Perennial onions in the garden: vitamins and beauty
In the onion family, which includes several hundred varieties, there are many perennial onions. They are very diverse: some are grown only for greens, while others use bulbs for food. It is easier to care for perennial onions, if only because they are planted once every few years, and harvesting, as a rule, is carried out constantly throughout the garden season.
Distinctive features of perennial onions, features, advantages and disadvantages
The variety of perennial onions is amazing: if the shallots look like turnip onions, then the batun is grown only for the sake of vitamin greens. Chives are often considered only decorative, although they have tasty leaves. A tiered bow forms airy bulbs. Slime onions taste a bit like garlic. But with all the diversity, the species of perennial onions have a lot in common. He, as a rule, not only supplies vitamin products throughout the season, but also decorates the site. And it is often not necessary to plant it.
It is the peculiarity of perennial onions to live for a long time in one garden bed and often yield a crop that made it very popular with gardeners. Of course, marketable yields can only be obtained with proper planting and systematic elementary care, but busy summer residents receive the necessary amount of vitamin leaves, even forgetting that the onions need to be watered, fertilized, etc.
Perennial onions are very hardy and almost never freeze out in winter. Many species can withstand frosts down to -40 aboutC, growing back in the spring, as if nothing had happened. This onion is easy to propagate: some types of seeds, others with bulbs, and others by dividing the bush. Onions are rich in vitamins and other healthy substances: microelements and amino acids, and contain phytoncides that kill pathogens.
The green onion crop appears one of the first in the garden. The feather can be cut off gradually, or, for commercial purposes, in several steps per season. Such onions are planted at home, including for winter harvests. Perennial onions have almost no drawbacks. Well, except that most species do not have the usual turnip, and they are used only for greens. In addition, without systematic weeding, perennial onions manage to overgrow with weeds over the years of their life. In general, the popularity of perennial onions among gardeners can hardly be overestimated.
Video: a variety of perennial bows
Types and varieties of perennial onions
The known types of perennial onions differ significantly from each other, many of them are very easy to distinguish from others.
Batun is probably the most common in our country. In an adult onion, the leaves are large, dark green, very similar to the leaves of the usual onion. There are no bulbs, the feathery false bulb is not used for food. Feathers begin to grow back soon after the snow melts. The batun is propagated by seeds and dividing the bush. To get the harvest very early, the bed is sometimes covered with a film. It grows on one bed for at least 5-6 years, then it starts to cause too many worries, and it is transplanted. In the northern regions, it is planted in greenhouses, in cities - on balconies.
The batun has powerful stems, and he himself grows into a large bush in several years
Of the existing subspecies (Russian winter, Japanese, etc.), the most cold-resistant is Russian. It can withstand frosts down to -30 without the slightest shelter. aboutC, and a feather in the spring - a decrease in temperature to -8 aboutC. Roots spreads deep and far, so it can do without watering for a long time.
Batun is widely used in medicine, including Chinese medicine.
There are many varieties of batun, but the differences between them are insignificant. They are all suitable for any climate. The most popular are:
- Long Tokyo;
The slime has brittle, flat leaves that resemble those of garlic, but are fleshy and juicy. The taste is softer than the taste of other onions, it is not very sharp. Greens can be harvested until the beginning of flowering, and if you break out the arrows in time, then until severe frosts. It can grow both in the sun and in the shade, but more than a batun needs watering: it does not have such long roots. It easily fills the entire area provided, practically does not need to reproduce: it is only important to limit its ability to conquer new territories. The first crop in the middle lane can be obtained already at the end of April.
The slime has flat leaves and amazing vitality.
There are significantly fewer varieties of the slime; one of the most famous is Green, which produces very large leaves with a garlic scent. For one cut from 1 m2 you can get up to 6 kg of feathers. Resistant to the vagaries of the weather. In addition to him, the Leader variety has been known for a long time, several more varieties were bred quite recently.
A very interesting plant: unlike most types of perennial onions, both leaves and bulbs are suitable for food, although they are very small. So, basal bulbs can be carefully separated from the bush, and air bulbs are formed as the feather grows where the inflorescences should be. Their size is usually no more than 2 cm. If you do not pluck the air bulbs, leaves also develop from them, which give a new tier, and so on, up to 4 tiers. True, the use of bulbs for food is not massive due to their small size, but it is with air bulbs that onions reproduce, including independently.
