Walnut tree (Juglans regia) - this species belongs to the genus walnut of the walnut family. Also, the walnut is also called royal, volosh or Greek. Under natural conditions, this plant is found in northern China, northern India, Asia Minor, Western Transcaucasia, Tien Shan and Greece. Several individual specimens can also be found in Norway. However, the largest specimens growing in natural conditions can be found in the southern part of Kyrgyzstan. It is believed that this plant comes from Iran, but there is an opinion that the homeland of the walnut may be India, China or Japan. For the first time this tree was mentioned in the 7-5th century BC. So, Pliny writes that this plant was brought by the Greeks from the gardens of Cyrus, the king of Persia. When the culture brought from Greece ended up in Rome, it was already called "walnut". Later, this tree spread over the Swiss, Bulgarian, French and German territories. This culture came to America only in the first half of the 19th century. This tree was brought to the territory of Ukraine from Romania and Moldova under the name “Volosh walnut”.
Such a tree has a relatively large size, its height can reach 25 meters, and the girth of its trunk can vary from 3 to 7 meters. The bark of the tree is gray in color, while the foliage and branches form a fairly large crown. The leaf plates of the plant are odd-pinnate, complex, consist of elongated leaflets, the length of which can be 4-7 centimeters. The buds open together with small flowers of a light green color in May. Flowers are pollinated by the wind. The same plant has both male and female flowers. The fruits of such a tree look like a single-seeded drupe with leathery rather thick pericarp and a spherical bone with incomplete partitions, the number of which varies from 3 to 5 pieces. The kernel of such a fruit can be eaten, and it is located inside the shell. Fruit weight varies from 5 to 17 grams.
This plant is not very hardy. So, it can die at a temperature of minus 25-28 degrees. Such a tree can live from 300 to 400 years. Walnut wood is directly related to valuable species, while it is often used by experts to create expensive designer furniture. The foliage of this tree is used for the production of a dye for textiles. The main walnut-producing countries currently include the United States, Iran, China, Turkey and Ukraine.
Below you will find information on how to properly plant and care for a walnut, on the rules for shaping its crown and fertilizers. Information will also be provided on how to deal with various diseases and harmful insects, as well as what varieties are best to choose for growing in a garden.
How to grow walnuts in the Middle Lane
Planting a walnut
Most often, walnuts are recommended to be planted in open ground in the spring, but in the southern regions this procedure can be performed in the fall. If there is a good layer for drainage, then the composition of the soil can be absolutely anything. If the soil is clay, then it is recommended to add compost or peat to improve it. When choosing a place suitable for planting, it should be borne in mind that it should be well lit, since this tree loves light very much, and planting in a shaded place can lead to the death of the seedling. The richest harvest is given by those walnuts that stand alone in the sunniest place. It should also be taken into account that the groundwater at the landing site should not be located too close to the surface of the earth. The optimum soil acidity for a given plant is pH 5.5–5.8.
It should be remembered that the flowering of male and female flowers does not occur simultaneously. In this regard, it is very good if somewhere nearby (at a distance of 200-300 meters) a walnut of another variety grows. The wind will help the pollen to overcome such a considerable distance.
Before planting seedlings, they must be carefully examined. Roots and shoots on which there is rot, as well as dry and diseased ones, must be cut off. Then the root system must be immersed in a clay mash, the density of which should be like that of sour cream purchased in the store. In order to prepare a chatterbox, you need to mix water with 3 parts of clay and 1 part of rotted manure. If desired, you can pour into it an agent that stimulates plant growth (Epin or Humate).
The planting hole should be prepared in the fall. It should be noted that while the tree is young, it does not have a well-developed powerful root system, in this regard, it will take nutrients from the soil 1 m in diameter from the trunk. In this regard, special attention should be paid to creating suitable conditions for the growth and development of the walnut.
