Apricot Russian: a frost-resistant variety for the middle lane
Apricots are grown mainly in the southern regions, as they are very fond of the sun, warmth and react very badly to the winter alternations of frost and thaw. However, back in the 19th century, the breeding of varieties suitable for cultivation in central Russia began, and in our time apricots have moved far to the north. One of the most popular varieties for the Central Zone is apricot with the patriotic name Russian.
Description of apricot varieties Russian
The winter-hardy Russian apricot was bred in the North Caucasus, but the goal of the breeders was to obtain a variety specifically for central Russia, and this task was successfully solved. The Russian can withstand frosts down to -30 aboutC, grows into a relatively low tree: for an apricot 4 meters in height is quite a bit, this apricot grows as if in width. At the very least, harvesting does not require any super-strong and very high ladders, which is an important advantage for an apricot that gives a solid harvest. And the Russian has a very high yield: up to 75 kg of fruits from a tree.
The fruits are densely arranged, therefore, solid harvests are harvested from a four-meter tree.
The first fruits can be obtained only in the fourth year after planting, and already from the fifth year the amount of the crop begins to grow rapidly. The variety is considered to be medium early: fruits ripen in the middle of summer. The Russian is very susceptible to diseases and is almost not affected by pests. When planting, it must be borne in mind that it has very powerful roots that spread far beyond the projection of the crown.
Apricot fruits are Russian of the usual shape: round, slightly flattened, rather large (weighing about 50 g, maximum up to 65 g). The color is yellow-orange with a slight pinkish blush, the pubescence is weak. The pulp is fragrant, friable, bright yellow, of pleasant taste, very sweet. The fruits are used mainly fresh; it is believed that they lose their basic qualities during processing.
The main advantages of the variety include excellent winter hardiness, excellent fruit taste and high yield.
Planting an apricot: step by step instructions
It is not difficult to buy ready-made apricot seedlings from Russia. Closed-root seedlings in containers are also often offered. Of course, they are more expensive, but they can be planted almost all year round. Usually, our summer residents still buy seedlings with open roots; you can look at them, check their quality. The planting of all varieties of apricot is almost the same, and the Russian is no exception.
The Russian responds normally to any composition of the soil, but, like other varieties, it grows better on neutral or slightly alkaline, breathable. Heavy clay soil can be corrected by adding sand, peat, lime and humus, and adding wood ash annually.
When choosing a place for planting an apricot, you need to understand that this site will be given into the possession of a tree for several decades.
The timing of planting seedlings with open roots depends on the climate of the area. In the south, you can plant it both in the spring and in the fall, if only sap flow has not yet begun and the buds have not awakened. They may be swollen, but not blooming. Since the Russian is a variety that is more valuable in the conditions of central Russia, it is the spring version that is interesting. Here, the autumn planting is quite risky: a poorly established seedling in winter can freeze and die. In the middle lane, planting should be carried out only in the spring, and quite early, until the buds wake up. In most cases, there are only one to two weeks, falling in the last decade of April, while the seedlings are still sleeping, and it is already possible to work with the land. You can try planting apricots in autumn, late September or early October, but the risk of such planting is very high.
So, we will consider the main stages associated with the correct planting of apricot The Russian, believing that we are in a zone of risky agriculture with an unstable climate. The work progress is supposed to be as follows:
- Choosing a place on the site. This should be done in the fall of the season preceding planting. In a few years, the apricot will grow into a strong tree, spreading its roots far beyond the planting pit. Almost nothing can be planted next to it, and this must also be taken into account. In addition, for good pollination, it is advisable to plant at least one more apricot tree nearby, planting it every 3-4 meters. But the apricot should be maximally illuminated by the sun's rays and protected from being blown by winds, especially northern ones. Therefore, a place must be found where there is protection from the winds: a house or a blank fence. In no case should you choose places where cold air accumulates or there is stagnant water.
Even a fence located a few meters away and a little further away - a tall house will help the apricot cope with the northern winds
- In the fall, we dig a landing hole. A large pit is needed: at least 70 cm deep and the same in diameter. In this case, the upper, fertile soil layer is folded in one direction, and the lower, unproductive, in the other: then we take it out from the site or scatter it along the paths.