Not everyone loves a multi-tiered bow: in the garden it does not always look aesthetically pleasing.
The first leaves of a multi-tiered onion grow back even before the leaves of the batun. This bow is often planted on balconies. In the State Register of the Russian Federation, only three varieties are recorded: Likova (1987) and the relatively new Pamyat and Chelyabinsk. The taste of the leaves in the Likov variety is semi-sharp, in others it is sharp.
Schnitt-bow (aka - speed, chisel, sibulet)
Chive leaves begin to grow under the snow. They are very narrow, so densely arranged that even when cutting, the bundle does not tend to disintegrate. The crop tolerates transportation well. The first harvest of this onion must be removed almost completely, since it blooms very early, and during flowering it is a pity to touch this beauty.
Chives thickets are very decorative
Chives are often grown for decorative purposes, producing a rug of pink-purple dyes.
In general, during the season, the leaves are cut three times, but the most desirable ones are the first ones, the May ones. Translated from German, shnitt is cut off. Unfortunately, growing this onion in one place for more than three years is impractical: long, up to half a meter, roots grow into sod, consume all nutrients, and yield decreases. The Alpine variety of onion is less frost-resistant, the Siberian one never freezes. The smallest bulbs are edible, but only feathers, which contain many trace elements, are used for food. Among the varieties of chives, the most famous are:
- Honey plant;
Shallot is considered a type of onion, its small onions ripen a couple of weeks earlier than the earliest varieties of onions and are not so pungent in taste. However, compared to onions, shallots provide much more greenery, for which they are mainly grown. Bulbs, like garlic, are made up of small cloves, which is why shallots are also called shrike. Most often, it is propagated with its teeth. Shallot is a conditionally perennial onion: it can grow without transplanting for several years, but it is usually grown in the form of a two-year culture.
Shallots are well defined, although small
More than thirty varieties of shallots are known, for example:
- Vitamin basket;
Somewhat less popular are such types of perennial onions as oblique and fragrant. Oblique onions (ukun, mountain garlic) are rarely planted in the garden; they are found in the wild and resemble garlic or slime onions. It is a good seasoning for various dishes, but its foliage becomes tough very quickly. Two varieties are registered in the State Register: Giant and Novichok; for both, only one leaf cut is recommended, at the end of spring.
Oblique onion looks like garlic
Scented onions are native to China. Its leaves remain tender for a long time, they also have a garlic aroma, are not pungent. Up to the shooting, which happens in August, the leaves of allspice are cut in small portions. About a dozen varieties are known (Witch Doctor, Fragrant, Piquant, etc.), they all bloom very beautifully, which is also used for design purposes.
Fragrant onions (jusai) are added to pies as a filling
Altai, blushing and Aflatun bows are even less common.
Altai onion is listed in the Red Book of Russia
Features of growing perennial onions
A feature of the agrotechnology of perennial onions is that it is rarely necessary to plant it, and care for it is minimal. But without leaving at all, the yield of any type of onion drops sharply, even in optimal climatic conditions.
Planting and transplanting
Some varieties of onions are sown with seeds, others are planted with bulbs, but the approach to preparing the site is the same in all cases. The garden bed is prepared in the same way as for ordinary onions, but taking into account the fact that the planting is carried out for several years. Onions can be grown after almost any crop. Most types of onions love to grow in the sun, but in those regions where the sun beats down mercilessly, it is better to find a place where they will be in the shade during the hottest time of planting.
It is very good if carrots are planted next to the onions: these vegetables save each other from pests (carrot and onion flies).
The garden bed is prepared in advance, carefully destroying all weeds, especially perennial ones. Clay soils must be corrected with sand, acidic soils are lime. As fertilizer per 1 m2 the beds take a bucket of compost or humus and a good handful of wood ash. Mineral fertilizers (superphosphate and potassium sulfate) are less desirable. Shortly before sowing, passing through the garden with a rake, add about 15 g of urea or ammonium nitrate.