The size of the landing pit is influenced by the composition of the soil. On soils saturated with nutrients, the depth and diameter of the pit should be 0.6 meters. If the soil does not differ in its high fertility, then the required depth and diameter of the planting pit is 1 meter. When digging a hole, the top layer of soil saturated with nutrients must be removed to the side so that it does not mix with the bottom layer (it can be thrown out). Add humus (compost) and peat to the soil of the upper layer in a ratio of 1: 1: 1 and mix everything thoroughly. But at the same time, remember that fresh organic matter cannot be used. Then 0.8 kilograms of potassium chloride, 2.5 kilograms of superphosphate, 0.75 kilograms of dolomite flour and 1.5 kilograms of wood ash must be added to the same soil. Mix everything well. This amount of nutrients added to the soil during planting will feed the walnut for the first 3-5 years. During this time, the tree's root system will develop and grow so much that it will be able to extract the nutrients necessary for growth and development on its own.
The prepared planting hole must be filled up to the top with such an earth mixture, and then 15–20 liters of water must be poured into it.
During the winter period, the soil in the hole will settle and become more dense. In spring, when you are going to plant a walnut, you will need to pull out the entire soil mixture from the planting pit. Then a support stake is hammered into its bottom, the length of which should be 300 centimeters. After that, the soil mixture is poured into it with a mound so that when you install a seedling on it, its root collar rises 3-5 centimeters above the soil surface. Then pour the remaining soil mixture into the hole, compact it well and pour 2-3 buckets of water over the plant. After the liquid is absorbed, the soil will settle and the root collar will be at the same level with the ground, it is necessary to tie the tree to the support, and then sprinkle the surface of the trunk circle with a layer of mulch (sawdust, peat or straw), while its thickness should be from 2 up to 3 centimeters. Having departed from the tree trunk from 30 to 50 centimeters, it is necessary to make a roller out of the ground mixed with humus (3: 1), so that water collects inside it during rain. The height of the roller should be about 15 centimeters.
Planting walnuts in autumn and spring is practically the same. But in the fall, the hole should be prepared 14–20 days before planting. It must be remembered that in the fall such a tree can be planted only if the winters are mild and not frosty in the area.
At the beginning of spring, you should start caring for plants in the garden. In the event that in the third decade of March the outside air temperature is above minus 4-5 degrees, it is recommended to make sanitary pruning of this plant, as well as to form its crown. In the event that it is impossible to trim the walnut at this time due to unfavorable weather conditions, it can be postponed. But it should be remembered that pruning can be done only before the start of sap flow.
This plant is quite hygrophilous. If the winter was with little snow, and there was very little rain in the spring, then the walnut will need water-charging irrigation. Clean the stem and skeletal branches from the bark that has died out, then they must be thoroughly rinsed using a solution of copper sulfate (3%). Then whiten the stem with lime. At the same time, it is necessary to treat the plant as a preventive measure against diseases and harmful insects. And at this time, seedlings are being planted.
In May, you should feed the tree. If the plant is adult, then it needs about 6 kilograms of ammonium nitrate per year. As a rule, this fertilizer is recommended to be applied to the soil in the spring, as well as at the beginning of the summer period. Feeding trees should be started after they are 3 years old. The fact is that if the required amount of fertilizers was applied during planting, then the tree should be enough for about 3 years.
If the summer period is hot and dry, then the walnut should be watered more often and abundantly. From May to the end of July, such a tree should be watered once every 2 weeks. At the same time, it is not necessary to loosen the soil after watering, because such a plant reacts negatively to this procedure. In this case, weeds must be removed without fail. In summer, pests or fungi can settle on the tree. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out a systematic inspection of the plant, and if harmful insects or any of the diseases are found, then it will be necessary to treat the tree with appropriate insecticidal or fungicidal preparations.
In the last days of July, it is necessary to pinch the upper part of the shoots, but only those whose growth you want to accelerate. It should be remembered that young shoots must be ripe at the time when frosts begin, otherwise they will simply freeze in winter. It is necessary to feed the walnut by the foliar method, for this it is necessary to use potassium and phosphate fertilizers, while microelements should be added to them. There are varieties of walnuts whose fruits ripen in the last days of August, which means that you need to be ready for harvesting.
In most varieties of this plant, fruits are harvested in autumn. The ripening time of the fruits directly depends on the plant variety, and the collection of ripe fruits can be carried out from the end of August to the last days of October. After the nuts are harvested, the plant should be prepared for wintering. To do this, when all the leaves fall off, you need to make sanitary pruning, collect all fallen leaf plates and cut off shoots, process the plant to destroy existing pests and pathogenic bacteria. Then you need to whiten the stem and the base of the skeletal cells, using lime for this. Young trees and seedlings need to be prepared for the onset of winter frosts.
