How to grow strong tomato seedlings
It is impossible to imagine modern cuisine without tomatoes. They are an indispensable component of most dishes, and are also consumed fresh and canned on their own. Tomato juice and paste, various ketchups are no less in demand. Therefore, the desire of the gardener to grow the best varieties of tomatoes on the site is understandable, for which, first of all, you need to know the rules and methods of growing seedlings.
Preparing the soil for tomato seedlings
Currently, there is a wide variety of ready-made soil mixtures on sale. In principle, any tomato can be used with an acidity level of pH 6.5-7.0. It is also easy to prepare such a mixture yourself. You need to know that loose, light and nutritious soil that absorbs and retains moisture is suitable for tomato seedlings. Here are some examples of possible compositions:
- peat, turf soil and humus in equal proportions with the addition of a nutrient solution (per bucket of water - 30 g of potassium monophosphate, 30 g of superphosphate and 10 g of ammonium nitrate);
- the same components with the addition of 0.5 liters of ash and 40 g of superphosphate instead of a nutrient solution per bucket of mixture;
- one more composition:
- sod land - 2 buckets;
- humus or compost - 1 bucket;
- sand - 1 bucket;
- wood ash - 2-3 liters.
You can buy ready-made soil for tomato seedlings or prepare it yourself
The prepared soil must be disinfected before use. To do this, the easiest way is to use the freezing method, in which:
- In winter, the composition is taken out into the cold and kept there for at least a week.
- Then they are brought into a warm room for a week.
- After repeating the procedure three times, the soil is poured with a solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 3 g per 10 liters of water.
- Withstand 1-2 weeks to achieve full readiness.
Presowing seed preparation
You can buy pelleted seeds that have been processed during production and sow them immediately into the soil. All other seeds will need preparation:
- Calibration is performed first. To reject empty seeds, they are poured into a jar of water and kept for half an hour. Quality specimens with a supply of nutrients will sink to the bottom.
- The next step is disinfection in two ways:
- in the first case, the seeds are placed for 15–20 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (pink). After this procedure, the seeds are washed and dried;
In order to disinfect, the seeds are dipped in a pink solution of potassium permanganate
- for deeper disinfection, in which pathogens inside the seeds are destroyed, they are immersed in hot water at 45–48 ° C for 20–30 minutes.
- in the first case, the seeds are placed for 15–20 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (pink). After this procedure, the seeds are washed and dried;
- At the end, hardening is performed. For this purpose, the seeds are wrapped in cheesecloth, moistened and placed in the refrigerator for 1-2 days.
Methods for growing tomato seedlings
There are many ways to grow tomato seedlings, each gardener can choose the most suitable for himself.
When using this method, seeds for seedlings are planted a month earlier than usual. Of course, such seedlings will stretch. Elongated plants are pruned at the level of the cotyledon leaves, and then rooted in the soil. Tomatoes are stunted as they take time to root. The stem becomes thick, the plant itself is squat, flower clusters are laid lower to the ground and there are more of them. Since sowing is carried out earlier than usual, then fruiting occurs in a shorter time after planting in the ground. To get such seedlings, you need:
- Plant tomato seeds in containers filled with nutritious soil.
- Grow plants according to the usual rules with a height of 20 cm with three to four pairs of true leaves.
Before pruning, you need to grow tomato seedlings up to 20 cm high
- Water the seedlings well before pruning.
- Cut the plants and lower them for a few minutes in a container with a solution of a root formation stimulator (Kornevin, Epin, Zircon, etc.).
After pruning, tomato seedlings must be kept in a rooting stimulator
- Plant sprouts without roots in individual glasses (preferably peat ones) and water with a solution in which the plants were soaked.
Rooting of trimmed tomato sprouts is best done with watering with a solution of a root formation stimulator
- Place the glasses in boxes and cover with foil to create a greenhouse effect.
- Keep the plants in the dark for three days (for this you can cover them with a black film) at a temperature of 22-24 ° C.
- After that, remove the black film and move the seedlings to a bright place with a temperature of 18–20 ° C. Leave the transparent film at the same time. At night, it is advisable to lower the temperature to + 14–16 ° C.
- For the first two weeks, ventilate the plants by lifting the film for a few seconds, then for a few minutes. The film is completely removed when the seedlings start to grow.
- During the entire growing period, it is necessary to provide a day of light for 12-13 hours. To do this, you need to organize supplementary lighting with fluorescent lamps or special phytolamps.
You can illuminate tomato seedlings with LED or phytolamps
This growing method also has its drawbacks:
- rather low survival rate of seedlings after pruning - about 75%;
- the cultivation process lasts a month longer than usual;
- the need for additional lighting.
Video: Chinese way of growing tomato seedlings
Tomato seedlings in "snail"
This growing method is gaining popularity. It consists in the following:
- As the basis of the structure, a 20 cm wide strip of the required length (up to 4 m) is cut from a 2 mm thick vinyl backing for a laminate. Bubble wrap is also suitable for this.
- Lay it out on the table and pour the soil mixture in a layer 1 cm thick. After that, the substrate together with the soil is folded into a "snail". It is more convenient to do this in parts.
Bubble wrap can be used as the basis for the "snail"
- The rolled up "snail" is fixed with tape.