The seeds of all perennial onions are rather small, in appearance they are the same nigella as that of onions. Their germination is quickly lost, so one- or two-year-old seeds are sown. Most varieties and species are sown in late autumn or early spring. Sowing at the end of July is also possible, but it is better not to touch the feathers that grow by autumn. Seeds are prepared for sowing in the usual way: it is advisable to disinfect them in potassium permanganate and soak before sowing, although dry seeds can also be sown. Soaking for a day, especially with the use of bubbling, greatly facilitates germination.
In all onions, the seeds are similar to each other and are formed from the same type of inflorescence.
Seeds are sown in furrows shed by water to a depth of 2.5 cm, after which the bed must be mulched. If there are a lot of seeds, they are sown thickly, and then the emerging seedlings are thinned out. Between furrows - about 30 cm. Although, if you intend to keep the onion in one place for only 2-3 years, you can use more frequent planting. The same applies to thinning: between the plants they leave from 5 to 10 cm, and then, depending on the expected growing period, the distance can be increased.
Layered onions and shallots are planted with onions (shallots - both with a whole onion and with individual cloves). Planting them is no different from planting a set of onions we are used to. Usually they are planted in late summer or early September, before winter, the bulbs have time to take root. Planting depth - 3-4 cm, the distance between the bulbs from 10 to 15 cm, depending on the variety and purpose.
Almost all types of perennial onions can be propagated by dividing the bush, and this procedure rather fits the term transplant. When the onions become overgrown with weeds and deplete the soil, yields are significantly reduced, the healthiest bushes are carefully dug up and cut into pieces by hand or with a sharp, clean knife. It is better to do this in spring or autumn. For most species, an adult bush can be divided into 8-10 pieces. The roots are slightly pruned, and the leaves are also shortened, leaving 6-10 cm each.
When the bushes grow and begin to interfere with themselves, they are transplanted
The resulting fragments are immediately transplanted to a new fertilized bed at exactly the same depth as they grew before, observing the optimal distances. The growth point cannot be covered with soil! They water the soil well, and if winter is ahead, then mulch with humus or peat.
Video: onion-batun transplant
The main operations in the cultivation of perennial onions are watering, feeding, weeding, loosening the soil. Despite the variety of species, there are uniform care requirements that are fair in the vast majority of cases.
The soil under the onions should be kept slightly moist. Perennial onions will also withstand short-term waterlogging (there is no need to protect it from prolonged rains), but you do not need to specially fill the garden bed. The onion tolerates prolonged drought normally, but the quality of the feather deteriorates sharply: it coarsens, becomes unsuitable for eating. In normal weather conditions, the onion is watered about 1 time a week with a bucket of water for 1 m2, you can and cold water.
If the crop is harvested not constantly, but in several steps over the summer, they try to water the garden well 2-3 weeks before the feather is cut.
After watering, they try to loosen the soil, but after a while the bushes close up, it becomes difficult to do this, and they try to maintain soil moisture with the help of mulch. Weeds are constantly being destroyed. Top dressing is rarely carried out, but they are especially needed after a massive harvest. In the first year after planting, use mullein infusion (1:10) and ash. Subsequently, the mullein is diluted more, and ash is given in unlimited quantities. They use little mineral fertilizers, but if the onion stops growing intensively, they feed it with urea (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
Fertilizer solutions are usually applied from a watering can
Under normal care conditions, perennial onions rarely get sick, but sometimes they are attacked by pests. The most common diseases are peronosporosis and rust. The use of chemicals on perennials is undesirable, because the pen is used constantly. But in the case of the development of diseases, you have to cut and destroy the leaves, and treat the plants with at least Bordeaux liquid.
Among the pests are dangerous onion fly, tobacco thrips and onion lurker. You can also be saved from them with folk remedies. Sprinkling mustard powder on the beds repels pests, and tobacco broth works in the same way. In general, correct agricultural technology and the absence of weeds are the main conditions for the absence of pests in the beds.
Harvesting and storage
Most perennial onions are grown for their vitamin-rich greens. It can be cut either constantly little by little, or several times over the summer, almost completely. Full cutting is most often possible once a month. To prolong fruiting, you need to break out the flower arrows as they emerge. If several feathers are needed, they are simply plucked. For mass cutting, scissors are used, the leaves are cut off at the very soil. The last cut is carried out a month before the onset of severe cold weather.
