Agrotextiles and tunnels: means of protection for autumn crops

Agrotextiles and tunnels: means of protection for autumn crops

What are agro-textiles? What are the tunnel in agriculture?

Here are the various methods to know how to optimally use some means of protection of our autumn crops, such as agro-textiles is the tunnels.

What are agro-textiles? What are tunnels?

Agrotextiles and tunnels are two types of protection tools that we use to protect our plants from adverse climatic factors, which otherwise could affect the normal development of our crops.

With the use of means of protection it's possible:
1. Cultivate certain species in environments other than those of origin where they are able to grow naturally.
2. Anticipating or delaying production compared to the normal period (this practice is called "semi-forcing").
3. Making productions completely out of season (this practice is called "forcing").

In the large group of means of protections, we find also mulch, a means of defense that we have discussed in depth in this article.


The agro-textilestherefore, they are vehicles with antifreeze or semi-forcing. These are very large sheets of very light plastic material, which are placed over the crop without any support. This allows the plants to grow normally without any impediment (at least up to certain limits).

The most common agro-textiles are permeable sheets in polyester fiber or pressed polypropylene (called "non-woven fabric"), elastic and light. Their weight is around 17 g per square meter.

They are especially suited to autumn-winter leafy vegetables or spring: lettuce, chicory, radicchio, spinach.


Tunnels are means used for semi-forcing, they are mobile and are not practicable. They have a semi-cylindrical shape, somewhat reminiscent of that of a miniature greenhouse.

They consist of one covered with plastic very fine which is supported by supports of various types, usually by iron or plastic arches.

Their use is limited to first phase of the crop cycle of the plant both because this is the period in which it is most sensitive to temperatures and adverse atmospheric events, and because then the plant grows and no longer enters the tunnels.

L'height of the tunnels, in fact, vary from 40-60 cm to 80-90 cm, but the latter are used only for taller species, such as tomatoes, peppers and aubergines.

In fact, if you want to keep the crop in the tunnel for the entire crop cycle, they are often used low height plants, such as strawberry, radish, lettuce, carrot, or at least so-called "creeping" plants, ie melon and watermelon for the summer season.

There widthinstead, it must be such as to allow a rational investment of the plants, which must be at least 20 cm from the edge of the tunnel.

As for the materials, the most used are polyethylene (cheaper) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) which has better optical and thermal characteristics but is more expensive.

However, they both have a good thermal effect, that is, they maintain an ideal temperature for the plant constantly. The thermal effect increases with the increase in the size of the tunnel.


The main negative aspect of the tunnels is theventilation. A considerable amount of water condenses under the tunnels, which often leads to the drip. This can cause the development of diseases and can also hinder the flowering and fruit set.

In addition to this, in the periods of major insolation (i.e. if they are used in summer) temperatures that are possibly too high for the good growth of the crop are reached.

If you want to use the tunnels for a relatively long period of time, you need to aerate them especially during flowering, fruit set and fruiting.

To ventilate it is possible to perform one or more of the following methods:
1. simply make holes in the roof at the appropriate time;
2. use perforated or even opening tunnels (easy to find on the market).

As for theirrigation (or fertigation), the use of perforated hoses prevails, to be prepared before implantation.

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Agrotextiles and tunnels: the means of protection for autumn crops - garden

The celery (Apium graveolens) is an aromatic plant belonging to the Umbelliferae family, such as carrot and parsley.

Characterized by a two-year cycle, in the first year it produces one root somewhat voluminous taproot, rich in ramifications and a more or less enlarged head of leaves pinnatosette, with toothed-lobed margin, with a characteristic elongated, fleshy and ribbed petiole.

In the second year he stretches the stem, which can reach a meter in height, on which an umbrella-like floral scape with six / twelve rays opens, with small hermaphroditic flowers, formed by a tiny chalice and a corolla of 5 greenish-white petals.

The fruit, commonly called seed, is a diachene, that is, it has two ribbed and coupled achenes of brown color.

Variety choice

Three different botanical varieties are grown:

Apium graveolensvar. sweet or ribbed celery, for the production of leaf petioles

Apium rapaceum or celeriac with a strongly enlarged root, ball-shaped, which constitutes the edible part

Apium graveolensvar. sylvan or var. secalinum or cut celery, for the production of leaves used as flavoring.

