Pear Moskvichka: metropolitan gadget
Pear is one of the oldest fruit crops. Humanity has created thousands of varieties of this tree. It is difficult to navigate in such a sea of information. The Moskvichka variety is one of the most common in Central Russia, especially in Moscow and the Moscow region. Let's get to know him better.
Description of the variety
Obtained in 1979 at the Moscow Agricultural Academy by the method of free pollination of an old American pear of the Kieffer variety. The Muscovite surpassed the parent in the taste of fruits and winter hardiness, took over from him early maturity, yield, autumn ripening period. The variety was included in the State Register in 2001 and zoned for the Middle Volga, Volgo-Vyatka and Central regions. Widespread in Moscow and the Moscow region.
Free pollination is a selection method that uses seedlings from the seeds of the parent variety, freely pollinated by bees. This is the simplest selection method with unpredictable results.
The variety has a medium-sized standard tree with a dense conical crown, which is formed by oblique-vertical skeletal branches with a light gray bark. Shoot growth is moderate. Unfortunately, it was not possible to find in the sources on what types of overgrowing branches the Moskvichka bears fruit. The winter hardiness of the variety is average, the flowering time is late. The variety has good immunity to scab and fruit rot. High early maturity compared to other varieties of pears - in the third and fourth year after planting, you can count on the first harvest. There is no self-pollination ability. The best pollinators for Moskvichka are pears of the varieties Lyubimitsa Yakovleva and Bergamot Moskovsky.
Muscovite pear for autumn consumption - depending on the season, the fruits ripen from the beginning to the end of September. Fruit shedding is weak. The yield is stable, average. One tree gives about 35 kilograms of fruit; on an industrial scale, the average yield is 126.5 kg / ha. Fruits are stored for 25-30 days, and according to VNIISPK (All-Russian Institute for Breeding of Fruit Crops), at a temperature of 0 ° C they can be stored for up to 80-100 days, transportability is average.
Fruits are round-shirokokonicheskie and broadly ovate of irregular size. The average weight of one fruit is 130 grams. Skin color when removed is greenish-yellow, with many small, pronounced subcutaneous dots. Quite a strong rustiness is often present, sometimes there is a weak, barely noticeable blush. The skin is thin, dense, oily. The pulp is yellowish-white, juicy, semi-oily, fine-grained. The taste is sour-sweet, pleasant, with a strong pear aroma. The presentation of the fruit is excellent, the purpose is universal, the variety is of commercial interest.
The color of the peel of a Moskvichka pear when taken is greenish-yellow, with many small, pronounced subcutaneous dots
Planting pear varieties Moskvichka
A pear will grow well and bear fruit abundantly only if favorable conditions are created for it. Pears of any kind will thrive on a small southern or southwestern slope, sheltered from the north or northeast from cold winds. Such protection can be tall trees, a fence or a building wall. It is necessary to plant a pear at some distance from these barriers so that it does not end up in deep shade. The pear loves the sun and will bloom only in good light. In swampy places and in places with a close location of groundwater, the pear will not grow - it has a great tendency to damp roots and stems. The soil should be loose and well-drained. In terms of composition, soils rich in humus are better suited; on poor sandy and sandy loam soils, a pear can only be grown by making large planting holes (1–1.5 m3) volumes filled with a fertile nutrient mixture. The acidity of soils should be in the range of pH 5.5–6, or pH 4.2–4.4, but on alkaline pears the pear is sick and cannot grow. The distance between adjacent trees in a row should be kept within 4–4.5 meters, and the distance between rows should not be less than 5 meters. With such a planting scheme, good ventilation and illumination of tree crowns will be achieved, as well as conditions for ease of maintenance and harvesting will be created.
The distance between adjacent trees in a row should be kept within 4–4.5 meters, and the distance between rows should not be less than 5 meters
In the regions for which the Moscow pear is zoned, only early spring planting of seedlings is acceptable. Trees planted in autumn, as a rule, do not have time to take root and get stronger - as a result, they cannot survive the winter and die. In the spring, they choose a time when the sap flow has not yet begun, but the soil has already warmed up enough and the buds are about to start growing. When planting, seedlings should be in a dormant state.
Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted at any time - from April to October.
Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted at any time - from April to October
Experienced gardeners do not postpone the purchase of seedlings until spring. They know that the best choice of planting material is in the fall. At this time, fruit nurseries are massively digging out seedlings for sale, and in the spring they will sell what is left from the fall. The main criteria for choosing a seedling are the age and condition of the root system. The recommended age is one to two years. At an older age, trees take root less well and later begin to bear fruit. This rule does not apply to seedlings with a closed root system. The roots of the seedling should be well developed, without outgrowths and cones. On trunks and branches, the bark should be smooth, healthy, without cracks or damage.
The root system of the seedling must be well developed, without outgrowths and cones
The seedling should be dug in the garden until spring so that it is well preserved. This simple process is as follows:
- They dig a small hole in the ground about a meter long and 0.3–0.4 meters deep.
- A layer of sand is poured at the bottom.
- The roots of the seedling are dipped in a solution of mullein and clay with the consistency of liquid sour cream (the so-called talker) and slightly dried. This coating will prevent the roots from drying out.
- Lay the seedling obliquely. The roots are placed on the sand, and the top on the edge of the pit.
- The roots are covered with sand and watered with water.
- When the cold comes, the pit is covered with earth to the top, leaving only the top of the tree on the surface.
The seedling should be dug in the garden until spring so that it is well preserved.
You can also store the seedling in the basement at temperatures from 0 to +5 ° C, creating a moist environment for the roots.
The planting hole should also be prepared in the fall. This is an important step and should be taken seriously. Of course, if planting is carried out on humus-rich chernozems, then the issue of the quality of the planting pit is not relevant. But as a rule, such conditions are rare. Therefore, you need to do this:
- They dig a hole 70–80 centimeters deep. The diameter can be 80-100 centimeters. On sandy soils, these dimensions are made even larger. If the top layers of the soil are fertile, they can be set aside for later use.
- On heavy soils, drainage should be arranged. To do this, a layer of crushed stone, gravel or broken brick is poured onto the bottom of the pit. The layer thickness is 10-15 centimeters. On sandy soils, instead of drainage, a layer of clay is laid to retain water.
- Prepare a nutrient mixture. To do this, take black soil (you can use the fertile soil deposited when digging a hole), peat, humus and sand. These components are taken in approximately equal parts. Then add 300-400 grams of superphosphate, 3-4 liters of wood ash and mix well.
- The pit is filled with a nutrient mixture to the top and covered with roofing material or a film so that the melt water does not wash out the nutrients.
The pit is filled to the top with nutrient mixture
Step-by-step instructions for planting a Moskvichka pear
When the due time comes, they start planting pears:
- They take the seedling out of the storage area and examine it. If there are damaged and dried roots, cut them out.
- The roots are soaked in water for several hours with the addition of Heteroauxin, Kornevin, Epin or another stimulator of growth and root formation.
- The planting hole is opened and part of the soil is removed from it so that a hole of sufficient size is formed in the center for the root system of the seedling to be located in it.
- At 10-12 centimeters from the center, a wooden stake is driven in (a metal pipe or rod can be used) with a height equal to one meter above ground level.
- An earthen mound is poured and a seedling is placed on it, placing the root collar on the top, and straightening the roots along the slopes.
- Then they fill the hole with the taken out nutrient mixture to the top, while trying to tamp it in layers.
- After filling and tamping, the root collar of the seedling should be 3-5 centimeters above the soil level. In the future, after watering, the soil will settle and the root collar will drop to ground level - this is how it should be.
The root collar should be at ground level
- Next, you need to form a near-trunk circle by raking with a hoe or flat cutter an earthen roller along the diameter of the planting pit.
- The tree trunk is tied to the peg with elastic material in the form of a figure of eight.
- They moisten the soil well so that it adheres tightly to the roots and does not leave air sinuses in it.
After planting the seedling, the soil is well moistened so that it adheres tightly to the roots and does not leave air sinuses in it
- After a while, when the soil dries up, it is loosened and mulched with hay, humus, rotted sawdust, etc.
- The central conductor is cut to a height of 60–80 centimeters, and the branches are shortened by half.
