Amaranth tailed, growing in an apartment
According to the horoscope, plants are ranked as the sign of the zodiac Leo (July 24 - August 23): akalifa bristly-haired; protruding aphelandra; Ethiopian zantedeschia (kala); hybrid calceolaria; Japanese camellia; gardenia jasmine; balsam; bashful mimosa; Pelargonium (geranium) royal; Chinese rose; amaranth tailed (squid).
I understand a certain bewilderment of some flower growers: how did this tall amaranth (otherwise - the squid) get into the number of indoor plants? However, this is how floral astrologers classify this plant. Indeed, although amaranth is usually grown in flower beds in the open field, sometimes these plants are also kept at home - in large flower pots.
About 90 species of this genus Amaranthus (family Amaranth) are counted in warm and temperate zones of North and South America, Africa, Asia and Europe, although experts "tie" its origin to India. Some species of this plant are used as food crops, others are grown as ornamental plants. The genus name Amaranthus in Greek means "immortal" or "unfading".
Among the ornamental annual species, the most interesting are the tricolor (A. tricolor), paniculate (A. рaniculatus) and tailed (A. caudatus)... These plants are large, up to 1.8 m high. In the tricolor amaranth, the inflorescence is directed upwards, it is strongly branched, the leaves are often variegated, brightly colored, and in the paniculate plant, the terminal panicles are red, drooping or vertical with hanging ends.
The most popular in decorative floriculture, amaranth tailed, has very spectacular inflorescences: branched, spike-shaped long hanging thin panicles (like clusters), elongated, similar to tails, blood-red or yellowish-green. It is for such a bright, peculiar shape that it is sometimes called the "fox's tail". It has ovoid leaves with red veins. Extraordinarily decorative varieties with white, purple and even green flowers are obtained from this species. For example, Viridis has pale green flowers.
To keep these types of amaranth in room conditions, the most illuminated place is chosen (preferably from the south side), since this plant requires a lot of light for the normal formation of inflorescences.
It is able to withstand even direct sunlight for a long time. During active growth and development, amaranth requires abundant watering, has a positive attitude to high humidity, so its leaves are sprayed (but preferably in the evening). If its content is partly in the winter period, then watering is reduced, and the temperature should be at least 120WITH.
Amaranth is propagated by seeds, which are so small that they are often sown at room conditions on the surface of damp earth, covering the top of the container with glass to create high humidity. Seeds are very demanding on this factor (sometimes they also moisten the soil with a spray bottle). Seeds are usually planted in boxes at the end of March. When the seedlings grow up, they dive into large-sized containers, increasing the volume of the latter with each transplant.
If the amaranths want to be taken out into the garden or on the lawn or on an open balcony (loggia), they are tied up so that the wind does not fall to the ground. If the grower plans to get the seeds himself, then it must be borne in mind that the growing season for amaranth is long - the plants bloom from July to October. Usually, the plant begins to bloom at home in the middle of summer, and outdoors at the end of summer. In this case, it should be planted with seedlings and only when late frosts have passed.
A sunny place is selected in the amaranth garden. During the summer, the plants are fed (once every two weeks), and the culture is very responsive to nitrogen fertilization, since they need nitrogen to form a large vegetative mass. Amaranth soil is preferable with a high lime content.
By the way, amaranth is a relatively drought and salt tolerant plant. Tall (up to 120-150 cm) plants of annual species of amaranth - tailed (A.caudatus), with long drooping inflorescences - and paniculate (A.paniculatus), with large leaves of green or maroon color and large inflorescences of red, light green or dark red colors - immediately attract attention in the garden, serve as a real decoration of flower beds.
Amaranth is very popular among amateur flower growers as a material for drawing up dry bouquets: its inflorescences, cut in full glory, retain their attractiveness for a long time.
It is worth noting that due to the many positive properties of this plant, a number of experts attribute amaranth to vegetable crops, often now in numerous scientific and popular journals it is called a "plant of the XXI century", since it is able to fill the deficiency of protein, vitamins, carbohydrates, trace elements and other useful compounds in the diet of humans and animals.