- The roll is placed vertically and the earth is poured from the upper side to a depth of 1 cm.
- Seeds are sown into the formed groove at intervals of 4–5 cm, lightly sprinkled with soil, and then moistened with a spray bottle.
- "Snails" are placed vertically in a pallet, a little water is poured into it and covered with a film.
After sowing the seeds, "snails" are placed in a tray with water
- Until shoots appear, the pallet should be in a dark, warm (22-24 ° C) place.
- Then the film is removed and the temperature is lowered to 18–20 ° C, providing illumination for 12–13 hours a day.
- Seedlings dive into separate containers after the appearance of two true leaves.
The advantages of the method are obvious:
- small growing area required;
- minimal costs for the substrate and consumables;
- constant moisture content of the substrate contributes to the rapid germination of seeds;
- when diving, the root is not damaged.
The main disadvantage of the method is the criticality of adherence to the timing of the dive. When plants are overexposed in the "snail", they thicken, stretch, and their roots intertwine.
Growing seedlings in a bottle
Two-liter plastic bottles can be successfully used for growing seedlings from seeds. This is done in two ways.
In fact, it is similar to growing in a "snail", only toilet paper acts as a substrate here and sowing takes place in a slightly different sequence:
- Lay 3-4 layers of toilet paper on the base strip and moisten it abundantly.
Tomato seeds are spread on moistened toilet paper at intervals of 4-5 cm
- Then, at a distance of 1 cm from the upper edge, the tomato seeds are laid out with an interval of 4–5 cm, covered with another layer of toilet paper and sprinkled with water.
- A layer of plastic wrap is spread on top of the paper, this whole "pie" is rolled up into a "snail", secured with an elastic band and placed in the bottom of a cut bottle.
The "snail" with the sown seeds is placed in a cut plastic bottle
- 1-2 cm of water is poured onto the bottom and covered with a film.
Further actions are similar to growing seedlings in a "snail" with nutritious soil.
In this case, the bottle is cut lengthwise. Toilet paper is placed in a half of a bottle, moistened and seeds are spread over the surface at intervals of 3-4 cm. A bag is put on the bottle and then everything happens in the same way as described above.
3-4 layers of toilet paper are placed in each of the halves of the bottle cut along the length, moistened abundantly with water and the seeds are laid out at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other
Both methods (vertical and horizontal) have, in my opinion, the only apparent advantage - the absence of soil and the convenience of growing in an apartment. But this convenience later turns into a huge disadvantage - due to the lack of sufficient nutrition, the growth of plants stops rather quickly. Several years ago I tried both methods on tomatoes and peppers - as a result, I got thin elongated stalks that could not withstand a dive.
In peat pots
This method is convenient in that when planting in the ground, it is not necessary to extract the plants, trauma to the roots is excluded - they grow through the walls. For tomatoes, 200-300 ml containers are suitable. Before planting, drainage holes are made in the bottom. You can immediately sow seeds in glasses, but it is still better to dive the seedlings into them and then place them on a pallet. To prevent the roots from one glass from growing into the next one, put a film between the pots.
Tomato seedlings in peat glasses are planted in the ground with them
Peat pots are one of the best ways to grow seedlings of any crop. I have been growing tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers in this way for more than ten years and have not found any flaws in it.
In peat tablets
This is an even more progressive way. Peat pellets are made of compressed grassland peat and placed in a mesh made of easily decomposable material. They are impregnated with all the fertilizers necessary for the plant, so no additional fertilizing is required. Tablets are produced with a diameter of 24 to 90 mm and a height of up to 30 mm. For tomatoes, it is better to use the largest ones. They work with them like this:
- An hour or two before planting, the tablets are soaked in warm water. At the same time, they will swell, their height will increase by about six times, and their diameter will practically not change.
An hour or two before planting, the tablets are soaked in warm water
- On the upper side, the tablet does not have a grid in the center - there is a depression into which a prepared seed is sown. If grown seedlings are dived into the tablet, then the hole should be deepened and expanded to the size of the root system.
- After planting, the seed or seedlings are covered with peat chips or humus and moistened.
- Tablets are placed on a pallet or in a special cassette.
- They take care of the seedlings according to already known rules.
When grown in peat tablets, additional feeding of tomato seedlings is not needed
- Finished plants are planted in the ground along with tablets.
This method has practically no disadvantages, except for the high cost of purchasing tablets.
Growing seedlings in sawdust
Growing seedlings in peat pots, tablets, coconut substrate, with many obvious advantages, has one important drawback - a relatively high cost. Our savvy gardeners have found a cheap (practically free) seedling substrate - stale sawdust, that is, lying for at least a year. You can also use fresh ones, but in this case they need to be fermented by moistening with a 2% urea solution. The aging period is 10–12 days, after which the resinous odor should completely disappear. After that, two ways are possible.
This method is suitable for those who plant tomatoes in a greenhouse. Procedure:
- Sawdust is poured into a container for seedlings with a layer of 5–7 cm and poured with boiling water.
- The steamed sawdust should swell and increase in volume, after which the surface is leveled.
- The prepared seeds are sown as usual, with an interval of 3-4 cm, and sprinkled with a thin layer of moist hot sawdust.
- The container is closed with a lid or foil.
