Various

Paleozoic

Paleozoic


Paleozoic, the primary era or
the era of ancient life

EVEN LIVING BEINGS HAD THEIR BIG BANG ...

and in a few million years the foundations were laid for the development of so many species that in 500 million years the waters, the land and the air

In the previous months we had seen that the complex of soils that form the substratum of the geological series called Prepaleozoic, initially considered by geologists to be devoid of organic remains, corresponds more or less to the first four billion years of the life of the Earth. This long and monotonous period of time has practically only seen the development of unicellular beings, such as bacteria and plankton and multicellular algae, and then suddenly in a few million years there was the explosion of life with the appearance of complex organisms. as molluscs, arthropods and vertebrate ancestors, which will find their maximum expression in 500 million years with theMan.

But why does nature show these sudden leaps in the course of its Evolution? Because after long periods in which nothing seems to change, the moment arrives suddenly when new species appear that rapidly evolve to reach new genera within a few years, almost like an explosion of vitality and then, with the same rapidity , let us face their extinction?

Today, faced with the sudden disappearance of so many specimens, it is immediately argued that the reasons must be sought in the degradation of the territory, in the greenhouse effects (always existed in the past and often of greater intensity), in the ozone hole, in cosmic events (perhaps more plausible ), etc., linking everything to the reckless activity of man.

But when there was no man to whom to blame, if there was any fault? But in the case of the emergence of new species and the explosive evolution of groups, what to look for the causes? The thrusts must almost certainly be sought within nature itself, more or less facilitated by changes in environmental conditions, but not indispensable. So why not consider the mechanism valid even in the case of the disappearance of specimens? Why exclude an aging of species as there is that of individuals?

Currently not everything is clear as many hypotheses have been formulated by scientists, some very reliable, others on the verge of science fiction. Obviously the more remote are the epochs in which the changes have been noticed, the greater are the uncertainties. For now we limit ourselves to recording the various events in order to then be able to see if there are factors that can justify the greater number of events.

The other great structural event of the Paleozoic was the merger of the emerged lands into a single one Supercontinentsaid Pangea, which extended from the North Pole to the South Pole, consisting of the welding of the Gondwana (Africa, South America, Australia, India, and Antarctica) with the other emerged lands of the globe, which, in the following ages due to theIt comes from the Continents it will break up in the present continents.

The soils of the Paleozoic in the various regions of the Earth lie discordant with those of the Prepaleozoic, which means that movements of great intensity have affected the lithological formations of the Prepaleozoic, as demonstrated by the diffusion of metamorphic and eruptive rocks, linked to several orogenetic cycles, not easily distinguishable from each other, grouped as Caledonian orogeny.

As schematically indicated in the Paleozoic scale this Era has a duration of 300 million years and begins with the Cambrian, which, like the following three periods, takes its name from a place in Great Britain where the Paleozoic is very developed. In it there are a thousand species developed which can be divided into primordial forms of Brachiopods, Echinoderms, Tetracorals and Graptolites, but it is the Trilobites belonging to the Arthropods, which occupy the most predominant place with the 4000 species among the fauna of the time.

Completely extinct during the Paleozoic, the Trilobites should be considered perhaps among the first forms of crustaceans, living on the bottom of the seas.

As a paleogeographic datum, the presence of glacial deposits in China and Australia.

In the following period, that is theOrdovician-Silurian, in addition to the development of the forms already present in the Cambrian, there is an explosion of specimens such as Coelenterates, Brachiopods, Cephalopods, Crustaceans, in particular Tetracorals, but the most important development is linked to Graptolites, colonial organisms belonging to the Stomocordates.

But there are two important events to underline the Explosion of Life and the conquest of environments: the appearance of first land plants very primitive due to the evolution of algae, the remains of which have been found in Australia, and of the first fish belonging to Pteraspidomorphs, extinct in the Silurian-early Devonian. Perhaps some species have been saved from extinction that have evolved to give rise to the current Missinoids, that is, those forms that live in cold waters and at considerable depth.

The first fish were not very gifted for swimming, given the heavy armor they were equipped with and the reduced organs of locomotion.