Ribbed celery

The most cultivated is the celery from the ribs, of which several local varieties and new selections are known, which are distinguished in early or late, suitable for conservation or not, with green or golden ribs, for protected or open field cultivation.

Green coasts

'Green of Chioggia', 'Giant of Romagna', 'Verde Pascal', 'Green of Trevi' is 'Green of Perpignan'

Golden coasts

'Golden of Asti', 'Golden Giant', 'Gold Rod'

White coasts

'Pearl', 'Nicolaus Invernale', 'Lepade', 'White from Sperlonga'

The length of the cycle varies on average from 80 to 150 days after transplantation.

Agronomic needs

Spontaneous in marshy and brackish places and in the Mediterranean coasts, celery requires a medium-textured, deep, fresh, fertile soil, rich in organic substance, without water stagnation but with a large availability of water, with a pH between 6 and 7 mal therefore it adapts to drought climates and requires frequent irrigation, especially in relation to the period in which it is cultivated. Celery does not like very calcareous, strongly clayey or very sandy soils, but it is tolerant towards salinity.

As regards the temperature, celery suffers irreversible damage at 0 ° C, while the optimal growth occurs between 15 and 22 degrees. Temperatures above 30 ° C can cause some pathologies.

Cultivation techniques

To obtain long and crunchy stems, cultivation must be forced with abundant fertilizations and irrigations which, however, predispose to various diseases and the accumulation of nitrates. Domestic cultivation is more suitable for obtaining small but very aromatic plants.

Rotation and associations

Close rotations with other Umbelliferae are to be avoided, waiting at least 3 years before carrying out the cultivation again on the same soils.

Soil tillage and fertilization

The normal soil preparation processes, such as digging and / or hoeing, must be combined with an accurate fertilization that provides for the distribution of well-mature manure or compost and possibly also a mineral fertilization based on phosphorus and potassium.

The well-composted organic substance must be administered at a rate of 5-7 kg / m2.

As for mineral fertilization, it is recommended to distribute, for each square meter: 10-12g of P.2OR5 and 12-15g of K.2Or during the tillage and 12-15g of N, divided between the transplanting and the hilling and weeding operations.

Cultivation can basically be practiced in four periods: spring, spring-summer, summer, autumn-winter. The most widespread is the spring-summer crop which is much more productive, the autumn-winter and spring crops are typical of the southern regions, but still require means of coverage (greenhouse-tunnels). Germination begins when the temperature exceeds 7 ° C and reaches its optimum around 20 ° C.

Generally sowing is carried out in seedbeds, in alveoli or in pots. Direct sowing in the field is generally not recommended due to the emergency difficulties of young seedlings.

The transplant is carried out in late spring, for summer-autumn productions, or in summer, for autumn-winter ones, by arranging the seedlings in rows 25-40 cm apart and 10-20 cm on the row, depending on the habit and size. plant ends.

The cycle of the plant is 6-7 months. The biodynamic preparation 500 can be used as a seed bath, to improve germination energy and for transplanting to facilitate rooting and vegetative recovery.

Prolonged exposure to temperatures of 5-7 ° in early spring or in situations of water stress or drought can cause the plant to pre-bloom, compromising its use.

Weeding and weeding

They are essential for aerating the soil, keeping it clean of weeds and breaking any surface crust.


Successful cultivation is the determining factor: water, in fact, must never be lacking and must be administered regularly, from sowing to harvesting, without causing stagnation or water stress.


With this practice, a tender, crunchy product with a sweeter and less aromatic taste is obtained. It is carried out 25-30 days before harvesting, tying the tufts of leaves and tucking the plants with earth or covering them with other materials, such as paper, light cardboard or plastic film.

It can also be done after harvesting, placing the tufts in boxes and covering them with damp sand, thus leaving them to rest in a cool place. Today there are self-whitening varieties that make this practice useless.

If used after cooking, harvesting can be done in stages, cutting off the external leaf stems until the whipping begins. For raw consumption, the plant must be cut whole, cutting it under the collar, when it has reached the desired size.

In the cultivation of celeriac, the root must also be eradicated with a spade, from which the green parts will then be removed.