- Before the emergence of shoots, they are placed in a dark place, after the formation of two true leaves, they dive into separate containers.
Seeds are laid out on the leveled wet surface of sawdust at intervals of 3-4 cm and covered with a small layer of wet hot sawdust
The advantages of this method:
- plants grown from such seedlings give their first fruits 10-15 days earlier, which is important when sown indoors;
- when removing seedlings from sawdust, the roots are not damaged.
In a greenhouse or greenhouse, a seedling bed is prepared as follows:
- Sawdust (stale or fermented) is filled with mineral fertilizers, previously diluted in water. For 100 kg of sawdust you will need:
- 300 g superphosphate;
- 200 g of urea;
- 200 g of potassium monophosphate.
- Sawdust is placed on the bed with a layer of 6–8 cm.
Fermented sawdust is placed on the bed in a layer of 6-8 cm
- Pour a nutritious soil mixture on top with a layer of 4–5 cm.
- Seeds are sown in it or tomato seedlings are dived.
When sampling from such a soil, the roots of the seedlings are practically not damaged, and the yield of tomatoes is higher than usual. Disadvantages of growing seedlings in sawdust (both hot and cold) were not found.
An original way for diligent gardeners. The eggshell acts as a seedling pot. You need to try to prepare many of these containers. Procedure:
- First you need to gently break the egg at one end and pour its contents out of the shell.
- Then cut off a quarter of the shell from the broken end with a knife.
A quarter of the shell is cut from the broken end of the shell with a knife
- Use a thick needle to drill a drainage hole in the bottom of the pot.
- Having collected the required amount of shells, boil them in water for about three minutes to destroy bacteria and unpleasant odors.
- Fill the shells with nutritious soil and place in the egg carton.
The shells filled with nutritious soil are placed in an egg carton
- Next, tomato seeds are sown in them and in compliance with the usual rules set out above, and seedlings are grown.
- When two true leaves appear on the plants, they are planted in larger glasses along with the shell. Before that, it is crushed by hands to form cracks for root germination.
In my opinion, it is too complicated and time-consuming method. Similar results with significantly less labor costs can be achieved using the cassette growing method.
Care of tomato seedlings
No matter how the seedlings are grown, the rules for caring for it are practically the same.
This seemingly simple stage of agricultural technology actually requires certain knowledge, without which you can spoil the seedlings even at the initial stage of growth. There are no exact watering schedules - the gardener must be able to independently determine the need for seedlings in moisture. It is important to remember that lack of moisture for tomatoes is not so dangerous, as its excess. This rule applies at any age of the plant. If there are no drainage holes in the container with seedlings, then as a result of stagnant water, the roots may begin to rot before diving and will simply dry out after transplanting;
To determine if the seedlings need watering, you need to press a paper napkin to the surface of the soil. If there are no wet spots left on it, watering is needed. The second option is to pierce the soil with a wooden skewer. If traces of wet soil remain on it, there is no need to water.
Before the emergence of shoots and three days after that, the soil is not watered, when it dries up, it is sprayed from a spray bottle. On the fourth day, gently watered from a syringe or syringe without a needle at the root, without affecting the leaves. In the future, watered if necessary in case of drying out of the soil. Watering is stopped 1-2 days before the dive.
On the fourth day, the seedlings are carefully watered from a syringe or syringe without a needle at the root
After the dive of the seedlings, watering is started no earlier than 3-5 days. From this time, they begin to water through the pan - this is how the root system develops better. 2 hours before planting in the ground, the plants are watered abundantly, and the soil in the garden is also moistened.
Water requirements for irrigating tomato seedlings:
- it should not contain chlorine, so it is better to use rain or melt water. Before watering, the tap should be allowed to stand for two to three days;
- in order not to stress the plants, the water should be warm - about 20-25 ° C.
An interesting way of irrigation is called "wick irrigation". This method allows you to maintain the desired humidity in the root zone of the seedlings practically without human intervention. Its essence lies in the fact that on the bottom of the container with the soil mixture on top of the drainage layer made of expanded clay, a wick made of a rope 5–10 mm in diameter is laid with a snake. The second end of the wick is lowered through a hole in the bottom of the container into another container filled with water. The wick should not be long. The shorter it is, the more efficiently the system works. In the process of growing, the water rises through the capillaries into the container with the seedlings, maintaining a stable level of humidity. With this method, both waterlogging and drying out of the soil are excluded.
For growing seedlings on wick irrigation, it is convenient to use cut plastic bottles
With any irrigation method, it is important not to overflow the seedlings.
Video: planting tomato seedlings for wick irrigation
As a rule, seedlings are not fed before diving. But after the transplant, she will need additional nutrition.
Urea solution and superphosphate
Two weeks after the dive, the seedlings are fed with a urea solution at a concentration of 2–2.5 g / l. Repeat this feeding after 1.5–2 weeks. In addition, foliar feeding with superphosphate gives good results. It must be dissolved in hot water (concentration 25 g / l) and let it brew for a day. Then the upper part is drained from the sediment, and then diluted with water 1:10.
So that the plants do not stretch and are strong, use growth regulators, for example, Athlete or Stocky (according to the instructions).
