Proper cultivation and care of Savoy cabbage outdoors
Savoy cabbage was developed by Italian breeders in the late 18th century and became widespread in Europe in the 21st century. With proper care, growing it is not difficult.
Characteristics of Savoy cabbage
This vegetable crop is a head of cabbage with bright green tender, soft leaves. The head of cabbage is not dense, has no coarse veins. Delicate and spicy taste well suited for salads and cutlets. Not used for pickling and salting.
In the first year of growth, a small rosette weighing from 0.5 kg to 1.2 kg... The next year, the head grows up to 3 kg, the leaves become soft. The taste becomes more pronounced.
The stem throws out inflorescences with seeds, which are subsequently used to grow seedlings. If stored properly, it can be used as a seed, up to 5 years.
Savoy cabbage has valuable dietary properties.
- crude protein - 1.7-4%;
- vitamin C - 2–90 mg;
- vitamin P - 4–3 mg;
- vitamin A - 0.3-0.7 mg;
- sugar - 4-7%;
- mineral salts - 0.85%.
Savoy cabbage frost-resistant, has a high resistance to diseases and pests. Easily tolerates lack of moisture.
Among the disadvantages of savoy cabbage are the following:
- this vegetable can not be eaten with ulcers, gastritis, duodenal disease, thyroid disease;
- causes increased gas formation.
- Jubilee 2170;
- Vienna - early 1346;
- Julius F1.
- Melissa F1;
- Verosa F1, Ovasa F1;
- Morama F1.
Seed preparation for growing
Before planting, the seeds must be properly prepared.
For 20 minutes fill them with hot water (not lower than +60 degrees), after that they are immersed in very cold water for 3 minutes, and then the seeds are soaked for 14 hours in a solution of trace elements.
After soaking, the seeds are placed in the refrigerator for a period of 22 to 24 hours. This will increase frost resistance and seed germination will be maintained for 5 years.
Seeds are planted in the beginning of March... For planting seeds, it is necessary to prepare special soil. In wooden boxes in equal proportions, mix turf soil with sand and peat. Spill the prepared soil with a weak solution of manganese.
It is not recommended to use garden soil to grow cabbage. It can contain infections that can damage crops.
Sow seeds from a distance 1 cm... Row spacing not less than 3 cm, groove depth 1 cm... The grooves are covered with earth. The boxes are covered with foil or glass on top.
It is necessary to maintain the room temperature at least 18 degrees. Before the first shoots appear, the soil should be well watered. After the emergence of shoots, open the boxes and reduce the temperature in the room to 15 degrees during the day and 8 degrees at night.
On day 7, thinning should be performed so that the distance between the shoots is 2 cm. In order for the seedlings to grow strong, they need a lot of light. The seedlings should be exposed to light for at least 14 hours. For this you can use an ultraviolet lamp.
Watering must be carried out daily with a small amount of water so that the soil is always moist.
The water should be slightly lukewarm. After watering, you need to loosen the ground so that there is no stagnation of water. After 2 weeks, the seedlings should be dived. The roots are shortened by 1/3 and transplanted into peat cups.
Top dressing of seedlings
Initially, feeding should be done, when two leaves appear on the seedlings... The solution is prepared as follows:
- water - 1 liter;
- complex fertilizer - 0.5 teaspoon.
Spray the leaves with this solution. After two weeks, repeat the feeding.
For feeding you need:
- water - 1 liter;
- superphosphate - 4 grams;
- saltpeter - 3-4 grams;
- potash fertilizers - 4–5 grams.
Before fertilizing, the soil should be pre-watered to prevent burns.
14 days before disembarkation seedlings in the soil must be hardened. Hardening is done as follows:
- On the first and second day, open the window for 4–6 hours;
- For 8 days, put the seedlings on a loggia or a glazed veranda, shading from the sun on daylight hours. At night, the seedlings must be brought into the room;
- 4 days before transplanting, seedlings can be left on the loggia for 24 hours.
7 days prior to disembarkation it is necessary stop watering... 2 hours before planting in the garden, the seedlings should be watered abundantly.
The soil for the growth of cabbage prepared in autumn... It is necessary to first perform a deep digging and wait until the weed grows. Having destroyed the weeds, liming it and digging the area a second time.
In spring, mullein or rotted compost is introduced into the soil at the rate of 3-4 kilograms per 1 square meter. meter, 35-40 grams of mineral fertilizer, 150-200 grams of wood ash and digging the beds 20 cm deep.