On the territory of Russia, there are 16 types of amaranth, among them - food, feed, decorative and weed (they are also distinguished by the type of application: grain, food and feed).
So, indoor tailed amaranth can also be adapted and eaten, which has been practiced in America since ancient times, long before the appearance of Europeans and Indians there. Then this plant was considered the second most important grain crop after corn, they made cereals, flour from it, baked bread and cooked porridge.
Young leaves of indoor amaranth can be used as a vegetable, herbs (spinach), harvested while they are still young and tender. They are added to soups, mashed potatoes, stewed or boiled. The leaves contain a protein that is well balanced in amino acids, which is readily soluble and easily extracted by the animal organism.
The most important indicator of the nutritional value of protein is the presence of lysine: if wheat contains up to 8.7 g of protein in 1000 g, in amaranth - 16.5 g. If we take the content of 8 essential amino acids, say, for 100 points, then wheat gains 57, soy - 63, milk - 72, amaranth - 75. Amaranth protein in terms of amino acid ratio is one of the best proteins of plant origin. It is worth noting that half of the vegetable protein consumed by the population of India, as well as the countries of Asia and Africa, comes from the protein obtained from amaranth.
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection
Characteristics of culture
Tailed amaranth is represented by annual herbaceous plants with erect, powerful stems reaching a height of 1-1.5 m. The foliage of the species under consideration is rather large, purple-green, less often green, has an ovoid (often elongated) shape. The flowers are numerous, dark red or wine-colored, and yellowish specimens are also found.
The flowers, in turn, are collected in dense glomerular inflorescences, which make up complex panicles hanging under the weight of the glomeruli. The flowering of the caudate amaranth is observed from the beginning of summer to autumn (before the onset of frost). Throughout the growing season, the plant pleases with its decorative effect, which makes it popular.
Forms and varieties
Like other representatives of the genus, tailed amaranth is represented by several interesting forms that differ from each other in the color of flowers and foliage, the height and size of the inflorescences. Among the variety of forms, f can be noted. gibbosus, which boasts whorled buds that form a long string of beads. This form won popularity among gardeners for a reason, because those same beads look dignified and attractive, which means that they can rightfully take one of the dominant places in any flower garden.
Form f is also common among gardeners. atro-purpureus. It is represented by plants, the stem of which bears small red foliage and large red inflorescences composed of small flowers. By the way, this form of inflorescence is erect. It is impossible not to note the form, the plants of which form white or greenish-white flowers, it is called f. albiflorus. But among the green-flowered forms f is famous. viridis. It is grown both in gardens and in specialized establishments to create summer and winter bouquets and various crafts suitable for interior decoration.
Of the varieties, gardeners adhere to the Grunschwanz variety. It is characterized by plants that form large, dense inflorescences of a light green color. The Rotschwanz variety also takes place in Russian and European gardens. It boasts not too tall (about 60-75 cm), a powerful bush and dense red inflorescences. Both varieties are suitable for cultivation in Central Russia, however, the cold summer will not allow you to fully enjoy the beauty of the plant, since this type of amaranth loves warmth and sun.
In general, representatives of the amaranth genus cannot be called overly whimsical plants. Caring for them is as easy as two or two. True, at the beginning of the growing season, young plants should be given a little more attention than, for example, during flowering. So, plants require regular, but moderate moisture. Lack of moisture is detrimental to amaranth, and first of all, insufficient moisture affects the decorative foliage, which will soon fall off.
The plants are negatively affected by the lack of fertilizing. By the way, amaranth needs very little of them - only twice a season. The first one at the time of planting, more precisely, when preparing the soil, you can use rotted organic matter and mineral fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), the second one - a couple or three weeks after planting with complex mineral fertilizers. Don't forget about weeding. The prevention of diseases and pests is encouraged, although the culture is extremely rarely affected.
Amaranth tailed, growing in an apartment - garden and vegetable garden
Rudbeckia hybrid (Rudbeckia L.)
Aconite or wrestler (Aconite L.)
Dahlia Sunny boys (Dahlia Cav.)
Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.)
Amaranth tailed (Amaranthus caudatus L.)
Elecampane (Inula helenium L.)
Hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens L.)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.)
Nivyanik (Leucanthemum Mill.)
Enotera (Oenothera L.)
Meadowsweet or meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.)
Large-headed cornflower (Centaurea macrocephala Muss.Puschk. ex Willd.)
Nivyanik (Leucanthemum Mill.)
Loose mint (Lysimachia nummularia L.)
Sedum (Sedum L.)
Phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.)
Hosta (Hosta Tratt.)
cornflower (Centaurea L.)
Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.)
Slime onion (Allium nutans L.)
Curly beans (Phaseolus L.)
Seed propagation is one of the most convenient ways to get a beautiful and unassuming annual.
Features of growing technology:
- will be together in the last decade of March
- the use of soil based on humus and clean, disinfected medium-grained sand in a ratio of 3: 1
- height of the planting container with drainage holes at least 10 cm
- planting seed to a depth of one and a half centimeters
- the use of a film coating to obtain a greenhouse effect
- germination in a warm and sufficiently bright place with irrigation from a household spray gun, observing the temperature regime of the air at the level of 18-22 ° C.
It is recommended to plant young mass seedlings in separate seedling containers. Diving is carried out after the appearance of three or four true leaves on the bore. After transplanting, it is advisable to pinch the apical part of the growth point, which will allow the root system of the plant to grow quickly and well. Planting seedlings to a permanent place in open ground is carried out, as a rule, in the first decade of May. If necessary, a temporary film cover is used.
Amaranth: features of planting and care in the open field
After sufficient warming of the soil, planting is carried out in open ground. The growing area should have good lighting and good drainage. Preference should be given to light and nutritious soils. The volunteer is extremely difficult to tolerate low temperature conditions, as well as waterlogging of the soil, which must be taken into account when choosing a place for growing.
At the preparatory stage, the soil must be dug onto a shovel bayonet with the simultaneous introduction of 20 g of nitroammophoska for each square meter of the flower garden. Depending on the varietal and species characteristics, the planting and cultivation scheme may vary. The average distance between them should be about 10-30 cm, while maintaining a distance between the rows of 45-70 cm. Immediately after planting for about a couple of weeks, you need to carefully monitor the soil moisture indicators.
During the first month, seedlings are characterized by very slow growth and development, therefore, at this stage of amaranth, it is necessary to provide full care, consisting in watering, weeding and loosening the soil. At the stage of activation of growth processes, irrigation should be rather rare, only in very dry periods. Top dressing is carried out three to four times per season. For this purpose, it is recommended to use a solution based on mullein, diluted in a ratio of 1: 5 and wood ash at the rate of a glass to a bucket of water.
In order to prevent plant parasites, the aboveground part of the garden culture is treated with drugs such as Actellik or Fufanon. To prevent the defeat of fungal diseases, it is allowed to use "colloidal sulfur", "Copper sulfate" and "Copper oxychloride" for spraying ornamental garden plants. Processing is carried out in dry and calm weather.
Video: how to plant Amaranth
The extraordinary properties of amaranth, or shiritsa, have been known for more than eight millennia. Then it was grown as a grain and vegetable crop and used for food. Now the plant is successfully used in landscape design.
The Greek name "amaranth" is translated as "unfading", and indeed, this plant blooms with beautiful lush panicles all summer, and in late autumn its spikelets form interesting shapes with spherical seed pods that look no worse than the inflorescences themselves.
In the design of landscape design, 4 varieties of decorative amaranth are used:
Since amaranth is undemanding to the soil, it gets along on almost any soil and does not need regular maintenance, it can be safely planted in moderately arid areas. Because of these convenient qualities, landscape designers are very fond of using the plant to design park areas, squares and personal plots.
Most of the shiritsa bushes are rather large in size, which must be taken into account when decorating the landscape. Tall amaranth varieties are suitable for large flower arrangements and are also good as tapeworms.
Hanging branches of a tailed or sad amaranth will look very impressive in a hedge, however, like other decorative widths.