Features of growing and subtleties of care
Of course, in order to grow any tree, you need to make some effort. Pear Moskvichka will not require something extraordinary in her care. For its cultivation, it is quite enough to have standard knowledge of agricultural technology of fruit crops.
This important step in the care of the pear consists in regular watering to ensure constant soil moisture in the root zone. Usually, watering is started in the spring if precipitation at this time is not frequent enough. As a rule, the pear is first watered before flowering, and then during the season at intervals of 3-4 weeks. The amount of water consumed in this case should be sufficient to moisten the soil of the trunk circle to a depth of 25–35 centimeters. Often, gardeners, having loosened the soil after the first watering, mulch it with hay, humus, rotted sawdust, sunflower husks, etc. Subsequently, they water the tree through a layer of this mulch, without undertaking additional loosening of the soil. It is convenient, saves time and effort. Only sometimes you need to monitor the condition of the mulch, because slugs, beetles and other pests can collect in it. Having found them, you should collect and destroy them. It is advisable to free the trunk circle from mulch and dry it. Mulching can be resumed the next time you water. Not forgetting about the tendency of pears to dry out the roots and trunk, you should protect them with an earthen roller from direct contact with water during watering.
The soil after watering is mulched
Feeding is an equally important step in the care. After all, if the pear does not have enough food or water, it often simply throws off the ovaries or fruits. Therefore, after three to four years after planting (until this time, there is still enough nutrition laid in the planting pit), additional fertilization is started.
Table: when and with what pears are fertilized
This is the third in the list, but not in importance, stage of pear care.
Shaping the crown of a pear Moskvichka
Due to the average height of the tree, it is better to form the crown of the Moskvichka like an improved bowl. This method allows you to better illuminate the inside of the crown and create good ventilation. It also makes care and harvesting easier. It is easier to carry out such a formation than a sparse-tiered one. Even a novice gardener can do this if he follows the following instructions:
- We remind you that the first shaping step is performed when planting a seedling, as described above.
- 1-2 years after planting, in early spring before the onset of sap flow, 3-4 strong branches are chosen on the trunk. They should be 15–20 centimeters apart and grow in different directions. These branches will become skeletal. They are cut to a third of the length.
- All remaining branches are cut into a ring.
- The center conductor is cut over the base of the upper skeletal branch.
- After another one or two years, when the skeletal branches begin to grow, you should select two branches of the second order on each of them. The distance between them should be within 50-60 centimeters. They are shortened by 50%, and the remaining branches that have grown on skeletal ones are removed in the same way on the ring.
- In other years, the length of the branches is maintained at approximately the same level. It should not be allowed that any of them began to dominate and take on the role of a central conductor - this sometimes happens.
It is better to form a Moskvichka crown in the form of an improved bowl
The Muscovite is prone to excessive thickening. Because of this feature, it requires frequent thinning of the crown. Most likely, this will have to be done every spring. At the same time, part of the branches growing inside the crown is cut out, creating good ventilation and illumination. But at the same time, you should know when to stop - excessive pruning deprives part of the crop, since flower buds are also located on the inner branches.
Video: method of pruning pears by Dmitry Reznikov
Supportive pruning is required to keep fruiting at the proper level. In the summer, during the period of increased growth of young shoots, they are shortened by 5-10 centimeters, which leads to the appearance of additional overgrowing branches on them. It is on such branches that flower buds are laid, which give a crop. This relatively simple method gives good results, but more experienced gardeners use another method, which consists in replacing the fruit-bearing shoots with replacement shoots. This method is widely used when pruning grapes.
Experienced gardeners use a method that consists in replacing the sprouted shoots with replacement shoots
This simplest type of pruning involves removing dry, diseased and damaged branches. It is carried out in late autumn, after the sap flow has stopped. If necessary, repeat early in the spring.
Rules for pruning
These rules apply to all types of trimming. They should be observed so as not to harm the tree.
- It is necessary to use only sharpened tools (secateurs, loppers, knives, saws).
- When performing work, the tool must be disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate (you can use hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, etc.). You cannot use refined products for this - gasoline, kerosene, solvent, etc.