Transplanting seedlings into open ground
Transplanting into open ground is performed by:
- When 5-6 leaves appear on the seedlings.
- The transplant is carried out in the evening;
- Seedling height from 18 to 20 cm;
- The root system is well developed;
- Seedling color is bright green.
Seedlings are planted at intervals in a row 35-40 cm... Row spacing 45-50 cm... The groove is well shed with water. In depth, the groove should be identical to the size of the pot in which the seedlings were previously grown. Sprinkle seedlings with earth to the first leaf.
Suitable for the growth of cabbage well-lit plot of landwhere previously cucumber, onion, tomato, potato were grown.
Clay soil is not suitable.
7 days after the transplant, it is necessary to perform loosening to a depth of 7 cm... Subsequent loosening is performed every week to a depth of 15 cm. Hilling should be done 30 days after transplanting.
Re-hilling is performed when the leaves begin to close together. In the process of growth, cabbage must be fed with a solution of cow dung or fertilizers. To protect the cabbage from insects, it is recommended to sprinkle it with ash.
Savoy cabbage pests include:
- cruciferous flea;
- spring cabbage fly;
- scoops and whites;
Diseases and prevention
The most common diseases are:
- powdery mildew;
- black spot.
In case of illness mosaic and black spot it is necessary to remove the diseased specimen from the garden and shed the soil with a steep solution of potassium permanganate. In case of illness fungus cabbage should be treated with copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture.
Cleaning and storage
Early varieties are harvested in July.
They use early varieties for making salads, make cutlets, cabbage rolls. Early varieties are not stored.
The late variety is harvested at the end of October. Heads of cabbage weighing from 500 grams are left for storage. The leg is shortened, 3 top leaves are left on the head of cabbage. Cut heads of cabbage are covered with crushed chalk and laid out in a dry room on racks for 2-3 days. After that, the heads of cabbage are each suspended separately in a grid under the ceiling or placed in boxes so that the heads of cabbage do not come into contact with each other. The room temperature should be between 0 and +3 degrees. Humidity up to 95%. To extend the shelf life, a tempera from -1 to -3 degrees is required.
Observing such simple planting and care rules, it is not at all difficult to get a high yield.
Growing and caring for Savoy cabbage outdoors
Even before the start of the spring field work, many gardeners and summer residents face the question: what seeds to buy in order to grow the best varieties of Savoy cabbage. Everyone knows about the benefits of cabbage, this garden queen is to the taste of adults and children. But, if earlier we grew exclusively ordinary cabbage, now the abundance of varieties and varieties of this popular vegetable is so great that sometimes even the most experienced summer residents or gardeners find it difficult to understand them. In order to get a quality food product before the end of the season, you must first purchase good seeds.
Growing savoy cabbage requires certain skills and abilities. Gardeners and summer residents who at least once in their lives have been involved in the cultivation of any of the varieties of this vegetable understand that cabbage requires special care.
We will consider the question of how to pick up seeds and how to grow Savoy cabbage.
Sowing savoy cabbage for seedlings
When planting cabbage for seedlings, it is necessary to choose the right planting time, prepare the substrate and stratify the seeds. When growing, seedlings need a pick.
Sowing time of savoy cabbage for seedlings
If you plan to harvest the first crops of Savoy cabbage in mid-summer, it is recommended to sow early-maturing cabbage seeds in early spring. If the variety is late, seeds for seedlings should be sown in the second decade of April.
Sowing dates of savoy cabbage for seedlings:
- Early ripening varieties - March 5-10.
- Late-ripening varieties - March 10-20 or April covered.
Presowing treatment of planting material
Seeds must be stratified before planting. To do this, they are first placed in water at a temperature of 50 ° C for 15 minutes, and then cooled in ice water. After that, the seeds must be placed in a solution of trace elements for half a day, rinsed with clean water and put in the refrigerator. At the end, the seeds are taken out of the refrigerator and dried so that they stick together.
Before sowing, the soil must be treated with potassium permanganate. The soil should be composed of sand, peat and turf. In the prepared moistened substrate, small grooves are made at a distance of 3 cm from each other, after which the seeds are placed in them every 1 cm to a depth of 1 cm. After planting, cover with glass. When growing seedlings, the temperature should be about 18 ° C, while it is sometimes necessary to spray the soil with water at room temperature. After five days, the first shoots will already be visible. As soon as they appear, the glass must be removed and the seedlings must be moved in a bright room with a temperature of up to 8 ° C.