With the Devonian the evolution of the life forms of the previous periods is accentuated more: the graptolites decline while the armored fish develop and the first Dipnoi (double-breathing specimens) appear, considered ancestors of the Amphibians, with structural transformation of the fins in some fish that with the 'evolution will become the bones of limbs such as scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, carpal and metacarpal, to allow the conquest of the mainland also by the fauna

Nature obviously in the race to conquer the mainland, had to give precedence to the flora in order to create favorable conditions for the invasion by herbivorous animals, which in turn obviously had to precede the entry on the scene of the carnivores.

As for the flora, the first Silurian plants evolved to such an extent that they created peat bogs and forests with relative undergrowth vegetation, a prelude to the environment of the subsequent Carboniferous period.

In the Northern Hemisphere during the Carboniferousa continental and sub-continental environment of equatorial type is established, that is the typical conditions of Serra that terrorize many, allowing the flora, already present in the Devonian, to expand over vast areas. These conditions will no longer repeat themselves in the following ages, at least with such intensity and diffusion. The luxuriant vegetation has allowed the accumulation of vegetable substances, which in particular environmental conditions have turned into hard coal, a precious source of energy pending the use of oil.

The marine fauna continues in its evolution with the extinction of some groups replaced by others more evolved, in particular a further reduction of the Graptolites, whose total disappearance will take place in the Permian.

In the continental environment, the Arthropods and Insects evolve with specimens of considerable size such as Dragonflies with a wingspan of even 1 meter. Among the vertebrates appear the Amphibians and at the end of the period the Reptiles.

With the end of the Paleozoic, the environmental conditions change decidedly and are mainly related to the Hercynian orogeny which began with the Devonian and ended in PermianIt is in relation to said orogeny that the great changes that have led to the most important extinction of groups of plants and animals recorded in the history of. Land.

In particular, many specimens of the flora and fauna that had characterized the Carboniferous are extinguished or considerably diminished. Among the fauna favored by the new environmental conditions are the mainly terrestrial reptiles representing 50% of the orders that will reach their apogee in the Mesozoic.

The two major events of the Paleozoic are the Explosion of Life in the early years ofCambrian and the " massacre " with the Permian of entire families and of those that survived few species were saved. In some cases, the extinction occurred in less than 1,000 years.

But why? In many cases it seems plausible that highly evolved species that had reached a very high specialization no longer had the possibility, in the presence of climatic variations, to adapt to new living conditions, especially if the sources of nourishment had been compromised. What remains more difficult to explain are the cases in which we are dealing with species that could very well have adapted to new conditions. It has been noted that with the disappearance of many species there is an explosion of other species, as if the appearance of the new ones is the cause of the extinction of the previous ones.

It has also been noted that species accustomed to living in warm waters become extinct more rapidly, while those of a cold environment adapt and evolve more rapidly in the event of climatic variations.

These question marks are not only from the Paleozoic, but we will encounter them in all the Ages up to the present day. Probably too much importance has been given to environmental changes or to the aggressiveness of the new species towards the old ones.

As is being demonstrated for Anthropology, the rules of evolution with the relative disappearance of entire groups and the dominance of others, perhaps will be given to us by molecular paleontology, whose studies on the DNA of fossils are just beginning.

In the coming months we will continue with the raids in the geological ages and we will see if there are and how common threads between the various events.

Dr. Pio Petrocchi

(The images reproduced in the article are a reworking of the tables taken from the Geological Treaty by Ramiro Fabiani Ed. 1952)


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La vida en el agua y en la tierra

This era is characterized by a great number of fósiles that demuestran the presence of pluricelular life in a habitable planet. El clima was todavía cálido y húmedo. It favors the proliferation of organisms that fall within the scope of their completion and on posterior evolution.

In a principle, la vida en el mar se hizo muy rica. Los fósiles de la primera mitad del Paleozoico are algunos invertebrados as trilobites, graptolitos, y crinoideos. Los correspondientes a la segunda mitad comprenden algunos fósiles de plantas y de vertebrados, como peces, amphibios y reptiles. La vida animal salió del agua y empezó a colonizar la tierra firme.


El Cámbrico, the explosión de la vida pluricelular

In the Cámbrico period if it produces an authentic explosión de vida, with unos cincuenta grupos de organismos (filos) de los que no se conocen precursores y que, en su mayoría, tampoco evolucionaron hacia ningún filo or especie actual. This is a surprising phenomenon, unique in the history of the Tierra, if you know it as it is cámbrica explosión.