With the help of this magnificent plant, you can decorate flower beds, in addition, amaranth is in good harmony with perennial and annual flowering crops, as well as with some ornamental shrubs.
You can use this unpretentious plant in any plantings, for example, on flower beds in parks and squares, flower beds, borders, mixborders and naturgardens. Against the backdrop of the lawn grass, the squid will stand out with its original color, creating bright accents.
At the summer cottage, tall shiritsa bushes will cover the walls of buildings or unsightly barriers.
And decorative leafy amaranth tricolor will decorate any flower bed or border.
In addition to decorative use in landscape design, amaranth is actively used in cooking, especially in oriental cuisine. The seeds, leaves and stems of this plant are extremely beneficial for our body. In the perfumery industry, oil from the seeds of the squid is added to perfumes and eau de toilette, and bridal bouquets are often decorated with beautiful inflorescences-panicles.This unique plant has so many faces that it is simply impossible to leave it unattended!
Amaranth varieties for indoor and garden cultivation
Amaranth "Openwork" blooms before the onset of tangible frosts. The aerial part is powerful and slender, decorated with very lush inflorescences-sultans, which resemble biscuit dough in their appearance. The height is 120 cm. With a very original and striking appearance, it has a decorative leafy
Amaranth "Red Octopus". These are very cute multi-colored bushes no more than 35-40 cm high with elongated ovoid tricolor leaves of a greenish-burgundy, red and bronze hue.
No less popular with amateur flower growers amaranth "Perfect". A bushy type of medium vigor, the plant reaches a height of 75-90 cm. The leaves are very decorative. The upper leaves are deep red, yellow and green, while the lower leaves are green with very pronounced burgundy blotches.
For beginner amateur flower growers, they are very unpretentious in care and unpretentious to the soil and climatic conditions of the varieties:
- dark-leaved "Mermaid"
- grain "Helios"
- grain "Lera"
- fodder "Aztec"
- stern "Sam"
- "Magic Fountain"
- "Green Tambov"
- "Bronze Age"
- "Glamorous shine"
- "Christmas tree toy"
- "Red torch"
- "Dance of Fire"
- "Polovtsian Dances"
The varietal feature of the medium-sized "Pigmy Torch" is the formation of dark purple inflorescences, which acquire an unusual chestnut shade in the autumn. The leaves of the plant are multicolored. Amaranth "Cascade" up to 70-80 cm high has a powerful and erect stem part. Small flowers gather in paniculate inflorescences no more than 60-80 cm long. Flowering is long and very abundant. The unpretentious variety "Cherry Jam" refers to early maturing garden crops. The above-ground part is up to one and a half meters high. The plant is an excellent source of highly digestible vegetable protein.
The world of the florist
Amaranth is a herbaceous annual plant of the amaranth family, native to Central and South Asia. In total, there are 90 types of amaranths. In gardening, the most common amaranth tailed. Its powerful, erect stems reach 75-100 cm in height. The leaves of amaranth are large, ovoid, green or purple-green in color. The flowers are small, crimson or dark red, collected in drooping panicles from dense short ears or in erect panicles from dense long ears. Amaranth bushes branch strongly. The plant blooms from July to the end of summer, and retains its decorative effect from July to October.
Amaranths are highly valued for the beauty of the bush, the texture of the leaves, the original shape of the inflorescences. This magnificent plant is used for tapeworms, group plantings, on beds, for bordering tall crops. Amaranths are also suitable for cutting and as dried flowers.
There are several decorative forms of caudate amaranth: dark purple with brown-red leaves and erect red inflorescences, white-flowered with greenish-whitish inflorescences, bead-shaped with flowers resembling beads strung on a thin stalk.
Varieties: Grune torch, Grunschwantz, Rother Dam,
Rother Paris, Rothschwants, Zwergfakel, etc.
Other types of amaranth
Red amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus)
An annual plant that forms an upright bush with decoratively painted foliage up to a meter high. The leaves are large with an ardent burgundy color.