When digging a hole, it is important to preserve the top fertile layer.
- In the case of clay soil, we fill the bottom with a layer of 10-15 cm of crushed stone or pebbles, in extreme cases, coarse river sand. This layer will act as drainage. On sandy soils, on the contrary, we put clay: it will retain water during rain or watering.
A layer of gravel will prevent stagnation of water in the root zone
- Preparing a nutrient mixture. The soil removed from the upper layers must be thoroughly mixed with fertilizers. The main fertilizer at this moment is organic matter: humus, compost. We take a lot of it: five buckets. Of the mineral fertilizers, complex fertilizers are the most convenient, for example, nitrophoska containing nutrients in a balanced ratio. About 0.5 kg of compound fertilizer should be evenly distributed in the removed soil. If the soil on the site is strongly acidic, add half a bucket of slaked lime or dolomite flour to the mixture. And don't forget about the most affordable fertilizer - wood ash. Its apricot needs a lot, so we pour at least three liters. Having filled the hole to the top, we are waiting for spring.
Apricots are an excellent source of potassium, and the easiest way for them to get it from regular wood ash.
- In the spring we buy a seedling. At the same time, we take a good look at its roots. There should be at least three main roots extending from the base of the stem: elastic, not dry. Fibrous small roots should depart from them in large quantities. A controversial question, how old should a seedling be? Two-year-olds and well-developed one-year-olds take root more easily, with three-year-olds it is heavier, but in a good case, we will get the first harvest faster.
Unfortunately, we do not see a closed root system, but such seedlings can be planted even in three years and not necessarily in spring.
- Preparing a seedling for planting. Its roots must be dipped in a mash made from mullein and clay (approximately 1: 2), stirred in water until the consistency of liquid sour cream. If it is not there, we put the roots in water, where they will lie until planting, it is possible for a day.
Clay talker helps seedlings to take root in a new place
- We drive a strong meter stake into the hole (a metal pipe, a long thick reinforcement, just a thick wooden stick). A seedling should be placed next to it: directly on the soil, without digging a hole! This is important: now we will form a mound around the apricot.
If the seedling already has branches, the height of the stake should be slightly below the distance to the lowest of them
- We fall asleep the roots, building a mound. Of course, this operation is more convenient to perform together. One holds the seedling and spreads the roots so that they assume a tension-free position. The second gradually covers the roots with clean, fertile soil. Compacting the soil, you need to build a small hill. As a result, the root collar should be 2-3 cm above the top of the hill.
The diagram shows that we do not deepen the roots into the planting hole, but construct a mound above it
- We tie a seedling. After arranging the mound, we take a strong ribbon and tie the stem to the stake in the eight-way familiar to any gardener.
It is easy to make a grate, but it holds firmly
- We build a side. At first, a planted apricot needs a lot of water until powerful roots grow. Therefore, not far from the trunk, around the mound, we construct a kind of roller so that water does not drain from the hill during irrigation or rains. The hill can be overlaid with turf or sowed grass on it, which must be mowed as it grows.
On the hills, both apple and pear trees are sometimes planted, but they always make bumpers to retain water during irrigation
- Watering the seedling. Carefully, without eroding the top of the hill, we bring in several buckets of water around the stem. In the first year, it is necessary to water systematically: the soil should not dry out. After each watering, the mound will have to be loosened so that the roots have enough air.
Several buckets of water poured should be absorbed into the soil in 5-10 minutes
- Cut off the seedling. Everything is simple here. The first cut is the shortening one. Its task is to ensure that the weak roots at first have enough strength to feed the seedling. In the case of a one-year-old seedling, it simply needs to be shortened by a third. If you planted a two-year-old, then you need to cut the seedling more seriously. We select the two most powerful branches, located, if possible, opposite each other, but at different heights. We shorten them by half. Cut the rest into a ring. Do not forget to cover all the cuts with garden pitch.
The diagram clearly shows the main stages of pruning.