La vida vegetal y animal estaba confinada to los mares. Aparecieron los primeros caracoles y moluscos cefalópodos también los primeros cordados, precursores de los vertebrados, y nuestros. En el reino vegetal predominaban las algas en los océanos y los líquenes en la tierra. This enormous proliferation contributed to the increase of oxigen in the terrestrial atmosphere.

Other fundamental evolutionary advances in the Cámbrico were the formación de los primeros esqueletos y exoesqueletos. Por a part, había más raw material disponible, más carbonatos en las aguas marinas por otra, aparecieron nuevos predadores, por lo que tener protección para los tejidos blandos y una mayor capacidad de movimiento augmentaban mucho las posibilidades de supervivencia y, con ella, de reproducción. Así functions the natural selection.


Paleozoic

WHAT IF YOU KNOW THEM A LA ERA Y SU MEANING?

The Paleozoic, Paleozoic or Primary Era is an age of the Historia de la Tierra de más de 290 millones de años (m.a.) de duración, que se inició hace 542.0 ± 1.0 m.a. y acabó hace unos 251,0 ± 0,4 m.a. [1] [2] Es la primera era del Eón Fanerozoico, between the Eón Proterozoico and the Mesozoic Era. Su nombre proceeds from griego palaio / παλαιο ("viejo") y zoe / ζωη ("vida"), meaning "vida antigua".

WHAT IS PASÓ DE RELEVANTE?

Geologically, the Paleozoic begins shortly after the desintegration of the supercontinent Pannotia y acaba with the formation of the supercontinent Panguea. During the mayor part of the era, the surface of la Tierra divides into a relatively pequeño de continentes number.

El Paleozoico abarca desde la proliferación de animales with concha or exoesqueleto hasta el moment en que el mundo empezó a ser dominado por los grandes reptiles y por plantas relatively modernas.

The Paleozoic Era, que duró desde hace 570 to 246 millones de años, the vida de nuestro planeta increased incrementally. Muchos animales desarrollaron caparazón or esqueleto. During this era, algunos moluscos crecieron y desarrollaron un cerebro mayor y más eficaz atrapaban artrópodos extendiendo sus tentáculos. Estos nuevos moluscos nadaban using a type of propulsión a chorro: expulsando agua a preseón hacia delante, se impulsaban hacia atrás. Cuando avanzaban por los mares, estos moluscos buscaban artrópodos para comérselos. Hacia el período Devónico, evolucionaron los peces. Los primeros no tenían mandíbulas. Después evolucionaron peces gigantescos y, más tarde, los peces de aletas lobuladas desarrollaron pulmones que dieron origen a los amphibios.

¿CÓMO ERA Y CUÁNDO FUE?

The Paleozoic Era, que duró desde hace 570 to 246 millones de años, the vida de nuestro planeta increased incrementally. Muchos animales desarrollaron caparazón or esqueleto.

At the beginning of the Paleozoic era, all of the seres vivos were acuáticos: ni uno solo vivía en tierra firme, ni siguiera las plantas. Hacia finales of the Paleozoic, la vida había advances so much, que varios seres habían logrado conquer the tierra firme. Esta era se compone de los períodos siguientes: Cámbrico, from 570 to 505 millones de años Ordovicio, from 504 to 438 Silúrico, from 437 to 408 Devónico, from 407 to 362 Carbonífero, from 361 to 290 y Pérmico, from 289 to 246.

En este cuadro podrás apreciar easily the Mesozoic era, sus periodos and the duración de millones de años que pasaron para dar pie al florecimiento de todos los cambios que te hemos explicado.


Playing style [edit]

The "Paleozoic" archetype is mainly composed of Normal Trap Cards. Each one have its particular effect but they have in common the capacity of Special Summoning themselves from the Graveyard as a Level 2 WATER Aqua Normal Monster with 1200 ATK and 0 DEF whenever a Trap Card is activated, thus allowing them to quickly swarm the field through normal usage of their own Trap Effects. The archetype's ace cards are their Xyz monsters, namely "Paleozoic Anomalocaris" and "Paleozoic Opabinia".