Picking savoy cabbage seedlings
When the cotyledon leaves or the first true leaf appear, the seedlings need to be distributed in separate small pots. Before transplanting, it is recommended to water the seedlings so that they can be more easily removed from the soil, and already when transplanting the cabbage roots, shorten 1/3. After transplanting, the sprouts must be treated with potassium permanganate. After a couple of days, the seedlings must be protected from direct sunlight. During the first three days, the seedlings should be at a temperature of about 17-18 ° C, and after they take root - at 13-14 ° C during the day and 10-12 ° C at night. In this case, the soil should not dry out; for this, if necessary, it is sprayed with water at room temperature. When two true leaves are formed, it is recommended to feed the seedlings with tablets with microelements and complex fertilizer.
Compliance with crop rotation
When choosing a place for planting Savoy cabbage, you must observe the crop rotation. The best predecessors are: grains, legumes, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, and cucumbers. But after the cultures of the cruciferous family (radish, radish, turnip, turnip, watercress, rutabaga), it is better not to grow cabbage.
Savoy cabbage on the site where it or other subspecies and varieties grew earlier can be planted only after 4 years.
Savoy cabbage is unpretentious, does not require special care except for periodic watering, feeding and loosening the soil. Also, like any other crop, it should be weeded and protected from disease.
Moisture supply should be carried out according to the regime. After planting, young cabbage needs to be watered every day, spending about 10 liters of water per 1 sq. m landings. Further, the regularity of the procedure can be reduced to 1-2 times a week, depending on climatic conditions. At the same time, the maximum consumption is more than 12 liters per 1 sq. m should be in May. On hot days, watering should be done in the evening.
You can determine the frequency of watering by the type of cabbage leaves: if they begin to fall and wither, then the water supply should be increased.
You need to feed the plant 2 times during the entire growth period. The first time - at the time of disembarkation in open ground. To do this, you need to take 15 grams of potassium fertilizer and urea each and add 40 grams of superphosphate to them. The resulting mixture must be diluted in half a 20 liter bucket of water and watering.
The second time the cabbage is fed when young heads of cabbage begin to set. To do this, take and dilute 15 g of urea, 40 g of potassium fertilizer in water and add 100 g of superphosphate.
Loosening the soil
It is necessary to loosen the soil to a depth of 4-7 cm a few days after planting, as well as every week after rooting the seedlings by 10-13 cm.
Advice! If the soil is very dense and moist, then the procedure should be carried out to a depth of at least 15 cm.
Rules for planting and growing Savoy cabbage in the open field
Savoy cabbage belongs to the Mediterranean-European species together with white cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and kohlrabi. Savoy cabbage is grown throughout Europe, the United States and Canada. There, it is valued higher than the white-headed variety.
Like white cabbage, it forms heads of cabbage, but not dense. Greenish-yellow, yellow, pale green, blue-green heads of cabbage make this vegetable very elegant. A feature of the head of Savoy cabbage is its characteristic leaves - bubble-like swollen, thin, wavy along the edge, without a wax coating or with a slight bloom.
Description of varieties
This type of cabbage, like Brussels sprouts, is very rare in the gardens in Russia. Cultivation of cabbage is not much different from the agricultural technique of a white-headed relative. Its limited distribution should be associated with the folk wisdom, which is reflected in the saying: “I don’t need to do what is best, leave me what’s good.”
The State Register of Russia includes 22 varieties, of which 13 are hybrid varieties. The first varieties were included in the register in 1950, in 2017 two more new varieties were added: Viratoba and Madeleine. The varieties are not zoned and are grown in all regions of the country. The varieties have different ripeness periods:
- very early ripening (from 90 days): Petrovna, Pirozhkovaya
- early maturity (105-120 days): Elena F1, Golden early, Moscow lacemaker, Nyusha, Salima F1, Yubileinaya 2170
- mid-season (120-135 days): Melissa F1, Sphere F1, Uralochka, Extrema F1
- mid-late: Vertu 1340, Madeleine F1, Ovasa F1, Morama F1
- late (140 days or more): Alaska, Virotoba F1, Virosa F1, Jade F1, Nadia.
A special feature of Savoy cabbage, in addition to its unusual appearance, is especially delicate leaves. They can be compared to the fragile leaves of Peking cabbage. Therefore, it is recommended for baby food and for the elderly.
This is a dietary product, its nutritional quality is higher than that of the white-headed variety. The use of this vegetable, according to international medical research, helps the body fight many disorders of the body:
- easily digested and quickly absorbed, facilitating the work of the digestive tract
- restores metabolism
- calms the nervous system
- strengthens bones
- normalizes blood pressure
- renews blood composition
- stabilizes the work of the heart muscle.