Winter protection

Covering the flower bed with non-woven fabric or with a small tunnel allows you to extend the harvest even during the coldest months.


Celery can be stored in the refrigerator, between 0 and 5 ° C, and with high humidity, for several days as long as the upper part of the leaves is removed. Industrial storage can last up to two or three months.

Among the adversities of cryptogamic origin, we remember septoria, cercosporiosis, sclerotinia and powdery mildew. For the control of such adversities, products based on copper and sulfur, decoction of horsetail, propolis and essential oils are indicated.

Among the pests, the most dangerous are the celery fly and aphids.

Celery also undergoes physiological alterations such as black heart, characterized by browning of the internal petioles and the heart of the plant, induced by various causes, such as excess nitrogen fertilizers, water imbalances, excessive planting density, climatic anomalies.

Celery cultivation and biodynamics

Sowing on a waning moon (old moon), always choosing the days of earth or water, to facilitate the swelling of the root and leaf stems. Distribute the preparation 500 in the evening, before the main processing and any weeding, on days of earth or water and the preparation 501 after at least 60 days from the emergency, carrying out two or three treatments in the early morning, with sunny days, on days of air or fire, to improve the organoleptic characteristics and resistance to diseases.

(Drawings by Claudio Cristiani)

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In distribution

The large Muskau Park, suggested by Marilena Po for a spring visit, takes us to the border between Germany and Poland marked by the Neisse river. Here the naturalness of the landscape contrasts in a characteristic way with the Baroque architecture, a project that over time has become a work of art and stylistic model for garden designers.

The charm of the garden not far from Turin proposed by Alessandro Mesini lies instead in the crown of alpine mountains that frames it. An informal garden with an English taste with a large central lawn surrounded by beautiful trees: 1700 plants of over 70 species and varieties. The park also offers the possibility of visiting for the blind and for those with walking difficulties, moreover for each season it offers a visual sensorial path to discover the different garden.

Enzo Valenti, a passionate traveler to Ireland, takes this issue to Powerscourt Gardens, near Dublin. A garden inspired by Italian art and considered by National Geographic among the most beautiful in the world.

In spring, among the many ideas that will come when visiting the first exhibitions of the season, the perennial herbaceous by Silvia Cagnani and Andrea Martini also deserves attention. Brunnera macrophylla 'Silver Heart' is a rustic plant, ideal for shady areas. The deciduous leaves, rough to the touch and heart-shaped, have a splendid variegation that makes them almost completely gray, highlighting the emerald green veins. And the small flowers that precede the leaves in March are deep blue with a clear throat. In the shade, in low light areas, the light color of this hybrid creates a beautiful point of light.

Little lover of the sun is also the Valerio Gallerati shrub, Staphylea pinnata. Ideal for areas of partial shade, it is a frugal, very rustic plant that adapts to all terrains. In the garden it gives great satisfaction!

Those who have been to Lost Plants and Animals cannot fail to have noticed the long-stemmed carnations of Floricultura Billo mentioned by the jury, or the small-flowered gladioli of Le Erbacee del Lago Maggiore, about half the height of traditional gladioli. Or the beautiful borders displayed by Peccato Vegetale or the outdoor succulents by Cactis. Photographed for us in the Reggio event by Angelo Guidicelli.

For lovers of succulents, Niccolò Patelli underlines the many advantages and the thousand possibilities of use. Very easy to grow, elegant and without needs, they are ideal for large as well as small spaces. A real resource for the dry garden, they are the plants of the future!

WATERMELON - Although watermelon is a typical summer vegetable, it can actually be sown starting right from the month of February. Sowing, however, must take place in a protected environment or with suitable means of protection against the cold and late frosts. Less attention can be paid if cultivation takes place in the southern regions.

BEET - One of the main crops among what to grow in February is beetroot. Especially in the central and southern regions of our country, this plant can be sown starting in February.

CARDI - The sowing of this plant takes place from the first days of February until the end of April, depending on the area. If necessary, you can first sow it in a protected environment inside special containers, and then transplant it in June when the climate is better.

FAVA - The broad bean is sown in February because it suffers a lot from the high summer temperatures. In this way, the broad bean will arrive in summer ready to withstand the heat and to be harvested.