In order to prevent the seedlings from stretching, you can use the Athlete growth regulator
Iodine for watering seedlings
Iodine is an essential trace element for tomatoes. It is usually found in complex fertilizers, in phosphate rock, manure, wood ash. But some gardeners add one drop of pharmaceutical iodine per three liters of water and use it for watering seedlings, as well as for pre-sowing seed treatment. It is believed that this increases the immunity and productivity of tomatoes, and also serves as the prevention of fungal diseases.
The effect of this drug on seedlings is to saturate the soil and leaves with oxygen and disinfect them. The use of hydrogen peroxide provides:
- prevention of late blight, powdery mildew, black leg;
- disinfection of seeds and seedlings;
- improved germination and survival rate.
For the treatment of soil, plants and seeds, 20 ml of a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide is dissolved in 1 liter of water (it is in this concentration that it is sold in a pharmacy).
Ammonia (also called ammonia) is a source of nitrogen, which is necessary for plants at the stage of growing green mass. It is often used for root and foliar feeding. In the first case, 50 ml of the drug is added to 4 liters of water, in the second - 1 liter of water and 1 ml of ammonia. In addition, ammonia is a good remedy for some pests.
Photo gallery: means for feeding tomato seedlings
When growing seedlings at home and in closed greenhouses, pests are rare, but fungal diseases are common. Despite the fact that currently there are many fungicides to combat them, it is better to use folk remedies and biological preparations in the first place.
Serum processing of tomato seedlings
The lactic acid bacteria contained in its composition successfully defeat harmful fungi, and also enrich the soil with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, amino acids. Two liters of whey are taken in a bucket of water and 20 drops of iodine are added to enhance the effect. This composition is used for irrigation instead of ordinary water, as well as for foliar treatment.
It is a biological fungicide containing beneficial bacteria that effectively fight against all known types of fungi. Absolutely safe for humans and animals. It is used for pre-sowing treatment of seeds, as well as plants during the growing season. In addition to the universal one, Fitosporin-M is produced, which is focused on the processing of this particular culture.
In addition to the universal one, Fitosporin-M is produced for tomatoes.
It contains a balanced complex of trace elements and is at the same time a fertilizer for plants. Dissolve it according to the instructions and use it for watering and foliar treatments with an interval of 2 weeks.
Video: Fitosporin-M application for tomatoes
Features of growing tomato seedlings in the regions
In whatever region the tomato seedlings are grown, the rules are the same. The differences lie in the varieties and hybrids used, which must be zoned, and in the timing of planting, due to climatic characteristics.
North Caucasus region, including Krasnodar Territory
The approximate sowing dates in this region are the first half of February. For cultivation, you can recommend varieties:
- Cherry lady;
- Bank of the Don;
- The coast of the Kuban.
Ural and Siberia
Here, tomatoes for seedlings are sown a month later than in the south - from the beginning to the end of March. In view of the short summer, preference is given to early maturing varieties, for example:
- Alpatieva 905 A;
- Altai yellow;
- Altai honey;
Middle zone of Russia
The timing of sowing seeds for seedlings varies from mid-February to mid-March. Most of the known varieties are suitable for growing, for example:
- Bull heart;
- Moscow cream;
- Pink dessert.
There are many methods and ways of growing tomato seedlings. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages. The gardener should check the favorites on his site and choose the most suitable for his conditions.
Growing garden jasmine and caring for it, flowering period, how to feed and how to prepare for winter
Garden jasmine, or, as it is more correct to call it, chubushnik, is valued by gardeners for its abundant spring flowering and a pleasant aroma exuded by numerous flowers. The shrub is unpretentious and not capricious, but in order to maintain its decorative effect at the maximum level, it must be looked after during the entire growing season, including in autumn.
The recommended list of dissertations in the specialty "General Agriculture", 06.01.01 code VAK
Elements of the technology of cultivation of determinant tomato in the open ground of the Middle Urals 2013, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Fedurina, Olga Nikolaevna
Scientific and experimental foundations of resource-saving methods for increasing the yield of vegetable crops during irrigation in the Lower Volga region 2019, Doctor of Sciences Kalmykova Elena Vladimirovna
Growing varieties, F1 hybrids of tomato under temporary synthetic shelters with drip irrigation 2007, Ph.D. Filatov, Georgy Alekseevich
Influence of new forms of fertilizers on the productivity of tomato in greenhouses 2013, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Proskurnikov, Yuri Petrovich
Improving the technology of growing tomatoes in winter greenhouses of the Primorsky Territory 1999, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Gurskaya, Tatyana Alekseevna
When and what tomatoes to plant for seedlings in April: choosing the best early tomato variety according to reviews
It's not too late to start planting tomato seedlings in April. It is in this month that early varieties of tomatoes can be sown, which will need to be planted in the garden after about 60 days, that is, after 2 months at the beginning of June.
This is the most suitable time for planting seedlings in open ground in Siberia, the Urals, the Moscow region and other nearby regions, where freezing temperatures at night can be throughout May and early June. In the southern regions, at the beginning of April, tomato seeds are sown directly into a greenhouse or greenhouse.
Are engaged in crops in the middle of spring and those whose seedlings died from the "black leg" or some other ailment. In order not to be left without a harvest, the main thing is to choose a good variety of early tomatoes and know when to plant tomatoes for seedlings in April.