"Anomalocaris" helps to maintain hand advantage by excavating the Deck and adding an excavated Trap Card to the hand (be it a "Paleozoic" Card or not) this effect triggers when a Trap Card is sent from the Spell / Trap Zone to the Graveyard . "Opabinia" speeds up the Deck's strategy, by allowing "Paleozoic" cards from being activated directly from the hand. Both of them are unaffected by other monster's effects and have an additional effect that basically rewards their owner for using them in a dedicated "Paleozoic" Deck, by either destroying a troublesome card on the field or fetching a "Paleozoic" Card from the Deck.

The archetype's Trap Cards banish themselves when they leaves the field after being Summoned from the Graveyard by their own effects, which can be avoided by using them as Xyz Materials. Thus, the archetype also benefits from utilizing other Rank 2 Xyz Monsters such as "Armored Kappa" and "Sky Cavalry Centaurea" in concert with "Anomalocaris" and "Opabinia". As the archetype's Trap Cards are all Level 2 WATER Aqua monsters while they are treated as monsters, "Wetlands" can be included in the Deck to give these cards a much needed power boost, as they all have low ATK, which can raise issues regarding their ability to survive on the field.

The deck itself also has amazing synergy with the Frog engine, mainly "Swap Frog", "Dupe Frog" and "Ronintoadin" since they are also Level 2 Aqua monsters. Due to this, and the fact that the Paleozoic cards themselves are treated as Aqua monsters while on the field, they can play the Rank 2 Xyz "Toadally Awesome". Due to their capability of accumulating chain, you can also consider adding some cards like Accumulated Fortune and Miraculous Rebirth. While somewhat slow, Mask of Darkness can still be used to recycle some Paleozoic cards and in a bigger extent, also be used as a Xyz Material.Magical Hats will search 2 Paleozoic cards from your deck while letting you Summon another from your GY. Justi-Break will protect your Paleozoic cards and potentially clean the field while letting you summon another Pelozoic card from your GY.

Weaknesses [edit]

Due to their own self-banishing effect, which can serve as a deterrent from using the archetype's cards for any purpose other than Xyz Summon (such as Tribute or Synchro Summons), this archetype is best suited only for Xyz Summoning Rank 2 Xyz Monsters, which can prove to be inflexible, given the low number of different Rank 2 Xyz Monsters in the game. This weakness can, however, be mitigated through the use of "Imperial Iron Wall" to keep the Trap Cards from banishing themselves. The effect of "Paleozoic Leanchoilia" can also be used to return banished "Paleozoic" Trap Cards to the Graveyard for later re-use.

Additionally, as the archetype is dependent on activating Set Trap Cards to trigger their effects to Special Summon themselves from the Graveyard, "Denko Sekka" and, to a lesser extent, "Jinzo" are capable of easily locking them down, preventing the Set Trap Cards from even activating, as well as additional Trap Cards from being Set in the case of the former. Cards such as "Royal Prison" and "Necrovalley" can also inhibit the Trap Cards' re-usability, but they can be cleared away with the effects of "Paleozoic Olenoides" and "Paleozoic Dinomischus".


Paleozoic

Na escala de geological time, or Paleozoic (pre-AO 1990: Paleozóico) is a era do éon Phanerozoic que está compreendida between há 542 milhões and 251 milhões de anos, aproximately. A Paleozoic era succeeds Neoproterozoic era do éon Proterozoic era and precedes Mesozoic era de seu éon. Divide-se nos períodos Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carbonífero and Permian, do mais antigo para or recent corn. O desta name was tem origem no grego palaios (παλαιός), "velho" and zoe (ζωή), "vida", meaning "vida antiga". [1]

Or Paleozoic practically corresponds to metade do Phanerozoic, approximately 300 milhões de anos. During this era havia seis massas continentais principais, que conheceram montanhas enormes ao longo de suas margens, and incursões e recuos dos mares rasos através de seus interiores, como mares continentais. Muitas rochas paleozoicas são economically importantes. For example, rochas calcárias para finalidadesindustriais de construção civil, assim como os depósitos de carvão, que foram formadas during or Paleozoic.