FENNEL - Fennel can be sown in February in the regions of Central and Southern Italy. Several sowings can be carried out, within 15 days of each other. This can favor the quantity and the best result of production, without counting the advantage of a graduated harvest.

GOJI - The ideal time to plant Goji is February. In this month, fertilization is prepared and the plant is prepared with holes 15-20 cm deep.

AUBERGINE - Eggplant, like other vegetables, must be sown with the right means of protection. It does not tolerate the cold and in this way it is possible to carry out the transplant when we are sure that the soil temperature does not drop below 8 ° C.

MELON - The melon follows the same procedure as the watermelon.

SWEET PEPPER - Continuing our guide to what to grow in February, we also find pepper. Like eggplant, pepper also can't stand the cold. For this reason, it is good to sow in a protected environment or in any case with particularly vigorous means of protection, especially in the central regions of our country. In addition to the fact that it does not grow at low temperatures, the pepper has a very slow germination and therefore, by anticipating sowing in February, fruit will be ready in early summer.

LEEK - Only one variety of leek can be sown in February, namely autumn leeks. These are sown from February to April. They are poorly resistant to cold and cannot tolerate late frosts. Among the main cultivars that I can mention there are the Monstrous of Carentan, rather rustic, and theElephant, ready to be harvested in late July.

CELERY - Not all celery cultivars can withstand the cold. If you want to harvest it in the summer, you can resort to early celery that is sown from early February to mid-March

Structure of the Municipal Emergency Plan

According to the D.g.r. Lombardy 16 May 2007‐ n. VIII / 4732, the Plan is structured as follows:

  1. analysis of the territory and infrastructures
  2. census of resources (personnel, vehicles, equipment, waiting areas, reception or shelter, emergency response areas, logistics depots, etc.) available on the territory in the event of a calamitous event
  3. preventive identification of event and damage scenarios (or risk scenarios), dependent on natural and anthropogenic factors that persist in the territory and correlated to the vulnerable elements present in the territory. The analysis is based on the reading (in terms of incidence and frequency) of the calamitous events that hit the municipal area in the past
  4. identification and assignment of the functions envisaged by the ʺ Augustus Methodʺ to the structures involved in the management of the emergency through the establishment of the local ʺcommand-controlʺ structure (definition of the COC structures and the ROC function) and the definition of the operational levels to be put in place in the event of emergency
  5. description of the specific intervention models for the most relevant risk scenarios identified. Each Operational Card, in addition to identifying the tasks and interactions between the structures and the staff involved in emergency management, facilitates those concerned to master their skills / responsibilities, favoring the establishment of the operational automatisms necessary in the event of a calamitous event.

The Plan is divided into the following documentation:

  1. General part
  2. Operational manual for emergency management
    • 2.1 Operating procedures
    • 2.2 Municipal Operations Center - Contacts and Resources
    • 2.3 Rules of conduct for the population

Cartographic drawings:

  • 3.1 Analysis of the territory: Mobility and Infrastructures
  • 3.2 Analysis of the territory: Strategic and vulnerable buildings
  • 3.3 Analysis of the territory: technological networks, life ‐ lines and energy systems
  • 4.1 Available resources: Waiting and hospitalization areas
  • 5.1 Scenario cards: Hydrogeological risk
  • 5.2 Scenario cards: Seismic Risk
  • 5.3 Scenario cards: Forest Fire Risk
  • 5.4 Scenario cards: Industrial accident risk
  • Further data useful for the purposes of the Municipal Emergency Plan are contained in the documents of the current PGT, in particular:

    The documents of the Service Plan:

    • PDS Table 08 - Radio base stations in compliance with DGR 7531/2001 - scale 1: 10,000
    • Catalog of existing services
    • Table PDS 03 - Existing services - scale 1: 10,000
    • Table PDS 04 - Attractor pole and supracommunal influence basin - scale 1: 10,000
    • Table PDS 05 - The public transport and cycling mobility system - scale 1: 10,000
    • Table PDS 06 - Accessibility scale 1: 10,000
    • Table PDS 07 a - The service system: Education - scale 1: 10,000
    • Table PDS 07 b - The service system: The excellences - scale 1: 10,000
    • Table PDS 07 c - The service system: greenery and urban parks - scale 1: 10,000
    • Table PDS 07 c - The service system: sport-scale 1: 10,000
    • Table PDS 10 - ERP ‐ Public residential buildings - scale 1: 10,000