- When cutting off branches entirely, twigs or hemp should not be left - later they will become a source of infections.
- When removing thick branches, you need to do it in parts, in several steps.
- All sections are cleaned with a sharp knife and covered with garden var. This rule can be omitted for twigs with a diameter of less than ten millimeters.
When choosing a garden var, you should not dwell on one that contains petrolatum or other refined products. Experienced gardeners point out that this is harmful to the plant.There are formulations based on beeswax, lanolin and other biological materials - and they should be preferred.
Diseases and pests - the main representatives, prevention and control methods
By performing simple preventive measures, you can avoid damage to almost all known diseases and pests of pear trees.
It is easier to regularly carry out sanitary and preventive work in the garden than to deal with the effects of fungal infections or insect attacks. The list of such works includes:
- Keeping the garden area clean. After the end of the leaf fall, all fallen leaves, weeds, and other plant debris are necessarily raked into a heap. There is no doubt that such a heap will contain insect pests that have settled down for the winter, as well as fungal spores. Therefore, such a heap is burned without regret, while receiving a certain amount of ash, which is an excellent fertilizer.
- Before leaving for the winter, you should inspect the bark of trees. If cracks and damage are found, they should be cleaned and cut to healthy wood. After that, treat with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and cover with a layer of garden varnish.
- And also before going into winter, trunks and thick branches are whitewashed with a solution of slaked lime with the addition of 1% copper sulfate. You can use special garden paints available on the market instead. This whitewash protects the bark from sunburn and prevents pests from moving along it.
- They dig deep into the soil of the trunk circles, doing this before the onset of frost. In this case, overwintering pests raised from the lower layers of the soil should die from the cold.
- Then the soil and the crown of the tree are treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture. The same treatment is carried out in early spring.
- To prevent caterpillars, ants, weevils and other insects from entering the crown, in early spring a trapping belt made of a strip of roofing material, film, burlap, etc., is reinforced on the tree trunk.
- At the same time, they are treated with potent pesticides. DNOC is used once every three years. In other years, Nitrafen is used.
- When the pear has faded, preventive spraying with systemic fungicides is started. They are carried out at intervals of 2-3 weeks. Such treatments are especially important after rains, when there is high humidity, which creates favorable conditions for fungi. They use drugs such as Skor, Horus, Quadris, Ridomil Gold and others. It is necessary to remember about the addiction of fungi to drugs. After three treatments with one drug, its effectiveness decreases, so they should be alternated.
Like other fruit crops, pears are most susceptible to fungal diseases. As indicated in the description of the variety, Moskvichka is resistant to scab and fruit rot, but the likelihood of a disease is not excluded. For control and prevention, the drugs shown in the table above are used.
This disease is caused by a fungus, the spores of which usually end up in the flowers on the bees' legs during nectar collection. It is clear that flowers are affected first. The fungus then spreads to the shoots and leaves. The affected parts of the plant wilt and turn black. From the outside, it looks like frostbite or burns. Due to this similarity, this disease received a second name - monilial burn. If such signs are found, the affected shoots are cut out first and destroyed. At the same time, they capture 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood - the fungus could already have advanced there. In summer, the fungus infects pear fruits with gray fruit rot. Such fruits are harvested and destroyed.
In summer, moniliosis affects pear fruits with gray rot.
A symptom of this disease is the appearance of olive-colored spots on the leaves of the pear. When the fruit is damaged, putrefactive spots are formed, the skin cracks, the pulp becomes hard. Such fruits are no longer suitable for food. The affected leaves and fruits should be collected and destroyed.
When pear fruits are damaged, putrefactive spots are formed, the skin cracks, the pulp becomes hard
The appearance of a black, soot-like coating on the leaves and fruits of the pear is a symptom of this disease. But usually this is preceded by an aphid attack. Aphids, in the process of their vital activity, release a sweet liquid, which becomes a breeding ground for the sooty fungus.
The appearance of a black, soot-like coating on the leaves and fruits of the pear is a sign of a sooty fungus.
Without the preventive measures described above, pest damage is very likely. For the prevention and control of insects, insecticides are used, for example, Decis, Fufanon, Iskra, Iskra Bio and others.