Perennial onion leaves are stored in a refrigerator, in a loosely closed plastic bag. The feather is stored for a little over a week, but for longer use, the leaves can be frozen. Thawed onions are suitable for salads and for preparing various dishes.
Perennial onions are grown mainly for the sake of greenery, sometimes they are used to decorate flower beds. It is easy to care for such a bow, and, despite the variety of species and varieties, the basic approaches are the same.
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Chives - the ideal crop for personal subsidiary plots
The first feathers of chives appear immediately after the snow melts. Green and juicy, delicate and pungent in taste, they give our winter-hungry body a vitamin boost. In the period when neither sorrel, nor rhubarb, nor even dandelions have sprung up yet, chives become a real savior from vitamin deficiency. And in the middle of summer, he puts on elegant purple hats and pleases us again with his simple fragrant beauty. It is very easy to get these vitamins and beauty.
Perennial bows - types
Batun - beam on beam
Batun among perennial bows is one of the most popular.
It is also called winter, Russian or Siberian. By the end of the first year of life, the plant forms small clumps of 3-5 branches. Further, every year the bushes grow and can have from 30 to 60 branches. However, already in the 3-4th year, the yield decreases, the leaves become coarse, the plant begins to shoot at an earlier date.
The first feathers of this bow appear immediately after the snow melts. For the whole season, 3-4 crops can be harvested from the garden with good care. Early cuts do not harm the batun (if after them the plantings are fed, watered, loosened). Within a month, the plants grow so much that they cannot be distinguished from those on which cutting was not carried out.
In summer, you need to make sure that the onion does not bloom. All peduncles are cut with a sharp knife.
By winter, the arrows of the onion wither. They must be removed, because pests can hibernate in them.
In household plots, the onion is most often propagated by dividing the bush. This is best done in summer, after flowering. With this planting, the first crop can be harvested as early as next spring. If you sow onions with seeds in mid-June, the harvest will be in the second year.
The green feather of the baton usually stays tender and tasty until it starts throwing out arrows. Therefore, in recent years, I began to grow it through sowing nigella. I will spend it in two terms.
In March - April, as soon as the soil permits, I sow very densely, then the leaves are softer. I start harvesting from the end of July, thinning the plants and pulling them out entirely. If I do not have time to pull out all the bushes before frost and some of them remain before winter, in the spring I cover the plantings with foil. As soon as the feather grows well, I dig them up by the roots.
In July, then the plants leave in the winter in the phase of 3-4 leaves. In the spring, I select the largest ones and plant them on a separate bed in cut furrows at a distance of 15 cm from each other, burying them into the soil along the leaves. As soon as new ones grow, I huddle. And so three times over the summer. Watering the plantings, I always add herbal infusion to the water. I pull out the bushes entirely with a bleached thick juicy leg, almost like a leek.
With this accelerated growth, hybrids work well. Parade F1, Performer F1, Green Banner F1... With the "long-playing", early-maturing varieties showed themselves well Russian winter and Welsh... Hybrids without shelter can freeze out in winter.
Keep in mind
If you plan to grow onion in one place for 3-4 years, you should not sow seeds in early spring. This practically does not accelerate the receipt of products, but in the next season the number of shooting plants increases significantly.
Slime - a perennial onion for a children's garden
Slime onion is a squat herbaceous perennial with succulent, flat, wide leaves. If you cut them, then they secrete a viscous transparent viscous mucus, which, obviously, gave the name to this type of onion. Blooms in the second year. Before flowering, the umbrella "looks" down. As soon as the first soft lilac flowers begin to open, the arrow straightens.
Despite the fact that the cultivation of a slime does not present any particular difficulties, it is quite rare in our gardens. And it is clearly not able to compete in terms of popularity with the batun onion. However, it is worth having at least a few such onion plants on the site!
Slime onion is especially valuable because it contains large quantities of mineral salts of iron, manganese, potassium, zinc, molybdenum, nickel, as well as essential oil. Therefore, it is very useful for anemia. At the same time, the taste of its leaves is pleasant, slightly pungent, with a slight garlic-onion smell. Children eat them with pleasure. The leaves remain juicy and tender for almost the entire growing season.
The more often you cut the leaves of the slime onion (after] 2-2.5 weeks), the softer they will be.