It is necessary to process walnuts for preventive purposes 2 times a year in order to prevent plant diseases or pest infestation. In the spring, the tree is treated very early, while the buds are not yet swollen. It, like the surface of the trunk circle, is treated with a solution of copper sulfate (1%) or Bordeaux liquid (1%). In autumn, the plant is treated with the same means, but only after all the leaves have fallen off, and the tree itself is at rest. You can replace these funds with a urea solution (7%), which is considered an insecticidal, fungicidal agent, and also contains a large amount of nitrogen. This tool is recommended to be used only during spring processing, because it is at this time that the tree needs nitrogen.
How to water
Walnut needs systematic watering, as it loves moisture very much. However, if it sometimes rains in the spring and summer, the tree need not be watered. If heat and drought are observed in summer and winter, then from May to the last days of July, the walnut needs to be watered once every 2 weeks, 30-40 liters of water are taken per 1 square meter of the trunk circle. From the first days of August, all watering must be stopped. In the event that the autumn is dry, then the walnut will simply need water-charging podzimny watering, this will help him to better endure wintering.
Walnut roots react negatively to soil loosening, in this regard, when applying complex mineral fertilizers, one must be very careful. Nitrogen fertilizers should be used in spring and early summer. If this fertilizer is applied later, it can provoke the development of a fungal disease. Potash fertilizers and phosphates should be used for feeding in the fall. A fruit-bearing tree requires 3 kilograms of potassium salt per season, 10 kilograms of superphosphate and ammonium sulfate each, and 6 kilograms of ammonium nitrate. You can also fertilize plants with green manure (peas, lupine, oats or rank). To do this, in August, they are sown in the aisles of the nut, and in autumn they are plowed into the ground.
Walnut is very fond of warmth, in this regard, it can be grown only in areas characterized by mild, not frosty winters. But there are varieties that can withstand a short-term drop in air temperature to minus 30 degrees. Adult specimens do not need to be covered for the winter. However, this is simply necessary for seedlings and one-year-old trees, and they are covered with burlap. Their near-trunk circle is sprinkled with a layer of mulch (manure), while do not forget to step back 10 centimeters from the trunk.
What are the trimming times?
Formative and sanitary pruning of the tree should be done in the spring (March or April), while the outside temperature should be above zero, but you need to be in time before the sap flow begins. There are gardeners who recommend pruning walnuts from the middle of summer, the fact is that in early spring, weak and frost-affected shoots are poorly distinguishable. In autumn, sanitary pruning is necessary, while dried, injured and diseased branches and shoots are removed.
If the formative pruning is not performed at all, then the tree may have a lot of defects, for example, breaking forks with rather sharp corners, excessively long branches with a small number of lateral branches, and fruit-bearing shoots may also begin to die off as a result of the crown being thickened, and a large number of other problems may also appear. The formation of the crown has a beneficial effect on the development of the walnut, thus increasing the yield and quality of the fruits themselves, and also regulating the growth of the plant.
In order to make any pruning, you need a very sharp knife or pruner, which must first be sterilized. The selected tool should make even cuts, while there should be no burrs. The first pruning is done after the tree is 150 centimeters tall. In this case, the height of the plant's trunk should be equal to 80 to 90 centimeters, and the crown - from 50 to 60 centimeters. When forming the crown, 10 skeletal branches should be selected, while the remaining shoots are cut off by 20 centimeters. The stem must be systematically freed from overgrowth.It takes 3 or 4 years to form the skeleton of the crown. After this is done, it is only necessary to periodically cut off competing and fattening shoots, as well as those that thicken the crown.
In the spring, after the appropriate weather has been established, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, while removing those branches and shoots that have dried up or damaged by disease or frost, as well as growing incorrectly. If the cut exceeds 0.7 millimeters, then it should be smeared with garden var. Both sanitary and formative pruning are performed at the same time.
In the event that pruning has not been done for a long time, then fruiting may well shift to the periphery. So, the fruits will be located only at the top of the crown. To correct this problem, a rejuvenating pruning of the tree is performed. At the beginning of the spring period, it is necessary to remove excessively high skeletal branches with a saw. Then it is necessary to thin out the crown strongly enough in order to improve ventilation and increase the amount of incoming sunlight. It is necessary to cut the branches in the places of the lateral branch, as a result of which the young branches will grow sideways, and not upwards. After some time, due to the influx of tree sap, the buds will awaken, and young shoots will grow from them. So, over time, a new crown will form.