Savoy cabbage is very rich in vitamins, microelements, it is anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, diuretic, antioxidant.With stomach ulcers, gastritis, the use of vegetables should be limited.
Cultivation of savoy cabbage is possible by seedling and non-seedling methods. Seedlings are needed to extend the growing season. The seedless method is used to harvest medium-ripening cabbage in the south of the country. When planting seedlessly, seeds are sown in greenhouses or on a protected bed.
Early vegetables are sown at the beginning of the first spring month, in March, late varieties - in early April, medium ripening - in mid-April.
Although seedlings appear at + 3-5 ° C, a temperature suitable for plant development is + 12-18 ° C during the day and +2 ° C at night.
Seed preparation for sowing consists in passing the following procedures:
- separation of viable seeds in salted water
- warming up in hot water for disinfection
- keeping trace elements in solution
- cooling for a day in the refrigerator
- drying before disembarking.
The prepared soil mixture should be loose, nutritious, moisture and breathable. Mix peat, sand or moss, earth in equal parts. Land is not taken from the greenhouse and from the garden.
In the planting box, grooves are made every 3 cm and a depth of 1 cm, spilled with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and the seeds are laid out at a distance of 1 cm from each other. The crops are covered with glass to retain moisture.
Seedlings appear on the second or third day. Glass is removed from them, transferred to a bright room. The temperature in the first seven days drops to + 6-10 ° C. During this time, the seedlings feed on the seed and grow roots. Then the temperature is raised again to + 12-18 ° C.
Early varieties are suitable for cultivating the first harvest in June, which are provided with sufficient light, watering and nutrition.
There are no special secrets about how to grow savoy cabbage. Her agricultural technology is the same as that of a white-headed relative. Food and water are the main requirements for the normal development of seedlings.
Illumination at the beginning of growth should be at least 12 hours. At home, artificial lighting is used to grow early varieties. Cabbage is a long day plant. An adult plant does not require light.
The temperature for optimal plant development is + 15-18 ° С.
Watering is necessary for the plant throughout the growing season. Cabbage has superficial fibrous roots and very large leaves that evaporate a lot of moisture. Watering is especially important during the development of young plants and during the setting of heads. Intensive growth of the vegetable is observed only at 90% soil moisture.
When cultivating seedlings in cassettes or individual pots, it does not outgrow, it receives enough light, it takes root better during transshipment, and gives a leveled yield. Seeds and land are significantly saved. For industrial plantings, it is grown only in this way.
If the seedlings grow in a large seedling box, then a few days after the seedlings appear, they must be cut into separate cups. When transplanting, the roots are shortened, cutting them by 1/3 part, the seedling is buried to the first leaves.
The first feeding is done a week after planting. It is needed to stimulate the development of the root system.
If the seedlings are strong and healthy, then no additional feeding is done. With a weak, elongated seedlings continue to feed every 7-10 days. Nutrition is important for seedlings, as the consumption of essential elements from the soil is highest during this growth period.
Seedlings quickly recycle food from the small volume of soil in which they are located. So that the plant does not suffer from nutritional deficiencies, fertilizing is carried out 2-4 times.
Seedlings grown in cassettes are fed twice:
- After 2 leaves appear.
- Before hardening.
Seedlings that need picking are fed four times.
Liquid dressings are most fully assimilated. The first subcortex is done when two leaves appear. At this time, it is better to feed with a solution of micronutrient fertilizers:
For this, natural remedies are suitable:
- ash infusion
- eggshell infusion
- water after washing meat or fish.
Chemicals are also suitable:
You can use humate preparations, solutions of trace elements and microbiological preparations. For example, "Fitosporin-M" and "Gumi" not only feed the plants, but also protect against the "black leg" and other fungal infections.
The second feeding is carried out after planting. If the pick is not done, then the second feeding is done before hardening. At this time, it is effective to use an aqueous mineral solution of fertilizers.
Before hardening, a tablespoon of urea or potassium sulfate is stirred in a bucket and poured into a glass under each plant.
Important! Top dressing is carried out only after watering the plants.
Hardening is a necessary procedure before transferring to the garden. It is needed for a painless move to the beds. For 2 weeks, the seedlings are accustomed to the outside temperature. To do this, they put it in the yard for several hours, increasing the time every day.