Planting tomatoes for seedlings in April 2019
Moon calendar recommends sowing tomato seeds this April 8, 11 and 18 AprilI. These are the best dates, since these days the Moon is growing and is in the signs of the Zodiac that are fertile for tomatoes (Taurus, Gemini, Libra).
If these days you have other things to do, plant tomatoes for seedlings on any day with April 7-18, skipping only the 13th, 14th and 16th numbers. Strongly advises the lunar calendar engage in any sowing, planting work April 4, 5, 6 and 19.
The best early ripening varieties of tomatoes
Tomatoes varieties Pink snow
We compiled a list of the best early varieties of tomatoes based on feedback from gardeners who grew them themselves and reaped a good harvest:
- Shuttle - not only early maturing, but also cold-resistant variety. It can be sown earlier and transplanted into the greenhouse in April-May. Plants will withstand temperature extremes and cool conditions.
- Dubrava (Dubok) grown outdoors. Despite the fact that the bushes are compact, some fruits can weigh about 500 g.
- Rocket - a variety familiar to many vegetable growers. On small bushes, tomato fruits hang in bunches. They are plump, small, that is, what is needed for canning.
- Moscow delicacy creamy - an interesting looking early ripe hybrid. His color is not just yellow, but creamy yellow. On plants about a meter tall, oblong juicy and sweet fruits are formed. With good care, a whole bucket of tomatoes can be harvested from 4 bushes.
- Apples in the snow - tomatoes with an interesting name are praised by gardeners for their resistance to diseases and high yields.
- Orange banana - the variety is popular not only for its taste, but also for the fact that the fruits can be harvested until late autumn.
- "Liana", "Liana pink" will yield in 90-95 days.
- "The Snow Queen", "Icicle" - the name of these varieties speaks for itself. Tomatoes are cold-resistant, tolerate temperature fluctuations.
- Pink snow - unlike those described above, this is a tall variety. With proper adherence to agricultural technology, up to 50 fruits can ripen on one brush of this tomato.
April is the last month in the current summer cottage season when you can sow tomato seeds for seedlings. Choose a variety that suits your climate and plant your crops. How to prepare tomato seeds and sow them correctly, you can learn Here. Good harvests to you!
How to properly care for seedlings
Growing eggplant seedlings at home should be aimed at ensuring that the sprouts are strong and subsequently give a good harvest. To do this, the seedlings should be kept in moist soil for several weeks, during the entire growth of seedlings. It is necessary to be careful that pests do not appear on the sprouts, pay attention to possible signs of the disease.
It is worth making sure that no water stagnates in the soil. If any pests are found, the seedlings are treated with special infusions, both purchased and prepared with their own hands. The conditions for growing seedlings of this culture are similar in their characteristics to growing tomatoes or bell peppers. The ideal climate for strengthening the roots is a temperature of 16 degrees, then the temperature is raised to 28 degrees.
See also: When to plant radishes with seeds in open ground
If necessary, the sprouts are additionally illuminated. The total lighting time should be at least 12 hours a day. Top dressing is carried out only after the first 4 leaves have appeared. They are fed with ready-made nitrogen or potassium solutions, which are added to the water for irrigation. During the entire growing season, it is necessary to feed the plant three times. Regular pest prevention is recommended.
If you follow all the rules for planting and growing eggplants, you can get a good harvest of a healthy vegetable.
Read also on the topic:
- When to plant onion sets in open ground in 2019
- When to sow zucchini for seedlings in 2019 in the Moscow region
- When to sow cauliflower seeds for seedlings in 2019 in the Moscow region
- Planting carrot seeds outdoors - when to plant in 2019
Planting dates for eggplant seedlings
Since this plant is very demanding on the temperature regime, and when the temperature drops below +20 degrees, it stops developing, it will definitely not tolerate frost.
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Therefore, it is possible to plant seedlings in open ground, provided that you are in a young region, from the end of May, but in the northern and central regions of Russia this is allowed to be done only from the beginning of the month of June.
For transplanting seedlings into a greenhouse, the beginning of May is suitable.
What else can you say about planting this plant for seedlings? Choose a suitable period for this purpose based on how old the seedlings you will need at that time.
So, if the sprouts are planted in a permanent place and they are about two months old, then it is necessary to plant eggplants for seedlings in 2019 (with their subsequent planting in open ground) in the second half of the month of March - for the southern regions, and in the first half of April - for northern and central regions.
And if the seedlings need to be prepared for planting in a greenhouse somewhere in early May, then plant them either at the end of February or at the beginning of March.
There is another important point that must be taken into account: from the moment of sowing to the emergence of shoots, as a rule, it takes from seven to ten days.
Some summer residents believe in the lunar calendar and that the moon affects the development of a plant, more precisely, the speed of its development.
If you also prefer to trust the lunar calendar, then sow eggplants for seedlings in 2019 on the following days:
- in January, favorable numbers are 1, 2, 10, 11, 19, 20, unfavorable 5, 6, 7, 21
- days in February are considered favorable for sowing from 1 to 3, 7, 8, from 11 to 13, 16, 17, as well as 24 and 25, but on February 4, 5, 6, 19 you should not do this
- in March, favorable days will be from 10 to 12, 15, 16, 23, 24, and unfavorable - 5, 6, 7, 21 March
- April 7, 8, 11, 12, 20 and 21 are auspicious days. Sowing is prohibited on April 4, 5, 6, 19.