    The documents of the Rules Plan:

    • Attachment D: Catalog of the Cascine
    • PDR Table 02a - Charter of Constraints - scale 1: 10,000
    • PDR Table 02b - Charter of Constraints - scale 1: 10,000
    • PDR 07 Table - Farmhouse scale 1: 10,000
    • PDR Table 08 - Population Density - scale 1: 10,000

    The PEC graphics are made on the aerial photogrammetric cartographic basis drawn up in accordance with the specifications defined by the State-Regions-Local Authorities agreement on the reference cartographic system UTM (WGS84) fused 32 (EPSG 32632), IntesaGIS.

    The Plan is returned both on paper and on digital support and available on the institutional website of the Municipality of Pavia within the Territorial Information System.

    The drafting of the plan in digital format allows you to enlarge the areas of interest up to an optimal magnification.

    The fundamental elements necessary to keep the Plan alive are essentially two: the civil protection exercises, in which events are simulated and the response of the entire civil protection system is "tested" and the periodic updating of the Plan, carried out every time they occur changes in the territorial structure of the Municipality, or more in-depth studies and research are available on the identified risks, or significant constituent elements, data on available resources, on the bodies involved, etc.

    In any case, an annual self-assessment is required, in which the municipal administration ascertains and certifies that no significant changes have occurred.

    Related links

    Matteo's advice: get the most out of our garden plants

    Today we are talking about the means of protecting vegetable plants, with particular reference to mulching.

    The main objectives of these agronomic interventions are to protect crops from adverse weather conditions and to anticipate or delay the development of crops. These precautions are valid not only for spring-summer but also for the autumn period.

    Defense and semi-forcing interventions may concern:

    • The underground part (roots) of the plant - covering the ground with different materials (mulching)
    • The epigeal part (crown) of the plant - shading, bells, caissons, tunnels, canopies, greenhouses.

    Detail of the collection on mulching cloth. Small tunnels covered with a non-woven fabric.

    Mulching can be done with inert natural materials (leaves, straw, chaff, peat, manure) or plastic materials. In the latter case, remember that the edge of the sheet must be slightly tucked with soil in order to secure it.

    On the market there are PE (Polyethylene) films with a width of 1.20 - 1.30 m, black in color. The mulched stalks (flower beds) that are formed have a width of 80-100 cm, interspersed with passage areas of 30 - 40 cm. With a shovel a layer of earth is removed from the passage and it is “added” to the adjacent flower beds. The passages lower and the stalks rise slightly (10/15 cm).

    Under the mulch it is possible to lay a micro-perforated hose (a plastic tube perforated at regular intervals used for irrigation).

    The use of the mulch film determines the heating of the surface layer of soil (10-20 cm), the preservation of the structure and soil moisture, the elimination of weeds, the isolation of plants and fruits from the soil.

    Very often the practice of mulching is combined with other protections (tunnels and greenhouses). In this way it is possible to obtain a combined effect that strengthens the effectiveness of the different methods.

    The use of means of defense of the epigeal part can be implemented using extemporaneous methods or resorting to more rational and expensive structures, through the construction of small tunnels consisting of a light framework of iron arches or plastic pipes on which you have a PVC or polyethylene film or a non-woven fabric. These materials are fixed with ropes pulled transversely from one support to the other. The layers of the film must be buried to conveniently close the plants inside the protection, protecting them from the wind. The height of the tunnels can be very variable: from 30 to 80 cm or up to 1.50 m. The smaller tunnels generally involve the use of perforated films, so that it is not necessary to open them to ventilate the crop. Doing so creates a sort of self-regulation of the temperature inside the tunnel. In the case of higher tunnels, it is essential to provide ventilation by lifting the film during the hottest hours. The greater the volume of air enclosed by the film, the more effective the protection is.

    In spring, impromptu protection systems can be set up to safeguard the crop from the last colds and thus be able to anticipate the harvest. The protections can be made with straw and leaf mats or small domes or small wooden frames covered with plastic film or glass are used.

    Fixed locations can also be set up such as warm beds or plastic sheet shutters, which are used especially for sowing, and thus have seedlings ready for transplanting as soon as the climate becomes mild enough to be able to cultivate outdoors. 'vegetable.

