberia are characterized by more severe conditions in comparison with the areas of industrial cultivation of citrus fruits, therefore the object of research was studied in protected ground conditions.
The purpose and objectives of the research.The purpose of this work was to study bioecological features and develop effective methods for increasing the yield of sour lemon in a protected ground. To achieve this goal, the following tasks were solved: to identify the bioecological features of the growth and seasonal development of sour lemon; to study the effect of pruning and micronutrient fertilization on the duration of the phenological phases of lemon development and the formation of yield; to determine the biochemical composition and dynamics of its preservation under various storage methods and periods; rooting of green lemon cuttings at different planting dates calculate the economic efficiency of the influence of cultivation techniques on the yield and vegetative propagation of sour lemon.
Scientific novelty. Studies to study the bioecological characteristics of growth, seasonal development and the effect of pruning and foliar dressing on fruiting and the biochemical composition of lemon fruits were carried out in the protected ground of the Kemerovo region for the first time. The regularities of growth and development, the passage of phenological phases in protected ground conditions have been studied. The influence of pruning and foliar dressing with micronutrient fertilizers on the yield of sour lemon has been determined. The biochemical composition of sour lemon fruits and its variation depending on the proposed agrotechnical methods of cultivation, methods and periods of storage have been studied. The use of growth regulators and different terms of planting green cuttings with intensive vegetative propagation of sour lemon has been substantiated.
Provisions for Defense:
1. The influence of pruning during crown formation and the introduction of micronutrients on the change in the growing season of lemon in the protected soil of Western Siberia.
2. The influence of some technological methods on the variation of the biochemical composition of fruits and the dynamics of the safety of biologically active substances at different periods and methods of storage.
3. The use of growth regulators to obtain a high yield of rooted lemon seedlings at various times of cuttings.
Practical significance. The studied bioecological features and seasonal development of sour lemon made it possible to recommend the optimal scheme for planting trees of the Uzbekistan variety grown in protected ground conditions. A positive effect of foliar dressing with micronutrient fertilizers, which provides an increase in plant productivity, has been revealed. The high efficiency of reproduction by green cuttings and the yield of sour lemon fruits allows us to consider it a promising crop for industrial gardening, which is confirmed by the calculation of the economic efficiency of the proposed set of measures for growing sour lemon in the protected soil of Western Siberia.
Approbation of work. The main provisions of the dissertation were reported at the VII international school - conference "Ecology of Southern Siberia and adjacent territories" (Abakan, 2003) at the international scientific-practical conference "Modern agribusiness state and development prospects" (Barnaul, 2003), at the international scientific-methodological conference " Problems of modernization of higher professional education "(Kostroma, 2003) at the regional conference of young scientists" Krasnoyarsk Territory - development, development, prospects "(Krasnoyarsk, 2004) at the scientific-practical conference of the faculty of the Kemerovo Agricultural Institute (Kemerovo 2004).
Publications. The main research results are presented in 5 publications.
Workload. The dissertation work consists of an introduction, 7 chapters, conclusions, practical recommendations, applications, a bibliography of 196 titles, including 18 foreign works. The work is presented on 152 pages, contains 26 figures and 25 tables.