In the process of harvesting the fruits, in some cases, a branch or shoot may be injured or break off. Some of the shoots can be damaged by disease or harmful insects. In this regard, after all the leaves fall off, it will be necessary to cut off injured, sick, drying branches and shoots, as well as those that grow incorrectly. The fact is that in winter the tree will consume the nutrients that it needs so much. After removing thick branches and shoots, the places of the cuts should be smeared with garden varnish.
Walnut crown shaping according to the KIKTENKO method
This plant can be propagated by seeds, as well as by grafting. However, in order to inoculate a varietal cuttings, it is necessary to grow a stock from a seed. In this regard, it is necessary to know both methods of reproduction.
Propagation of walnuts by seeds
You should know that in order to grow a walnut from a seed, it takes a lot of time. The seeds are recommended to be taken from a plant that is healthy, produces a rich harvest and grows in the same area where you live. Choose a fruit that is large enough to extract the kernel without difficulty. The maturity of the nucleus can be judged by the state of the pericarp (pericarp). In the event that cracks appear on the pericarp, or by making an incision it is very easy to pull it out, this indicates that the nucleus is ripe. It is necessary to remove the nut from the pericarp and place it outdoors in a sunny place where it should dry for 7 days. After that, he is brought into a room, where the temperature should be in the range of 18 to 20 degrees, and they are waiting for it to dry out. Seed planting can be done this fall, or this procedure can be postponed until spring, but in this case, the nut will need stratification. To stratify a thick-skinned nut, it must be placed in a place with a temperature of 0-7 degrees for 90-100 days. If the shell is of medium thickness or it is a thin-skinned variety, then the nut should be stratified at a temperature of 15 to 18 degrees for 4-6 weeks. For faster germination of stratified nuts, they are buried in moist sand and kept at a temperature of 15 to 18 degrees until they bite. Only then can the seed be planted in the soil. Seeds that have hatched are sown more rarely, and non-hatched seeds are sown denser. Sowing seeds in open ground is carried out only after the earth warms up to plus 10 degrees. Between the nuts in a row should be left from 10 to 15 centimeters, and the row spacing should be about half a meter. Seeds that are medium in size need to be embedded in the soil to a depth of 8 to 9 centimeters, larger ones - from 10 to 11 centimeters. In the last days of April, the first seedlings appear. The germination rate of stratified seeds is 70 percent. After the plant grows 2 true leaf plates, it is transplanted into the school, while it is necessary to pinch the tip of the central root. The seedlings will stay on such a bed for a very long time. So, only after 2-3 years a high-quality stock will grow from the plant, and after 5-7 years it will turn into a seedling suitable for transplanting to a garden plot. In order to increase the growth rate of a seedling, it is grown in a greenhouse. Under such conditions, the rootstock will grow in just 12 months, and the seedling in 24 months.
Growing a walnut from seeds (nut), a quick method at home Part-1
Propagation of walnuts by grafting
To inoculate this plant, the budding method is used. It should be noted that the buds of such a plant are quite large. In this regard, the shield should also have a large size, which is cut from the scion cuttings and inserted under the bark of the rootstock, since its task is also to feed the eye with water and nutrients. But there is one problem, even in areas with mild winters, buds that have taken root before the onset of the autumn period freeze out during wintering, since the culture is not winter-hardy enough. In this regard, the budded seedlings with the onset of the autumn period need to be dug up, but only after all the leaves have fallen off. They should be placed in a basement where the temperature should be around 0 degrees. The seedlings will stay there until the onset of the spring period. After the soil warms up to 10 degrees in spring, it will be necessary to plant walnuts in the nursery. By the end of the growing season, their height can be from 1 to 1.5 meters, in which case it will be possible to transplant them to a permanent place.
Such a plant is highly resistant to both harmful insects and diseases, but if the walnut is improperly looked after, then it may well get sick.