    Zucchini protected with small tunnels in non-woven fabric. Opening of the small tunnels during the day.



    The road network of the city of Pavia is set up on one radiocentric scheme which leads to a concentration of much of the traffic towards the central area bordering the historic center.

    To this must be added the presence of natural barriers of great impact such as the Ticino river, the Milan - Genoa railway and the Naviglio Pavese, which direct traffic to a limited number of central axes.

    Another critical element is the lack of clarity of the functional hierarchy of the road network, especially in the connection points between the fundamental and the local link and between that serving the residence, economic activities and public services.

    Added to this lack of clarity is the incompleteness of the network, especially in the North-East quadrant where the flows directed to the urban area overlap those of crossing.

    The macro-urban structure of Pavia's viability and the consequent level of accessibility differs considerably between North and South due to the presence of the Ticino river, which makes connections between the city and the areas below the Ticino difficult and often congested is in fact exceeded. from 3 bridges: that of the Tangenziale Ovest, the Ponte della Libertа and the Covered bridge with one-way travel.

    The north quadrant, on the other hand, enjoys good accessibility as it is innervated by a dense network of radials that converge from the surrounding urban areas towards the center of Pavia, in particular the most significant connections from West to East are:

    under the responsibility of the company Milano Serravalle ‐ Milano Tangenziale S.p.A

    • Pavia-Bereguardo motorway junction which engages with the city's ring road, allowing accessibility from long distances (A7 Milan-Genoa motorway)
    • A54 - West ring road

    under the jurisdiction of the Province of Pavia

    • the SS526 Est Ticino, which runs parallel to the Pavia-Bereguardo motorway junction
    • the SS35 dei Giovi from Milan and south towards Casteggio
    • the SP205 Vigentina which connects Pavia with Milan
    • the SP2 Pavia -Melegnano
    • the SS235 of Orzinuovi which connects Pavia to Lodi
    • the SS234 Codognese which connects Pavia with the Autostrada del Sole and Codogno.

    Instead, the system of transversal connections between the primary and secondary axes that converge towards the city is more inadequate. The section of the North Ring Road between the SP205 Vigentina and the SS35 Dei Giovi allows you to connect the East Ring Road to the West Ring Road and make the northern semi-ring of transversal connection between the radials afferent to Pavia more fluid.

    Towards the city center the transversal connections remain very difficult and fragmented.

    All the radial penetrations converge on the Tangenziale, a ring made up of the road axes that delimit the historic center (Viale Gorizia, Viale S. Maria Pertiche, Via Matteotti, Viale Battisti, Viale della Libertа, Viale Lungo Ticino, Viale della Resistenza).

    The major ones criticism relating to congestion at the crossing of network nodes of extra-urban connection are represented by congestions in the existing crossings of the Po and Ticino rivers along the former SS35 and the former SS617, as well as along the directives Pavia and Milan in particular the SP ex SS35 from Casteggio to Pavia with very high saturation peaks in the municipalities of Cava Manara (crossing the urban area) and San Martino Siccomario and the radials entering Pavia SP ex SS234, SP ex SS235, SP71 and SP205

    The most critical sections with more than 6 million vehicles per year are:

    • The SP former SS35 Nord starts at the border with the Province of Milan and ends at the beginning of the Pavia ring road, in particular in the Certosa and Cava Manara urban areas
    • The SP ex SS35 Sud is characterized by flows that decrease with the distance from Pavia.

    All’interno del centro storico sono adottate diverse forme di regolamentazione del traffico (zone a traffico limitato‐ZTL) che prevedono modalitа di limitazione di diversa intensitа ed estensione e coinvolge 7,78 mq/ab di aree rispetto ad una media italiana di 2,08.

    L’effetto di queste misure favorisce uno spostamento degli effetti esterni del traffico nelle zone a ridosso del centro (le zone anulari e quelle di prima periferia), senza che a ciт siano associabili vantaggi netti dal punto di vista del traffico complessivo e delle esternalitа da esso derivanti.