Features of growing and subtleties of care
The main measures for the care of apricot varieties Russian do not differ from those for most other varieties of apricots. This is moderate watering, timely feeding, weed control, preventive spraying against diseases and harmful insects, whitewashing of trunks and skeletal branches for the winter.
As for watering, it is needed mainly during the growth of fruits. True, young trees that have not yet grown a root system should be watered often in the first few years, but not until the water stagnates. Adult apricots, if the summer has not turned out to be extremely dry, are most often quite capable of finding water for themselves.
In arid regions, watering is needed, it is carried out about once a month, with a sufficient amount of water, but so that it does not stagnate in the near-trunk circle. Of course, ideally, it should be warm, settled water, but, in extreme cases, ordinary watering from a hose will do, only if the water does not come from underground sources: this is usually too cold. Watering is best in the morning or evening.
Apricot needs systematic feeding. In the spring, the best option is liquid feeding with infusions of mullein or poultry droppings, which, in extreme cases, can be replaced with urea and potassium nitrate. In June, foliar dressing is useful - spraying the foliage with solutions of complex fertilizers. From the middle of summer, nitrogen-containing formulations must be replaced with phosphorus-potassium formulations, they contribute to the formation of fruit ovaries.
After harvesting, scatter half a bucket of wood ash around the tree and bury it shallowly with a shovel or hoe. Once every few years, in spring or late autumn, small holes are dug near the tree and 1-2 buckets of humus or compost are buried in them.
Apricots tend to overgrow the crown, resulting in a strong thickening. The Russian is no exception, he requires regular formative and rejuvenating pruning. In the process of formation, the crown should be given a round shape that is natural for the variety. The first pruning in the life of an apricot was mentioned in the section on planting it. In the next few years, up to 5–8 skeletal branches are formed on the apricot, from which branches of the following orders grow.
Apricots have to be cut not only in spring and autumn, but also in summer. In the spring, you should thin out the thickened sections of the crown, cut out the branches that are weak and frozen in winter. Fruit twigs older than three years are also cut out: the harvest on them will already be small. Spring pruning should be carried out a month before the beginning of the growing season, when frosts will no longer return, but sap flow has not yet begun. Thanks to such pruning, the crown becomes easily accessible to sunlight and reasonable ventilation.
Adult apricots sometimes have to be cut and radically: they rejuvenate from this
In the summer, the thinning operation can be repeated, but only if there is a sufficient amount of moisture (from rain or watering), shortening by a third and overgrowing young shoots. If necessary, you can remove some of the extra fruits or completely unnecessary branches. Summer pruning is beneficial for apricots: flower buds develop better on young shoots. Summer pruning takes place at the very beginning of June. After it, the fruits grow larger and become sweeter.
In the fall, in mid-October, it is necessary to remove weak and diseased shoots, covering large sections with garden pitch. It makes sense to shorten most annual shoots by a third or even more, depending on the strength of their growth. Apricot pruning should be carried out regularly; in its absence, the trees are threatened with the frequency of fruiting. Removing excess branches increases yield and disease resistance.
Preparing for winter
Preparing an apricot for wintering consists in cleaning up all weed residues around it, digging up the trunk circle, and prophylactic spraying with insecticidal preparations. A Russian in adulthood hibernates without any shelter, but the stems of young trees for the winter should be tied with spruce branches, and wrapped on top with non-woven material. Controversy among gardeners is caused by the hilling of the trunks of young trees with earth. On the one hand, this is a warming procedure. But on the other hand, winter thaws will hit the root collar even harder, and its damping off is worse for apricot than frosts.
To protect against rodents, the lower branches and trunk of young apricots must be covered with durable materials, and here, too, thorny spruce branches are the best option. With the arrival of spring, before the start of sap flow, the apricot stems are whitewashed with lime, but this procedure, if possible, should be carried out even earlier: the most dangerous sun illuminates the trees in March.
Such devices also save from hares.
In the harshest regions, in the first winter, many send apricots under cover of plastic wrap, built in the form of a hut. Only it is necessary not to be late to disassemble such a shelter in the spring.