Spots of black color appear on the leaf plates, as a result of which they begin to deform and die off. Infected fruits become of poor quality and most often fall unripe. Thick-skinned varieties are less susceptible to this disease. Bacteriosis can begin to develop due to nitrogen-containing fertilizers and prolonged rains. To destroy the disease, it is necessary to treat the plant with Bordeaux liquid, a solution of copper sulfate and another fungicidal agent. The tree should be processed in 2 stages. In autumn, it is imperative to collect and destroy the foliage that has fallen from the tree.
Brown spot (marsoniasis)
Brown specks appear on the surface of the leaf plates. They grow and gradually occupy the entire surface of the leaf. In an infected tree, the leaves begin to dry out and die off. Infected fruits also fall off without even ripening. This disease prefers wet weather. Infected foliage and stems should be cut off as the disease can spread to the entire plant. The cause of the development of marsoniasis can be incorrect, or rather, excessively frequent watering. You can cure a walnut with Strobi (4 grams of substance for a bucket of water) or Vectra (for a bucket of water from 2 to 3 grams of substance). The first time the plant is treated during the beginning of bud break, and the second - in the summer.
The root system of the plant suffers from this disease. The penetration of the pathogen occurs through cracks in the bark, as well as wounds, while convex growths are formed. With a strong development of root cancer, the walnut stops growing and bearing fruit, and in the most severe cases it dries up and dies. The growths on the tree must be opened and thoroughly cleaned. After that, they are treated with a solution of caustic soda (1%). Then it is necessary to rinse the wound with running water directly from the hose.
Such a disease affects the leaf plates, buds, shoots, flowers and catkins of this plant. Initially, brownish-red spots are formed on young leaf plates, while depressed girdle spots of black color appear on the surface of the shoots. Infected leaves and shoots die after some time. The foliage and buds of the male inflorescences become dark and fall off. Black spots also appear on the surface of the pericarp. This disease is actively developing in rainy weather. Those parts of the tree that are infected should be cut and destroyed as soon as possible. Places of cuts must be treated with a solution of copper sulfate (1%). Walnuts must be treated with copper-containing products.
American white butterfly
This pest is of particular danger, and it can settle on almost any fruit crop. During the period of intensive plant growth, the butterfly manages to develop in 2–3 generations. The first generation spoils the plants in July and August, the second in August, as well as in September, the third in September and also in October. Caterpillars of such an insect settle on shoots and destroy all leaf plates, using them as food. To destroy a butterfly, you need to burn those places in which there are many pupae and caterpillars. Then the plant is treated with a microbiological agent, for example: Lepidocide (25 grams per bucket of water), Dendrobacillin (30 grams per bucket of water) or Bitoxibacillin (50 grams per bucket of water). For one adult tree, from 2 to 4 liters of solution is used. However, it should be remembered that the nut should not be sprayed during the flowering period.
Nut wart mite
Destroys young leaves without damaging the fruit. The appearance can be provoked by high humidity. When the insect settles on a tree, then dark brown tubercles will appear on its leaf plates. For its extermination, acaricidal agents should be used, for example: Akarin, Aktara or Kleschevit.
Walnut (apple) moth
She feeds on the fruits of the plant. The insect crawls into the fruit and eats its core, as a result the nut falls off prematurely. During the season, the moth can give 2 generations, with the first damaging the plant in May – June, and the second in August – September. To prevent insect breeding on the plant, it is recommended to hang up pheromone traps that attract males. You should also destroy those fruits that have fallen, and the pest nests on the plant.
Produces mines in foliage. Caterpillars eat up the leaves from the inside, while their skin remains intact. On the infected nut, there are dark tubercles on the surface of the leaf plates. An infected tree is treated with Lepidocide, if there are a lot of pests, then pyrethroids are used, for example: Decamethrin or Decis.
Can live on any culture. It not only damages foliage, but also carries incurable viral diseases. When a tree is infected, you should immediately resort to using the most powerful drugs, for example: Antitlin, Aktellik or Biotlin.
Today there are a large number of varieties of this plant, which are distinguished by a relatively high resistance to harmful insects, diseases, and are also drought or frost-resistant. Most of these varieties give a rich harvest of high quality fruits. According to the ripening time, such plants are divided into early ripening - ripening occurs in the last days of August and in the first September, mid-ripening - from the second half to the last days of September, late-ripening - in the last days of September in early October. Specialists from various countries are working on the development of new varieties, for example, there are varieties of Ukrainian, Russian, Moldavian, American and Belarusian selection. The most popular varieties will be presented below.