We grow eggplant seedlings from seeds correctly
Soil and containers for planting
Before you start sowing seeds, prepare a soil mixture and container for them.
The seedling soil must meet the following requirements: be fertile, loose, light and neutral in acid level.
A mixture prepared in percentage composition will help to achieve the listed parameters:
- 60% peat
- 20% - humus
- 10% is sod land
- 5% each - sawdust or sand and vermicompost.
For summer residents who have black soil on the site, an option with an equal amount of purchased soil for seedlings, land from the garden and sand is suitable. Vermiculite should also be added to this composition.
The next stage is the preparation of containers for planting. In this matter, the imagination of summer residents is practically unlimited, since pots and cups, and a laminate substrate, cassettes and much more will do. Each of these methods has pros and cons.
Preparing eggplant seeds for sowing
If you use processed seed material, you do not need to think about preparation, but ordinary seeds require self-processing:
- soak them for half an hour in a solution of potassium permanganate
- rinse with water
- place the seeds in a nutrient solution for a day (use a spoonful of mineral fertilizer and wood ash per liter of water)
- transfer them so that they germinate.
You can also improve seed hardiness and germination by hardening.
To do this, you need to move the seed material from the nutrient mixture to the refrigerator several times, then return it back to the room. Make sure that the seeds at this time are moderately moist, after which they must immediately be planted in the soil mixture.
Each container should be filled with moistened soil, where only one seed is placed. It is recommended to moisten the seedling soil mixture with melted snow, but this technique is used exclusively when working with non-germinated seedling seeds.
In the case of sprouts that have already appeared, planting eggplants for seedlings must be carried out in a heated soil.
There are some simple but important rules to keep in mind when it comes to growing eggplant seedlings.
Once the seeds are in the ground, cover the container with plastic. When sprouts appear, try to lower the air temperature, as this will help the seedling root system develop better.
During the day, the optimal temperature is considered to be 17 degrees Celsius, and at night - 14 degrees above zero.
When the first leaves appear, the temperature should be increased: during the day it should reach 25 degrees Celsius, and at night it can remain the same. This will prepare the seedlings for outdoor conditions.
Despite the fact that eggplants are considered short-day plants, light is very important to them. In the first three weeks, artificial lighting will be enough for them for 12 hours, then it is necessary to make additional lighting - so the eggplant sprouts will not stretch, besides, the budding phase will come earlier.
For irrigation, water is used at room temperature (settled or rainwater).
It is recommended to use a spray for this, so as not to damage the roots of the seedlings and not accidentally wash the seeds.
In addition, it is important to monitor the moisture content of the seedlings, since drying out will have an extremely adverse effect on the result.
Not all summer residents are engaged in it, however, if eggplant seedlings at home require feeding, then it is performed according to the following schedule:
- First feeding. Without a dive of eggplant seedlings a week after the emergence of sprouts, and with a dive 12 days after planting. Use formulations containing a high percentage of phosphorus in the ratio of one tablespoon of fertilizer to 10 liters of water
- Subsequent feeding takes place every 7 days. In this case, it is important to combine top dressing with watering seedlings.
After about a month, the plant will enter the phase of the appearance of the first true leaves, and it is then that one should proceed to pick it into a separate capacious container, where the plant will remain for another one and a half to two months, and then planting in a permanent place will follow.
When diving, one should act very carefully in order to preserve a whole clod of earth, since the root system is sensitive and can be injured during transplantation.
Spill a lump of earth with water a couple of hours before the dive. Take 0.5 liter cups and fill them with the same mixture, spill it with mullein liquid solution, humate or Ideal fertilizer (for 5 liters of water - 0.5 cups).
Then make a depression, place the seedling in a glass and sink it down to the cotyledon leaves. After 6 days (not earlier), feed him with the same composition. Try to water the seedlings moderately in the morning to avoid black legs.
This will be followed by transplanting seedlings into open ground, a greenhouse.
Eggplant seedlings are planted in open ground at the end of May or at the beginning of June, that is, when the frost has finally passed.
Do not forget to process the plant from Colorado beetles or collect them yourself, by hand - it will be much more environmentally friendly.
Article author: Kartash Christina
Planting potatoes in 2019: favorable days according to the lunar calendar
Gardeners are using the lunar calendar to plant potatoes in 2019 as efficiently as possible. It helps to determine favorable days for sowing, watering and fertilizing plants. For the successful cultivation of potatoes, it is worth paying attention to the phases of the moon. Following the recommendations, summer residents will definitely get a big harvest.
Potato planting rules in 2019
What affects the timing of planting
The phases of the moon seriously affect plant development and yield. People have long noticed that for tuberous and bulbous crops, the waning moon phase will be a favorable time for sowing.
However, it is better not to delay planting, because it affects the yield and taste of potatoes. Many people prefer to do this in May, not knowing some of the subtleties. Gardeners recommend moving sprouted tubers into the soil early (usually choosing the time before the onset of aphids).
In this case, the plant will be more resistant and less susceptible to attacks by pests and various diseases. But at this stage of growth, you need to constantly review forecasts and take into account the state of the soil.