    Le linee di forza del servizio di autobus urbani si distinguono funzionalmente e per livello di servizio. Funzionalmente, esse costituiscono lo schema a crociera nord ‐ sud, est ‐ ovest, riprendendo lʹorganizzazione urbanistica del centro storico e proiettandolo verso i quartieri periferici. Il loro compito и di garantire un’elevata accessibilitа al centro storico, tuttora la destinazione fondamentale della rete. Il percorso di tali linee и per quanto possibile diretto e viene svolto con i normali bus di linea. In base del livello di servizio determinato per le linee di forza viene costruito il livello di servizio delle restanti linee della maglia fondamentale. Nello schema di rete in atto, linee di forza sono le linee ʺ1ʺ e ʺ3ʺ.

    Le linee della maglia fondamentale sono costituite dai collegamenti inter‐periferici e dai collegamenti sui poli di secondo livello della cittа. Il loro scopo и di rendere accessibili in modi multipli lʹinsieme delle destinazioni principali, esterne o limitrofe al centro storico, ed al contempo quello di integrare le funzioni delle linee di forza nel rendere accessibile questʹultimo. Nello schema di rete in atto, esse sono costituite dalle linee “1”, “4ʺ, ʺ6ʺ e ʺ7ʺ.

    Le linee complementari assolvono a funzioni di distribuzione e di raccordo di aree a domanda medio ‐ bassa, ma che esprimono esigenze non trascurabili, ancorchй specifiche. Come le precedenti, assolvono a funzioni di raccordo con il sistema dei parcheggi. Nello schema di rete in atto, esse sono costituite dalle linee ʺ2ʺ, ʺ5ʺ e ʺ10ʺ.

    Le linee studenti assolvono lo scopo di servire direttamente i principali istituti scolastici esterni al centro storico, prevedendo connessioni specifiche, dirette, tramite il riutilizzo delle vetture disposte come rinforzi sulla rete ordinaria, nella fascia di punta mattinale, quale supporto alla domanda di mobilitа verso la stazione ferroviaria.

    Il servizio и gestito dalla societа LINE ‐ Servizi per la Mobilitа S.p.A. In Viale Trieste 23 и presente unʹAutostazione presso cui transitano tutte le autolinee dedicate al traffico interurbano. La gestione и affidata a ASM Pavia S.P.A.


    Pavia rappresenta un importante nodo ferroviario, punto di incontro delle direttrici nord‐sud Milano‐ Genova ed est‐ovest Alessandria‐Casalpusterlengo‐Cremona. Nella stazione principale di Pavia effettuano servizio treni che si muovono lungo le seguenti tratte:

    • (Genova)‐Voghera‐Pavia‐Milano
    • Pavia‐Torreberetti‐Alessandria
    • Pavia‐Mortara‐Vercelli
    • Pavia‐Casalpusterlengo‐Codogno (Cremona)
    • (Milano)‐Pavia‐Broni‐Stradella‐Piacenza

    Nell’area urbana pavese sono inoltre presenti le seguenti stazioni della rete ferroviaria:

    • S.Martino‐Cava Manara, sulla tratta nord‐sud Pavia‐ Voghera/Broni/Stradella
    • Cava Carbonara, sulla tratta est‐ovest Pavia‐Alessandria/Mortara/Vercelli
    • Certosa di Pavia, sulla tratta nord‐sud Pavia Milano
    • Pavia‐Porta Garibaldi, sulla tratta est‐ovest Pavia‐Casalpusterlengo‐Codogno (stazione in zona urbana che garantisce il raggiungimento pedonale del centro storico in 15‐20 minuti, nonchй l’interscambio con le linee urbane di forza del servizio bus).
    • Belgioioso, sulla tratta est‐ovest Pavia‐Casalpusterlengo‐Codogno.

    Per quanto concerne i collegamenti aerei, sul territorio comunale non sono presenti aeroporti gli aeroporti civili piщ vicini sono:

    • Aeroporto di Linate (MI) a circa 51 km
    • Aeroporto di Malpensa (VA) a circa 86 km
    • Aeroporto di Orio al Serio (BG) a circa 89 km.