- Skinossky - an early variety that stands out for its winter hardiness and productivity. If the humidity of the air is increased for a long time, then the tree gets sick with brown spot. The egg-shaped fruits are large enough (about 12 grams). The shell thickness is medium, and the large kernel can be easily removed from the shell.
- Codrene - a late variety, characterized by frost resistance and productivity, resistant to marsoniasis and harmful insects. Large fruits have a thin, almost perfectly smooth shell. It is quite simple to split the shell, while the kernel falls out in one piece or divided into 2 parts.
- Lunguece - resistant to brown spot and frost. The oblong-oval fruits are large enough and have a smooth thin shell, which breaks quite easily, while the whole kernel is removed.
Moldavian walnut varieties.
In addition to these varieties of Moldovan selection, Kalarashsky, Korjeutsky, Kostyuzhinsky, Kishinevsky, Peschansky, Rechensky, Kogylnichanu, Kazaku, Brichansky, Faleshtsky, Yargarinsky and others are popular.
- Bukovinsky 1 and Bukovinsiky 2 is a mid-to-late-ripening variety with a high yield and resistance to marsoniasis. The shell is thin and strong, it just cracks, the whole core is separated.
- Carpathian Is a late-ripening variety with a stable yield and resistance to brown spotting. The shell is thin and strong, and the kernel is peeled off very easily.
- Transnistrian Is a mid-season variety with a consistently high yield, as well as frost resistance and high resistance to marsoniosis. The nut has an average size and weight of 11-13 grams. The shell is thin and strong, the core can be easily removed, since the internal partitions are quite thin.
Ukrainian varieties of walnuts
Also, high-quality fruits and resistance to adverse weather conditions are available in such Ukrainian varieties as: Klyshkivsky, Bukovynska bomb, Toporivsky, Chernivtsky 1, Yarivsky and others.
The most popular Californian varieties, which are allocated in a separate group:
- Black california nut - the shell of large fruits has an almost black color, there are many convolutions on its surface.
- Santa Rosa Soft Shell - an early variety with a high yield. There are 2 varieties: the flowering of the first falls at the same time as the other varieties, and the second - half a month later than everyone else, after the threat of frost has passed. Medium-sized nuts have a thin white shell and a kernel of the same color, which is distinguished by high taste.
- Royal - this hybrid variety has a high yield. It comes from a cross between a black walnut from the US East and a California black walnut. Large fruits have a thick and strong shell, the kernel is very tasty.
- Paradox - a high-yielding variety. Large nuts have a tough, thick shell, and the kernels are excellent in flavor.
Breeders are still breeding new hybrids, trying to get one that will have an even thinner shell.
Popular Russian and Soviet varieties
- Dessert - an early-ripening variety with a high yield and drought tolerance. Can only be cultivated in the southern regions. The kernels are slightly sweet, tasty.
- Elegant - resistant to drought, harmful insects and diseases. Possesses average frost resistance. Medium fruits weigh about 12 grams and have slightly sweet kernels.
- Aurora - early ripening and mid-ripening variety.Winter-resistant, disease-resistant. The yield is increasing every year. The average weight of a nut is 12 grams.
Also popular are such varieties as Urozhainy and Izobilny.
Early ripening varieties are allocated in a special group. Such trees are not tall and they ripen very early from mid-August to the first days of September. The tree has a moderate frost resistance and begins to bear fruit from the age of three. The most popular ones are:
- Dawn of the East - a low tree with a high yield, which can be grown in the middle lane.
- Breeder - such a high-yielding variety has low resistance to frost and high - to harmful insects and diseases. Medium sized nuts weigh about 7 grams.
Also popular are such varieties as: Pyatiletka, Petrosyan's Favorite, Baikonur, Pinsky, Pelan, Sovkhozny and Pamyat Minova.
The best and most common varieties include:
- Ideal - high resistance to frost. Its yield is the highest, because the tree bears fruit 2 times per season. The weight of the nuts is 10-15 grams. The kernels are delicious, slightly sweet. It is possible to propagate only generatively, but at the same time the fruits can retain all the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.
- Giant - a high-yielding variety, characterized by systematic fruiting. Fruit weight is about 12 grams. This variety can be cultivated in almost any region in Russia.