Potatoes, although an unpretentious plant, will not take root in unheated soil. The culture dies during frost. The optimum soil temperature for planting will be 10-13 ° C (when the mark on the street is 8 ° C or more).
Soil temperature is not the only factor affecting planting time. You should also pay attention to the moisture content of the earth. If it is excessive, sowing in such soil can lead to the development of bacterial diseases and infections in the crop. In addition, there are risks of rotting tubers.
For the normal growth of potatoes, the soil must be well loosened and slightly moistened.
Favorable and unfavorable days
Potatoes should be planted in April and May 2019. During these months, the conditions for good plant development are most suitable. According to the lunar calendar, in April the most favorable days for planting tuberous crops are 1-3, 24, 25 and 29. It is better to refrain from land work on April 6-10, 15-18.
May is a controversial month. Good days will be 4, 21 and 26, and unfavorable days for planting potatoes will be May 7-11 and 14-18. The day for work is chosen in advance. It is better for gardeners to adhere to the indicated deadlines, because they directly affect the quality and taste of the species grown.
In June 2019, you need to be careful when planting potatoes. The soil is gradually deprived of the necessary moisture, and there is a risk that the crop will not receive the required amount of water for growth and development. If you decide to plant a plant in June, 1-2, 18-24 and 26-30 numbers are best for this. It is worth postponing planting work on these days: 4-9, 11-16.
Depending on the variety
It is better to plant several different varieties.
The culture is divided into three groups of varieties: early, middle and late. For plants, different care is selected, depending on which category they belong to.
Gardeners note that it is necessary to choose zoned species (potatoes that are suitable for certain climatic conditions and soil). After all, whatever the quality of the plant, it will not give the expected yields under inappropriate conditions.
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It is always worth preparing several varieties from different groups. This technology will allow harvesting for a long time, because the species will not mature at the same time. In addition, individual varieties react differently to weather and soil conditions. If one of the planted ones disappears, you will definitely not be left without vegetables.
One species is always more susceptible to different "hazards": sensitive to excessive rainfall or drought, not resistant to infections and pests.
Such species have a very short maturation period - about 45-65 days. Early plants are more suitable for planting in southern regions. Potato tubers are prepared in advance, most often in early March. As a rule, in warm regions they are placed in the ground in early April. In this case, the seats will be warm enough and full of the necessary elements and moisture.
Delicious and healthy vegetables will ripen for harvesting in the summer (by mid-July). In tubers of early varieties, there are many useful substances for the body. They have a presentation and good characteristics. These varieties are considered the most popular among gardeners: Timo, Riviera and Karatop, Zhukovsky early, Bullfinch and Meteor.
Ripening of medium varieties takes a little longer than early ones - 80-100 days, depending on weather conditions. Root crops of these species will grow ideally and bring good yields in the middle lane (for example, in the Moscow region). Such potatoes "do not like" heat and drought, so this area is favorable for its cultivation.
The plant is prepared one month prior to application to the ground. It manages to germinate and gain strength before moving to a permanent place. Tubers are planted in early - mid-April, when the ground is warm enough.
Harvested by the beginning of August. Potatoes are notable for their presentation and good taste. It can be easily transported and stored for a long time. There are several outstanding "representatives" of this species - the varieties Desiree, Slavyanka, Chervona Ruta, Roko and Condor.
In late-ripening tubers, the growing season lasts from 100 to 140 days. Often, these varieties are preferred to grow in the southern regions, where it gets warm early and the temperature is above zero for a long time. Such climatic conditions are necessary to support the growth and development of culture.
Such species are planted in late March - early April. The collection is carried out in September.
Potatoes are distinguished by their ability to be stored without losing their presentation and nutritional properties for a long time. A crop with such ripening times is not typical for harvesting several times per season. With proper storage, potatoes can "lie" until next summer.
Vegetables of this group are very satisfying and cannot be compared with others in terms of the content of nutrients. The most common species are Asterix, Zarnitsa, Chaika and Atlant.
Depending on the region
Planting dates depend on the characteristics of the climate.
The term for planting potatoes in the ground in 2019 also depends on environmental conditions. In order for the plant to take root well and give excellent yields, it is necessary to take into account what temperature conditions are needed for its cultivation.
In the warm part of Russia, for example, in the Krasnodar Territory, early varieties of culture will take root perfectly. The soil will be warm enough for them. The plant is planted in late March - early April. Vegetables are harvested by mid - end of May.
Mid-season species can also be planted in these regions. They mature longer, but have a better chance of not deteriorating due to viruses or pests, and after harvesting, they are stored until the beginning of the next season.
The colder streak is ideal for medium-sized varieties. They are grown in different regions of Russia, Belarus, on the territory of Ukraine. This zone extends, including the Leningrad region. Tubers are planted at the end of April, subject to warm weather.
In Siberia and the Urals, the latest planting dates. The soil warms up only by the beginning of May. Therefore, in these regions, they prefer to plant the latter category of vegetables. They are often grown as seedlings in greenhouse conditions and then relocated to a permanent location.
Basic rules for growing
Given the specificity of the variety and climatic conditions, it is worth deciding on the planting period. For the successful cultivation of potatoes, it is important to wait for the established temperature without the threat of return frosts.