Unfortunately, little attention is paid to the Russian apricot variety in the Internet space: for some reason, it is little discussed on forums, and no movies have been made about it. But from the point of view of caring for him, you can focus on any videos about apricots for the middle lane.
Video: apricots in central Russia
Diseases and pests: the main types and solutions to the problem
The apricot of the Russian variety is quite resistant to major diseases, but it needs periodic prophylactic treatment. In addition, excessive shedding of fruits against a background of sufficient moisture can also indicate the need for spraying: shedding may be the result of infection with gray fruit rot that has not yet fully manifested itself.
Among the main pests of apricots, the following are mainly distinguished:
- Plum moth: lives mainly in the southern half of the European part of our country. One caterpillar can kill up to ten fruits.
- Fruit moth: Similar to apple moth, but young caterpillars live openly. When pupating, cocoons are not located like an apple moth, entangling the entire tree, but one by one.
- Plum pollinated aphids, in addition to plums, affect apricot, peach and cherry plum. Aphids are located on leaves, usually in several layers, and the damaged leaves do not curl.
The main diseases affecting apricot:
- Coccomycosis. It affects mainly cherries, especially in the western regions of the country, but also plum, cherry plum, apricot and other stone fruits. In early summer, small dark red round spots appear on the leaves. Increasing in size, they merge and take on any shape. The affected leaves fall off, the fruits dry up.
- Clusterosporiosis, or leaf perforation, occurs on all stone fruits, but especially often on apricots and peaches. All aboveground parts are affected. On the leaves, the disease manifests itself in the form of round light brown spots with a reddish rim, at first very small, then increasing in size. The leaves become as if perforated. With severe damage, the leaves fall prematurely. Reddish spots with dark edges are formed on the shoots. Gum is released from the cracks. With a strong defeat, the shoots die. Affected buds dry up, and flowers crumble.
These are not bullets, this is clusterosporiosis, a dangerous disease of stone fruits.
- With moniliosis, the bark becomes overgrown with a gray bloom, the leaves and branches darken and dry out, the yield decreases sharply: only some fruits ripen, but most of them crack, rot and dry out still green.
The prophylactic spraying algorithm for apricots is very simple. When determining the specific timing of processing trees, it is necessary to take into account the climate of the region and the current weather. In addition, you need to pay attention to the state of a particular tree. The first compulsory treatment is carried out in early spring, the last - in the fall, immediately after the end of the leaf fall.
During spring processing, before bud break, the most popular are copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid: they are very effective against moniliosis, spotted spots, coccomycosis and clotterosporia. In the spring, the trunk and crown are sprayed with a urea solution. In parallel, in early spring, it is useful to spray apricot with one of the drugs that increase immunity (for example, Zircon).
Before flowering, an eradication spraying is carried out, destroying overwintered parasites and leaf-eating insects, using Kinmix and colloidal sulfur preparations. The next treatment is carried out immediately after flowering: the drug Ridomil Gold is recommended.
During the ripening of fruits, apricots are treated with colloidal sulfur for powdery mildew and coccommycosis. But any spraying is unacceptable later than three weeks before fruit ripening. After the leaves fall, the trees are sprayed with urea.
Apricot of the Russian variety, bred specifically for central Russia, is good because it grows into a relatively low tree, convenient for picking fruits and caring for the plant. It is characterized by a high yield and a pleasant taste of the fruit, for which it has earned indisputable authority among amateur gardeners.
Graduated from the Chemistry Department of Moscow State University in 1981. Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor.
Rate the article:
(2 votes, average: 5 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
Planting and caring for the Ulyanikhinsky apricot obey a number of simple rules.
Planting apricot varieties Ulyanikhinsky is advised:
- in spring (in the last days of April)
- autumn (late September - early October).
Choosing the right place
The Ulyanikhinsky site will be optimal for apricot:
- well lit by the sun and sheltered from the wind
- groundwater level, under which it does not rise above 3 meters, but does not sink too deep
- with light, fertile soil, the acidity of which is neutral or lower.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to an apricot
It is believed that apricot is one of the most "quarrelsome" garden crops, since it does not tolerate any other species in the neighborhood.