Or Paleozoic is conhecido por dois dos eventos mais importantes na história da vida animal. No seu começo houve uma grande diversificação evolutiva dos animais, a explosão cambriana, em que quase todos os filos animais atuais and vários outros extintos apareceram nos primeiros milhões dos anos. Já no extremo oposto do Paleozoico ocorreu a extinção maciça, a maior da história da vida na Terra, que extinguiu aproximadamente 90% de todas as espécies animais marinhas. As causas de ambos estes eventos ainda não são bem conhecidas.

Também pode ao éon Proterozoic and a antecedent to Mesozoic Era. In his duração foi de aproximadamente 380 milhões de anos. Embora a vida já se achasse present na Proterozoic Era, é nos terrenos mais antigos from Paleozoic Era que os vestígios de organismos se show ma mais abundantes.

De acordo com os dados paleontológicos, no Cambriano achavam-se presentes todos os grandes grupos de invertebrados. As formas ancestrais da fauna Cambriana são desconhecidas ou porque o elevado metamorphism and os dobramentos a que foram sujeitas as rochas from Proterozoic Era as destruíram, ou porque a erosão apagou large part of this documentação antes da deposição dos sedimentos cambrianos. Os animais do início from the Paleozoic Era will predominantly live in a marine environment: graptólitos, trilobites, moluscos, briozoários, braquiópodes, equinodermos, corais, etc.

Os peixes surgiram no Ordovician, nas águas doces. As plantas terrestres mais antigas conhecidas datam do Siluriano (Austrália). No Carbonífero e também no Permian constituíram grandes florestas das quais se originaram carvões em várias partes do mundo. Daí a designação de Antracolítico dada em esses dois períodos conjuntamente. Especially curiosas foram as Pteridospermae, vulgarly conhecidas as "fetos com sementes". Os insetos mais antigos datam do Devoniano. Os anfíbios surgiram no Devoniano and os répteis no Carbonífero. Angiospermas, aves and mamíferos apareceram mais tarde, na Mesozoic Era.

A paleogeography from the Paleozoic Era is a matéria de controvérsia. As similaridades demonstradas entre a geology from the southern part from América do Sul, África do Sul, Índia and Austrália- flora fóssil comum, designada flora de Glossópteris, vestígios de glaciação type inlândsis, aparenti da mesma idade, levaria, segundo certos autores, à aceção de um antigo continente, Continente de Gonduana, reunindo tais regiões, ou, segundo outros, à suposição de que elas estiveram directly unidas até or fim from the Mesozoic Era (theory de Wegener).

Dois ciclos orogenéticos importantes ocorreram na Paleozoic Era: dobramentos caledonianos do Siluriano and dobramentos hercinianos do Carbonífero. Vários grupos de animais and de plantas foram privativos from the Paleozoic Era: Psilotales, vegetais que desapareceram no Devoniano trilobites, euripterídeos, graptólitos, corais dos grupos tetracorais and tabulados briozoários dos grupliais grupliais que desaparecerams and heterosteleado peixes dos grupos Ostracodermas and Placodermas.

No período Ordoviano as algas que surgiram das colônias de bactérias ficavam localizadas nos litorais e por conta das mudanças das marés, hora as algas ficavam submersas e hora elas estavam para fora d'água, desta forma elas começaram a se adaptar me terrestre e em consequência disso houve o desenvolvimento dos musgos, esses musgos se fixavam nas pedras que ficavam na praia, a partir daí eles começaram a se proliferar por meio de esporos que eram levados pelos ventos.

No período Siluriano, as plantas surgiram do musgo na beira dos lagos e rios, giving início as chamadas florestas em miniature, as plantas não eram grandes, não possuíam folhas, flores ou raízes, tinham um cauloide que se ramificava e na extremidade da ramificação havia um exhibition. Ao longo do tempo elas foram se desenvolvendo and se adaptando.

No período Devoniano devido ao fato de não existir animais herbívoros as florestas começaram a crescer sem confine. Essas plantas originaram espécies de porte médio, como por exemplo as samambaias, which posteriorly originaram as de grande porte. A fotossíntese traço da evolução dessas plantas foi um dos fatores que propcionaram vida terrestre, já que era muito grande a quantidade de oxigênio produzido por essas plantas pelo fato de existir muitas delas.


Video: Life in Paleozoic Seas