A few days before transshipment, the last feeding is done. To do this, dissolve a teaspoon of superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and nitrophoska in a bucket of water.
How to plant Savoy cabbage outdoors can be understood from the experience of growing its white cabbage variety. Standard seedlings are ready 45 days after sowing. She should have 4-6 true leaves, strong stem, height 20-25 cm.
Savoy cabbage thrives outdoors. It is planted in the garden in mid-May. Planting depth - up to cotyledon leaves.
Preparation of the soil for the garden begins in the fall of the previous year. The soil should be loose, fertile, with a neutral reaction. Fill the soil with manure, ash, humus. Cabbage is the first crop to be planted after applying manure.
In the spring, you can also take up the land for cabbage beds. But manure is no longer added, the soil is filled with mineral fertilizers: superphosphate, urea, ammonium nitrate.
Barren sandy and clayey soils are not suitable for the development of this vegetable.
The planting scheme for early varieties is 50x40 cm, for later varieties - 50x50 cm. This is a very cold-resistant culture. In the open field, she feels great even in Siberia. In the southern regions of Russia, it winters in open beds at -8 ° C.
Cabbage is planted in holes 10 cm deep. Before and after transfer, the holes are well spilled with water, at least 1.5 liters of water are poured into each.
This is a light-loving culture. It is advisable to plant in open beds, without shade. Grows well on southern slopes. After planting seedlings in the beds, they are darkened until it takes root.
The culture is demanding on moisture, but does not tolerate waterlogging. In the early days, seedlings are watered daily, an adult plant - once a week, but very abundantly.
When sprinkling, drops of moisture roll off the waxy leaves of white cabbage, on the bubbly leaves of Savoy, on the contrary, it lingers for a long time.
Important! To prevent the heads of cabbage from cracking, it is necessary to water only at the root.
The vegetable is demanding for nutrients. Top dressing is done when planting in the ground and when tying heads of cabbage. To do this, apply:
- mullein solution
- infusion of ash or weeds
- superphosphate solutions
- boric acid.
The vegetable quickly accumulates excess fertilizer in the form of nitrates. Therefore, unnecessary dressings with solutions of increased concentration should not be done.
Observance of crop rotation is imperative, one cannot but plant Savoy cabbage after plants of the same family. Best predecessors:
Three weeks after transshipment into open ground, the ridges are weeded from weeds and the stems are spud. The trunk in the ground gives additional roots, increasing the feeding area. Proper care allows you to get healthy plants with a rich harvest.
Diseases and pests
Due to the unusual shape of the leaves, this variety of cabbage is almost not damaged by leaf-eating pests. It is enough to manually assemble a small number of emerging insects.
Observance of crop rotation is important. Cruciferous crops have the same pests that hibernate in the ground. Therefore, sowing in the old place can be done after three years.
The mass of a head of cabbage varies from 0.7 to 3.0 kg. Savoy cabbage consumption can be extended over the entire season from June to October.
Late varieties produce heads of cabbage that can be stored for five months. Harvesting is done by cutting off the heads of cabbage with a pair of outer leaves that protect the forks from damage and dirt.
This vegetable is eaten fresh, used in the preparation of many dishes. It is not suitable for processing.
Undoubtedly, the spread of savoy cabbage in vegetable gardens deserves more attention and interest. Many gardeners are highly dependent on their crops economically, feeding on grown vegetables throughout the year. Therefore, they cannot and do not want to take risks by growing unusual vegetables, which they can freely do without.
However, a variety of vegetables gives a variety of dishes in the kitchen, expands the range of consumed vitamins and other useful substances, gives new taste sensations. And for the sake of this, it is worth taking the risk and experimenting.
Cleaning and storage
You can selectively cut the heads of early and mid-season Savoy cabbage when they become dense and reach an approximate weight of at least 0.5-1 kg. Cabbage of late varieties can be left to grow as long as possible, but it is imperative to have time to remove it before frost. It is best to harvest on a dry sunny day to keep the cabbage dry.
For storage, heads of cabbage with 2-3 integumentary leaves and a small neat stump of 3 cm are cut off. The harvested crop is then laid out in a warm room to dry for 2-3 days. For longer storage, it is advisable to select the largest, most beautiful and healthy heads of cabbage.
An ordinary cellar or basement is ideal for storing Savoy cabbage, in which t is maintained from 0 to 3 ° C and humidity is 90%. In it, you need to put pallets, racks, on which you place the heads of cabbage stumps up. If there is not much cabbage, then you can put it in plastic boxes or small nets.