Only other apricots of the same or different varieties are advised to plant near the apricot tree. At the same time, it is recommended to maintain a distance of at least 4.5–5.5 m between tall trees, which include the Ulyanikhinsky variety.
Selection and preparation of planting material
For growing apricots, Ulyanikhinsky is recommended to take annual trees - they take root more successfully, and it is easy and convenient to form crowns for them.
A high-quality Ulyanikhinsky apricot seedling must have:
- healthy bark without damage and cracks
- strong, thick branches
- in the lower part of the trunk - a thorn from the stock
- developed root system with a large number of lobe roots.
It is necessary to correctly plant a seedling of the Ulyanikhinsky apricot in the ground as follows:
- dig a planting hole approximately 0.8 m deep and wide
- pour on the bottom a nutrient mixture from the soil with 2 buckets of mullein, 650 g of superphosphate (granules), 350 g of potassium sulfate solution and 0.25 kg of ash
- plant a seedling, observing the position of the root collar (5-7 cm above soil level)
- pour the soil mixture into the hole and carefully trample it
- sprinkle with water (20-30 l)
- mulch the soil (with sawdust or peat).
More details on how to plant an apricot are shown in the video
Apricot is a deciduous tree 4-8 m high with a spherical crown. The bark of the trunk and old shoots is brown, young shoots are brown-red. Over time, the top layer of the bark cracks.
Fruiting apricot tree
Leaves ovoid, slightly pointed at the end. Their length ranges from 5 to 9 cm. The perimeter of the leaves is covered with small denticles.
Petioles are up to 3 cm in size. Apricot roots penetrate deep to 8 m, although most of them are located at a depth of 30 to 60 cm.
Bloom plants occur before leaves appear, most often at the end of March or the first half of April. The flower petals are white or white-pink. The diameter of the flower is approximately equal to 1.5-2.5 cm. Since there are still few insects at this time, the apricot is pollinated by the wind.
Apricot during flowering
Fruit are drupes with a juicy yellowish-red flesh. The surface of the bone is smooth or rough, the walls are relatively thick. The peel of apricots has a barely noticeable pubescence. Its color can vary widely - from greenish-yellow to orange. Fruits often have a reddish “tan” that occupies more than half of their surface.
The weight of apricots, depending on the variety, varies widely - from 5 to 80 g. Fruiting occurs in July or August. The seeds have a bitter or sweet taste. In some varieties, they are edible.
The lifespan of an apricot can be one hundred years. Moreover, active fruiting begins from three years of age and can last up to 40 years. Most varieties can tolerate winters down to -25 ° C. Thanks to the branched root system, plants can do without watering for up to three months.
Description of the variety of apricots Russian, characteristics of fruiting and care
Gardeners of the Central Black Earth Region and other regions of the middle lane have long dreamed of harvesting southern fruits, but the seedlings of peaches and apricots brought from Moldova or Ukraine could not stand the frosty winters, and if they did not disappear, they still did not please with sweet fruits. These horticultural crops have not been adapted to the climatic conditions of the middle latitudes. The situation changed with the advent of the Russian apricot. The variety feels fine in the Moscow region, in the Ryazan, and in the Voronezh region, and in the Volga region.
The fragrant orange-colored fruits were brought to Europe from Armenia. The deciduous tree reaches a height of 8 meters, has powerful roots, and bears fruit for decades under favorable conditions. In Russia, apricots are grown in the Caucasus and in the southern regions. Michurin was also engaged in breeding hybrids that could withstand severe winters.
The variety Russian was obtained by selection by specialists of the research institute in the North Caucasus and adapted to the climate of middle latitudes. Although this apricot is not included in the State Register of Crops Recommended for Growing in the country, both summer residents and gardeners are happy to plant it.
Description of the variety
The stone tree, bred by Russian breeders, reaches a height of 4.5 meters, has a beautiful crown of medium density. Yellow fruits with ruddy sides differ:
- large weight
- dense pulp without veins
- great taste
- oval slightly flattened shape
- pleasant aroma.
After reading the description of the Russian variety, summer residents began to plant apricots in their plots. The tree can be seen in yards, small gardens, but it is not grown on an industrial basis, the fruits are not suitable for preservation for the winter, they eat fresh fruits.