What are the benefits and harms of a walnut
The benefits of walnuts
Biologically active substances are found in any part of a walnut. For example, the bark contains triterpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, tannins, quinones and vitamin C. The foliage contains aldehydes, alkaloids, carotene, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, quinones, high aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol carboxylic acids, vitamins C, PP and essential oil. And in the tissues of the pericarp there is vitamin C, carotene, tannins, coumarins, quinones, phenolcarboxylic and organic acids.
Green nuts contain vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, carotene and quinones. Ripe fruits contain the same vitamins, as well as sitosterols, quinones, tannins and fatty oil, including linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic acids, fiber, cobalt and iron salts.
The walnut shell contains phenol carboxylic acids, coumarins, tannins. And in the thin brown skin, which is located on the surface of the fruit (pellicle), there are steroids, coumarins, tannins and phenol carboxylic acids.
The content of vitamin C in foliage becomes more and more during the season, while in the middle of summer it is maximum. Such leaves are valued for the high content of carotene and vitamin B1, and also for the dye juglone, which has an antibacterial effect. They also contain tannins.
Ripe nuts are high in calories and are considered highly active. There are 2 times more calories in them than in premium bread made from wheat flour. They can be used for prophylactic purposes against atherosclerosis, as well as if the body lacks cobalt salts, iron, and also vitamins. The fiber and oil in nuts can help relieve constipation problems.
A decoction of the foliage can heal wounds. It is used to treat rickets and scrofula. Infusion of foliage rinse the mouth for inflammatory diseases of the mouth and bleeding gums.
Means made from walnuts have an astringent, tonic, laxative, epithelial effect. They also have antihelminthic, anti-sclerotic, anti-inflammatory effects, lower sugar, fight inflammation and stop bleeding.
Walnut oil is especially prized. It is highly nutritious and tastes good. It is recommended to take it during the recovery period for those who have suffered a very serious illness or surgery. It contains unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, macro- and microelements, biologically active substances. It contains a very large amount of vitamin E, it has a beneficial effect on the body of an elderly person, especially if he suffers from hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic hepatitis, increased gastric acidity, thyroid hyperfunction. And this oil also protects the human body from carcinogenic substances, improves radiation resistance, and also promotes the removal of radionuclides.
This oil has long been used to cure diseases such as tuberculosis, inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes, cracks, long-term non-healing ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, varicose veins and furunculosis.
At the University of California, scientists with the help of experiments were able to prove that after four weeks of eating such oil by a sick person, the amount of cholesterol in his blood stopped rising and remained at the same level for many weeks. This oil is recommended for chronic arthritis, burns, ulcers, chronic colitis with constipation, diseases of the stomach and intestines. And it is also advised to take it to pregnant and breastfeeding women.
You can not eat walnuts and products with their content for those who have an individual intolerance to such a nut. In people suffering from neurodermatitis, psoriasis and eczema, such a nut and preparations with its content can cause an exacerbation of the disease, so their use should be supervised by a specialist. You can not eat such nuts for those who have increased blood clotting, bowel disease and pancreas. Eating too many walnuts can lead to severe head pain, swelling of the throat, and inflammation of the tonsils. A healthy person is recommended to eat 100 grams of such nuts per day.
Walnut - planting and care, how to plant correctly, pruning, fertilizing
Walnut (juglans regia) has long been growing in the wild in the region of southeastern Europe and Asia. Although the climate in most regions of Russia is not very favorable, walnut seedlings initially acclimatized in quiet forests. Later, various varieties adapted to cold climates were bred. Ripe nuts are eaten raw and added to confectionery. A huge tree will become an attractive decoration of the yard and a place of rest, and a spreading crown will provide shelter from the sun. If you plan to grow this tree, you need to know how to plant a walnut correctly, how to take care of the tree - feeding, watering, pruning and shaping the crown, after how long it bears fruit. This will be discussed in more detail below.
- Seat selection
- Soil preparation
- Regulation of soil response
- Organic fertilizers
- Mineral composition
- Selection of varieties for the garden
- Preparing to plant trees
- Landing dates
- Landing scheme
- Preparation of seedlings
- Growing a tree
- Grass mulching
- Top dressing and fertilizers
- Fertilizing young trees
- Fertilizing mature trees
- Organic fertilizer
- Fertilizer on personal plots
- Crown formation and pruning
- Crown height
- Pruning time
- Crown formation goals
- Cutting technique
- Pruning in the first year after planting
- Pruning for the second year
- Pruning in subsequent years
- How to store nuts?