The slime bush has been growing in one place for more than seven years and now occupies an area of about half a meter. I cut it off in bunches together with a piece of rhizome, in this case it quickly gives new young shoots. And the bush does not thicken so much.
For the winter I sprinkle it with a bucket of humus. This, in general, is the whole care. Even the weeds, he survives himself (except for dandelions).
I do not use slime for winter distillation. He has a powerful root system, very little greenery is obtained from one pot. You can't beat off a beautiful border from it. Although this onion blooms very beautifully, giving out large purple balls on thin arrows, its "thickets" are rare. But on the site it can live even in the most extreme conditions.
Read more about growing slime onions here
Choosing the best varieties of onions
To simplify the choice of onions, experienced gardeners recommend taking into account the growing season, favorable areas for growing, and the taste of the fruit.
By ripening period
The division by ripening periods is arbitrary, when choosing a plant, you can focus on the growing season:
- early varieties form a bulb 90-110 days after germination. Popular: onion Red Harrow, Karatalsky, Carmen, April Batun
- in mid-season varieties, the growing season is 105-120 days. Famous types of onions are Shakespeare, Globus, Chalcedony, Baia Verde batun, Russian winter.
- Late onion (Kaba, Dzhusay, Globo) ripens in 120-145 days after sprouting.
Depending on the region of cultivation
Conventionally, you can divide the onion into several groups that are better suited for planting in regions with certain climatic features.
In the Kuban, you can start planting onions from mid-April. Plants are planted with different ripening periods: Centurion, Troy, Red Baron, Elan.
In the Moscow region, a suitable period for sowing onions is the end of April. Early and mid-season Sturon, Hercules, Orion are widespread.
Onions are planted in Siberia and the Urals in early May. Annual Siberian, Timiryazevsky, Stuttgarter are in demand.
Selection of varieties to taste
Depending on the taste, the bulbs are divided into three types: spicy, semi-sharp, sweet:
- spicy varieties include early ripening. The bulbs are keeping quality because they are covered with several layers of dense peel. The fruits contain a large amount of essential oils, therefore they are very smelling. Disadvantage - low yield
- semi-sharp bulbs have a loose flesh. The yield is higher than that of the early spicy varieties. This species belongs to the mid-ripening - the fruits ripen longer
- sweet varieties stand out for their high yields. Turnips are used for making salads. Minus - onions are poorly preserved for a long time.
In the southern regions, sweet varieties are most often planted (names - Exhibishen, Comet F1, Campillo). For the cultivation of acute and peninsular varieties (Strigunovsky local, Sturon, Centurion F1), the climate of the middle zone and northern regions is suitable.
The most productive varieties
An important characteristic is the yield. There are several varieties that are in demand in different regions.
The bulbs of the early ripening Stuttgarter Riesen ripen, weighing up to 90 g, have a flattened shape. A rich taste with moderate pungency is a characteristic of the golden brown bulbs. The yield is stable - 30-35 kg from a garden with an area of 10 sq. M.
Yukont forms purple-crimson bulbs in a semicircular shape. Fruits weighing up to 100 g have a spicy pungent taste. From a plot of 10 sq.m. you can dig up 25-30 kg of turnips.
The yield of Setton onions is high - you can dig about 50 kg from a plot of 10 square meters. Features of a mid-early variety - elongated fruits weighing 150-190 g have a spicy-sweet piquant aftertaste. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases.
The Krasnodar variety remains in demand. The crop is harvested 110-120 days after seed germination. Advantages of the variety - the fruits are of the same size, weight is about 100 g. The white pulp has a pleasant semi-sharp taste. The yield is stable - 20-40 kg from a plot of 10 sq.m. Minus of the variety - in damp weather, plants easily infect fungal diseases.
The popularity of the Spanish 313 variety provides a mild sweetish taste of onions with a slight pungent pungency. Fruits grow with a weight of 170-200 g. This is a late-ripening variety - the growing season is 130-140 days, the yield is about 46 kg from a garden with an area of 10 sq. M. The advantages of the variety include resistance to diseases and low temperatures, and a long shelf life.
When choosing an onion, gardeners should take into account different features: ripening time, resistance to diseases and pests, safety of fruits. If we start from the climatic features of the region, then the choice of the variety is greatly simplified.