Outwardly, the culture does not differ from other varieties. The bark on young trees has a brown tint, the leaves are a rich green color. White, like snow, apricots are covered when there is still no greenery.
Ruddy fruits ripen in July and weigh from 60 grams, some ripe specimens have a mass of 70 g. The stone lags well behind the pulp. The tree tolerates frosts exceeding 30 ° С, sharp weather changes. Apricot Russians are less likely to be affected by diseases, suffer less from pests than other hybrids.
The plant feels fine in the heat, for a long time it can be without watering, which it inherited from its closest relatives, adapted to the dry summer of the southern regions. However, in order for the tree to please with the harvest, irrigation is necessary.
Despite the fact that the Russian belongs to self-fertile varieties, it should be planted next to other apricots that bloom at the same time. Due to cross-pollination, more ovaries are formed, buds do not crumble.
With "rosy-cheeked" fruits, with good care, a four-year-old tree can please. An adult plant produces up to 7 buckets of apricots - juicy and sweet.
The yield increases with regular pruning. In mid-latitudes, the culture blooms in May, while in the southern regions - in late March, early April. Unfortunately, frosts can occur in any month of spring and lead to the death of the ovary. The Russian, like other apricots, has been bearing fruit for decades.
The characteristics of the variety allow it to be cultivated in different regions. Reviews about the Russian are even written from the Nizhny Novgorod region, where the roots have to be buried in the ground for the winter, but the tree pleases with fruits.
Choosing a landing site
Southern culture loves warmth, is afraid of drafts. Apricot grows well in an area with sunlit, closed from the winds blowing from the north. It is not recommended to plant a tree nearby:
Worsely accepted, less fruitful apricot, if a place is chosen for it where the stone fruit grew, groundwater is located close to the surface. The variety Russian responds positively to fertile loose soil with low acidity.
For a young tree, you need to go to the nursery and choose an apricot, where there are no cracks or breaks either on the root or on the trunk. In mid-latitudes, the seedling is moved to the site in the spring. It can be April or May, the main thing is that the kidneys do not wake up, the juice does not leak. When planting in autumn, there is a risk that the tree will freeze and not accept.
Subtleties of care
Many people consider apricot an unpretentious crop, but if you don't take care of it, you shouldn't expect that several buckets of sweet fruits will ripen on the tree. Any kind of crop needs moisture, nutrients, pruning. In the garden, it is necessary to remove weeds, control pests, and prevent the appearance of diseases.
Although apricots normally tolerate drought, they also require abundant moisture at least once a month, however, water stagnation should not be allowed.
Young trees are often watered, if possible early in the morning or after sunset.
The grown seedlings form a crown, leaving no more than 8 branches that form the skeleton of an apricot. Shoots should not grow from the same location in the trunk. They start pruning the tree every spring to help speed up bud development.
Preparing for winter
In the fall, it is necessary to carry out activities that will help the apricot survive the cold period normally. To prevent cracks on the trunk and branches, the trees are whitewashed by spreading a glass of flour glue, 2 kg of lime, 200 g of copper sulfate in a bucket of water.
Before the onset of winter, you must:
- Remove fallen leaves and dried fruits.
- Dig up the ground.
- Wrap the lower part of the trunk with pine needles or strong synthetics.
Such measures will help to destroy the larvae that are hiding in the soil, to protect the apricot bark from damage by rodents. The plant will thank you for the care and attention with juicy fruits.
Pests and diseases
The Russian variety suffers less from viruses and bacteria. However, a cold summer with frequent rains provokes the activation of fungi, which cause diseases in apricots in the form of:
- gray rot
- perforated spot
- curliness of leaves.
Preparations containing copper are capable of preventing damage to trees. With a monilial burn, when the flowering branches dry up, the apricots are treated with Bordeaux liquid, the Horus fungicide.
To eliminate cytosporosis and other diseases, plants are sprayed with Ridomil and Fundazol chemicals. The Russian variety does not suffer from insect infestations, but if pests appear, they use insecticides.