- Productivity, beginning of fruiting
- Nut bacterial rot (Xantomonas arboricola pv juglandis)
- Nut anthracnose (Gnomonia leptostyla)
- Powdery mildew
- Non-communicable diseases
- Cinnabar red nectria
- Fruit tree cancer
- Nut pests
- Four-legged pruritus tick (Aceria tristriatus)
- Walnut aphid
- Leaf rollers
- Corrosive arboreal tree (Zeuzera pyrina)
How to harvest and store crops correctly
Nuts begin to bear fruit, depending on the variety, at the age of 3 years. At about 5-6 years old, we will collect only 5-10 nuts. At 15 years old, 1-2 buckets of harvest await us, at 20 years old - a bag, and at the age of 50-100 years - a whole centner! The fruits ripen in different periods from August to mid-October.
When the ripe pericarp, the green peel around the nut, begins to crack, and the nuts crumble to the ground, then it's time to harvest. You should not hit the branches with sticks to get the fruit. Perhaps you need to wait a bit and collect the fallen nuts or use ladders and ladders to avoid damaging the branches with "barbaric" methods.
At about 5-6 years old, we will collect only 5-10 nuts. At 15 years old, 1-2 buckets of harvest await us, at 20 years old - a bag, and at the age of 50-100 years - a whole centner!
The collected nuts must be cleaned of the green pericarp so that there is no rotting. Dry by spreading in a thin layer in the open air. Place the nuts in linen bags and store them in a cool, dark place. Do not store nuts in hot rooms, as their oils become toxic and bitter at high temperatures. Walnuts stored in their shell retain their antioxidant properties, and without the shell, they quickly oxidize and reduce their usefulness. It is better to plant these trees at the edge of the plot so as not to shade the rest of the planting. Walnut is quite unpretentious and disease resistant. The nut is undemanding to the ground, it grows, almost everywhere. But he does not like heavy and damp soils.
Opened pericarp of a walnut Ripe walnuts contain vitamins K and P Walnut jam
How walnuts grow: a photo of a tree in the gallery
The technology for growing walnuts from seedlings is based on their correct planting, therefore it is important to comply with all requirements, including the size and depth of planting pits. For planting, take 3-4-year-old seedlings of the grafted plant. 2 months before planting, if the acidity of the soil is high, lime should be added. The size of the planting pit should be 70x70 cm. However, if the root system of a young tree goes beyond it, it is necessary to dig a hole of such width and depth so that the roots can freely fit in it completely straightened out. The pit is filled with earth and humus in equal parts. The roots of the seedling are treated with a growth stimulant, after which the plant is lowered into the pit. The roots are gently straightened, sprinkled with earth, which is then compacted well. The root collar must remain at ground level. After planting, the seedlings are watered abundantly with water. 3 buckets of water are poured under each bush. The trunk circle is mulched with sawdust or leaves. If several trees are planted, a distance of 10-15 m should be left between them.
How the walnut grows can be seen in the photos presented below in our gallery:
Soil and location. You can grow walnuts on any soil, but always fertile, loose and drained. The tree grows well and bears large yields on heavy loams with low acidity and low groundwater levels. Swampy and highly compacted areas are unsuitable for it.
To get rich harvests, it is necessary to replenish the supply of useful elements in the soil. Fertilized land will contribute to the full development of the tree and its abundant fruiting. As top dressing, special complex fertilizers and green manures are suitable, thanks to which the plants are provided with all the necessary microelements for a long time. It is better to plant walnuts in an open place, protected from gusts of wind and spring frosts, in which young shoots and flowers are damaged.
Morning glory in winter
Long-term morning glory with the onset of winter must be carefully dug up and planted in a large pot, leaving it later in the room or basement. The ground part of the plant is cut off. In the southern regions, it can be left in the open field, well covered.
Watch the video! Morning glory in winter at home
Thanks to Ipomoea, you can decorate any site and buildings without much effort. By following the recommendations given in this article, you can enjoy the beauty of the morning glory throughout the summer and even in the fall until the first frost.