These small insects are carried onto the crown by ants, which, like the sooty fungus, love to feast on its sweet secretions. Therefore, by creating obstacles for ants and other insects to enter the crown of a tree, the gardener will save the pear from being damaged by aphids and not only.
Aphids are carried on the tree by ants
Caterpillars of the moth moth will not be able to crawl onto a tree if its trunk is whitewashed and a hunting belt is installed on it. Caterpillars that have penetrated the crown gnaw the fruits and crawl into them to feed on the tender pulp. At this time, the fight against them will no longer bring an effect.
Caterpillars of the moth hatch from eggs laid by a butterfly in the soil
Pear flower beetle
This weevil beetle hibernates in the soil and in early spring, when the ground begins to warm up, crawls out and climbs the trunk to the crown (if whitewash and a trapping belt do not interfere with it). Then the beetles begin to eat away flower buds and flowers. If the gardener found yellowed flowers and shriveled buds - most likely, it was the pear flower beetle who worked. In early spring, when in the morning the air temperature does not exceed +5 ° C, flower beetles sit on branches in a state of numbness. At this time, you can simply shake them off onto a pre-laid fabric or film.
The pear flower beetle hibernates in the soil and in early spring, when the earth begins to warm up, crawls out and rises along the trunk to the crown
The Moskvichka pear variety has a number of advantages, thanks to which it has earned popularity among amateur gardeners. It enjoys no less interest among farmers, who are attracted by yield, keeping quality and relatively good transportability of fruits. It may well be recommended for cultivation, if there are favorable conditions for this.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Each pear variety differs not only in characteristics related to the fruit, but they have different characteristics of trees and requirements for growing conditions. The Muscovite has a number of its characteristics, these include:
- high tree, about 4 m, conical crown, well leafy
- the stem and skeletal branches have a gray bark, young shoots are brown
- leaves are oval, small in size, curved in the center, the surface of the leaf is smooth, and the edges are jagged
- pears are wide, the average weight of one fruit is from 100 to 120 g, the skin of the fruit is rough, at the stage of ripeness, yellow-green color without blush, not prone to crumbling
- the flesh of pears is dense, white in color, has a good aroma and taste, semi-oily
- Muscovite belongs to dessert varieties
- pears have a good presentation, transportability and keeping quality
- the plant is early-growing, the first harvest can be harvested already 3-4 years after planting
- the variety is high-yielding and gives a stable harvest every year
- the tree blooms late, which allows you to save flowers and ovaries from frost
- the plant is resistant to scab and fruit rot
- this variety is self-fertile and needs other pollinator varieties to produce a crop. They are planted 5-7 meters from Moskvichka, such varieties as Marble, Otradnenskaya, Lada, Lyubimitsa Yakovleva, Bergamot Moskovsky, Nadyadnaya Efimova are suitable for pollination
- trees have insufficient winter hardiness and require preparation for winter, suitable for growing in regions with a temperate continental climate
- a variety of early autumn ripening, the first fruits can be harvested from the beginning of September.
Breeding history of the variety
The Muscovite pear was bred by breeders S. T. Chizhov and S. P. Potapov from the Agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazev in the last quarter of the last century. These specialists in the process of selection made free pollination of the old American Kieffer pear.
This method most often gives unpredictable results, but this time a wonderful pear variety was bred, called Moskvichka - after the name of the region in which it was recommended to grow. From the parent variety, the pear received an early onset of fruiting and a high yield, and the taste and resistance to frost in Moskvichka turned out to be even better than that of Kieffer's.
Although the Moskvichka variety was bred in the 80s of the last century, it was added to the State Register of Russia only in 2001. Initially, it was recommended to grow this fruit tree only in the Moscow region, but later it was successfully grown on their garden plots by summer residents in the Middle Volga, Volgo-Vyatka and Central regions.
Winter-hardy pear variety "Marble"
This variety is popular not only for its winter-hardy characteristics, but also for its noble fruits, which have a beautiful regular shape, a shade of green, but at the same time there is a juicy pulp inside. It is noteworthy, but this variety is considered very practical, since it easily tolerates frost, drought, and is also practically not affected by scab. The only requirement will be systematic watering.