Green amaranth or thin amaranth (Amaranthus viridis)
A cosmopolitan species of the Amaranthaceae botanical family. An annual plant with a straight light green stem, up to 0.6-0.8 m high. Leaves are ovoid, with long petioles. The plant has upper panicles with several branches and small green flowers.
Thin amaranth is eaten as a cooked green or vegetable in many parts of the world. Also used as a medicinal plant called Tandulia.
Amaranth green or thin
Thrown back amaranth, spiked amaranth or beetroot (Amaranthus retroflexus)
An annual herb. North American species, widely spread across all continents and now cosmopolitan. Widespread, aggressive weed. Grows in almost all regions of Russia, including common in all regions of Central Russia.
Brief information about the garden plant
- Amaranth caudatus (Amaranthus caudatus)
- Amaranth paniculata, or crimson (Amaranthus paniculatus, Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hybridus ssp.paniculatus)
- Amaranth tricolor (Amaranthus tricolor)
- Amaranth tricolor (Amaranthus tricolor)
- Amaranth caudatus (Amaranthus caudatus)
The green, purplish-green or tricolor leaves are large, ovate or elongated, alternating. The flowers are very small, collected in complex spike-shaped straight or drooping inflorescences. Flowering time is from June to frost.
Types and varieties of amaranth
About 90 species of plants are known to grow in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and America. In the conditions of the Central belt, some species are grown for decorative purposes, but they can also be cultivated as an agricultural crop. Several types are especially popular — amaranth paniculate, or crimson (Amaranthus paniculatus, Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hybridus ssp.paniculatus), amaranth tricolor (Amaranthus tricolor), tailed amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus).
Amaranth paniculata, or crimson (Amaranthus paniculatus, Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus x hybridus ssp.paniculatus)
An annual plant native to Asia. Amaranth paniculata during the flowering period reaches 80-150 cm in height. Small red flowers are collected in erect inflorescences. The plant blooms from June to frost. There are several forms, the most common three: f. cruentus inflorescences are terminal, drooping, red in f. sanguineus - vertical with hanging ends in f. nаnа plants only up to 50 cm tall.
Varieties of amaranth paniculata:
'Zwergfachel' - plant height 25-30 cm, inflorescences are dark red
'Gruene Fackel' - plant height 25-30 cm, inflorescences are bright green
'Pygmy Torch' - plant height 60 cm, cherry-carmine inflorescences.
Amaranth tricolor (Amaranthus tricolor)
The plant is native to the Indo-Malay region. It is an annual deciduous ornamental plant with a height of 70 to 150 cm. The leaves are colored in various combinations of red, yellow and green colors, depending on the variety.
Varieties of amaranth tricolor:
'Aurora' — golden yellow, elongated apical leaves wavy along the edge
'Illumination' — the apical leaves are bright red with yellow, the lower ones are purple-green
'Early splendour'- the apical leaves are bright crimson, the lower ones are purple-green, almost black
'Joseph's Coat'- the upper leaves are bright red-yellow, plant height up to 75 cm.
Amaranth caudatus (Amaranthus caudatus)
An annual plant with a height of 100-150 cm. The flowers are small, crimson or dark red, less often yellowish-green, collected in complex, hanging paniculate inflorescences. This is a great plant for bouquets, including winter ones.
Amaranths — light, moisture and heat-loving plants that need a sunny location. They prefer light nutritious soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. They do not tolerate stagnant moisture and high acidity of the soil. They die with the first frost.
Reproduction of amaranths
Amaranth is grown from seeds, sowing can be carried out in two periods: in April in a greenhouse or in mid-May in open ground. 10-15 days after planting, the seedlings need to be fed with complex fertilizers.
Use in garden design
Most amaranths are tall plants, they are suitable for decorating the background of mixborders, they look good in single-species groups and high borders. Low-growing varieties are suitable for use in mixed flower beds, flower beds, rockeries and flower parterres. Tricolor amaranth is used to decorate flower beds, flower beds, flower parterres. Dwarf varieties are great for growing in container culture. Tailed amaranth is good in flower gardens and ornamental gardens.