It is worth paying attention to precipitation - they play a huge role in soil preparation. The soil should not be excessively moistened so that rotting of the culture does not occur, because placed in cold, damp soil, it will not grow until conditions are suitable for a successful growing season.
There are many sowing methods. You can choose one of the traditional ones, for example, a smooth landing, ridge or in trenches, or you can opt for a non-standard method. Atypical methods do not always give the expected result: they are not universal for most varieties.
For beginner gardeners, it is better to adhere to the basic rules:
- the seat must be prepared in advance. This can be open ground or an area in a greenhouse that is far from water.
- tubers are placed in the direction from south to north. So the plants will receive the required amount of light.
- it is worth observing the distance between the rows of potatoes. For early species, it is 60 cm, for middle and late ones - 70 cm. We must not forget about the distance between the holes for the normal location of the root system. For the first it is 25-30 cm, and for the second - 30-35 cm
- the depth of the holes directly depends on the type of soil. For clay and dense - 4-5 cm, for heavy and loamy - 8-10 cm, and for light and loose - 10-12 cm
- planting tubers should be small, weighing 50-60 g
- do not plant potatoes in the ground where tomatoes and eggplants used to grow. These vegetables are pulling too many essential elements out of the ground.
- the plant is preliminarily treated with a solution of copper sulfate in order to avoid further fungal damage. To prepare the product, take 1 tsp. and diluted in 3 liters of water
- immediately before planting, the soil and sprouted tubers are treated with a fungicide solution. You can use the drug "Maxim". 10 kg of fruits prepared in advance should be sprayed with a mixture of 200 ml of water and 10 drops of the product.
The landing site is prepared in advance
In autumn, after harvesting, the soil of the beds is fed with natural or mineral fertilizers. A few days before placing the plants in the holes, the soil is loosened. During growth, the culture is periodically fed with organic matter, for example, compost. This ensures the growth of new stems and the strengthening of the root system.
The crop requires moderate watering to avoid rotting. During flowering, plants need to be moistened more often (up to 2 times a week). After that, it is recommended to reduce the volume of water.
You can fertilize potatoes with mineral fertilizers or specialized purchased solutions. The culture can be strengthened with onion peels. It is sprinkled with holes and covered with stems. She is the main assistant to the gardener in the fight against Colorado beetles and other pests.
The timing of digging up potatoes
According to the 2019 lunar calendar, it is better to harvest potatoes after the full moon. Vegetables by that time will have all the necessary elements. It is worth choosing the exact day for work. Early varieties are harvested in July. The most favorable days for earthwork are 15, 17 and 18.
Penalty for potatoes in the country / New laws of 2019 / 10.12 of the Administrative Code for potatoes in 2019. What you need to pay attention to? Penalty for potatoes on your own plot
Middle and late species ripen in August - September. The collection in the summer month will be held on the 2nd, 3rd and 31st, and in the fall - on the 1st, 29th and 30th.
Harvesting is not recommended on the new moon (July 19, August 1 and 30, September 28), because vegetables will be watery, tasteless, with a poor shelf life.
The very wide variety of cucumber varieties sometimes confuses gardeners. The article provides characteristics of some of the most common early cucumbers.
Cucumbers have become part of our life. We cannot imagine a single summer table without juicy cucumbers. They are an indispensable attribute of the dining table. And in the fall, cucumbers still continue to delight with memories of the past summer.
Cucumbers are grown both indoors and outdoors. In the case when cucumbers are grown in greenhouse conditions, the gardener may not think about the yield.
She will undoubtedly be tall.
But most of the people who work on a personal plot or just summer residents, this is not suitable. In turn, growing cucumbers in the open field requires much more attention and effort.
Not only can nature play a cruel joke in the form of torrential rains or dry summers, but also all sorts of diseases attack.
But, nevertheless, cucumber remains one of the most demanded products in human life.
There are different varieties of cucumbers, but only the right choice of them will give an abundance of its fruits. And the very first issue that must be taken into account is regionalization.
The choice of varieties suitable for this particular area is the first thing an amateur gardener needs to worry about.
For the Central European zone, the following varieties are more suitable than others:
- "Competitor". Its weight is 120-130 g. It is resistant to diseases such as bacterial spot and powdery mildew. Harvestable, early maturing. Cucumbers of this variety are pickled or fermented. But to grow them, you need sufficient watering.
- "Kustovoy". A delicious cucumber that grows and becomes usable in 55 days. Their length is 9-12 cm. Cucumbers of this variety can be fermented or canned in jars.
- "Harvest". A lot of cucumbers collected from the bush confirms the name of the variety. Cucumbers themselves have a delicate taste. Perfect for preservation.
- "Cascade". Its surface is covered with pronounced tubercles. Ripens at 7-8 weeks after the emergence of the shoot. It has excellent crunchy properties.
- "Altai". This variety is one of the very first to yield a harvest. Already at 5-6 weeks, light green cucumbers can be cut into a salad.
There are many more varieties of cucumbers besides the early soil ones described here.
Such a variety of them often confuses the gardener, which variety to choose? What needs to be considered: shape and size, fluffiness of thorns, color?
When growing cucumbers, it should be remembered that early cucumbers will get on the table faster, but later cucumbers are better harvested for the winter. They are more resistant to disease and weather disasters.