    Nella tavola 3.1 Mobilitа e Infrastrutture sono individuate:

    • Viabilitа principale (tangenziali, strade statali e provinciali)
    • Viabilitа secondaria
    • Sedi viarie per il trasporto pubblico locale su gomma
    • Aree destinate a parcheggi - Linea ferroviaria e stazione
    • I manufatti come ponti, viadotti, gallerie, passaggi a livello

    Link correlati


    il parco pubblico urbano è uno dei luoghi dove riscontrare la presenza di una biodiversità, anche piuttosto

    elevata. La città rappresenta l’ambiente artificiale per eccellenza, dove la presenza di minerali è maggiore di

    quella naturale ma oggi è proprio dalle città che arriva la richiesta di biodiversità.

    La biodiversità in verità è presente anche in città: si può trovare nei parchi, ma si possono individuare dei

    micro habitat dove la natura si riprende: ad esempio vecchi cancelli, buchi nei marciapiedi. In questi micro

    habitat la natura si riprende.

    Con l’evoluzione dei parchi pubblici si arriva al modello del parco naturalistico inglese, parco all’interno del

    quale gli elementi compositivi sono estremamente limitati: gli elementi vegetali presenti, come numero di

    specie, sono limitati. Verso la fine dell’Ottocento, in periodo vittoriano, si afferma la moda dei parchi urbani,

    nella quale tornano ad essere importanti diversi elementi: il colore, i fiori, percorsi lineari a fianco di quelli

    lineari, aiuole di arbusti che affiancano i percorsi. Ha quindi luogo un incremento della biodiversità.

    Central Park di New York. Creato alla metà dell’Ottocento, il parco è un’opera d’arte e un’incarnazione del

    Golden Gate Park di San Francisco. È realizzato nel 1870 e ha avuto alle spalle anni di discussioni fra i

    promotori, composta da una elite di persone bianche, protestanti e di origine anglosassone ci si domanda

    quale sarà la funzione sociale che debba avere il paro: nella natura vengono visti tutti quegli aspetti che

    contrastavano con la città: qui l’uomo può trovare ristoro e refrigerio, luogo di salute e dove tutti si sentono

    uguali, passeggiare e parlare assieme, luogo dell’uguaglianza, dove ognuno a sentimenti uguali, mentre la

    città è vista come luogo insalubre, di differenza sociale, di malessere.

    Diviene un parco naturalistico.

    Attorno al 1880 di diffondono nuovi interessi e idee: si vuole acconsentire a alle persone che sono molto

    legate al lavoro con le macchine, di farle distrarre, si vuole unire l’utile al dilettevole. Si introducono aree

    sportive, che inizia un’uguaglianza, anche fra i sessi aumentano le specie vegetali e si adottano percorsi

    rettilinei e di piste ciclabili.

    Si tratta del più grande parco cittadino, un po’ più esteso del Central Park di NY, ha una forma rettangolare

    anche questo. All’interno si trova una serra, il cui obiettivo è la conservazione delle piante che resistono male

    alle escursioni termiche: fiore all’occhiello dei giardini britannici, emulate in altri paesi europei e americani.

    Nel parco è stato creato un Arboretum, una sorta di orto botanico, che conserva forma vegetali molto

    All’interno vi è un giardino in stile giapponese: fra i più ricchi di pagode in miniatura si vuole far conoscere

    quest’altro aspetto del mondo. 45

    Geografia dell’Ambiente e del Paesaggio

    Viene aggiunto anche un recinto dei bisonti: specie quasi estinto, messa in quest’area protetta.

    Il parco presenta diversi laghetti artificiali, e tutta l’attività sportiva legata a questi.

    Nuova costruzione è l’edificio della Californa Accademy of Sciences, dove si può vedere i principi ecologici

    e di rispetto per la biodiversità. Sul tetto sono presenti cupole inerbite, tranne alcuni occhi che permettono di

    illuminare il luogo sottostante.

    Green Roof. Si tratta di tetti parzialmente o totalmente coperti da vegetazione, piantata su menbrane

    resistenti all’acqua tutto dipende dalla qualità di queste membrane:

    vantaggi dal punto di vista ediliio:

    - assorbimento acqua piovana

    - creazione di habitat per la vita selvatica

    - aiuto nel mitigare la temperatura urbana (isola di calore)

    Vi sono anche svantaggi: ovviamente se la qualità delle membrane non è buona, può portare a complicazioni

    I tetti verdi a volte possono divenire veri e propri giardini.




    Composizione: imidacloprid 19,42%

    Formulazione: dispersione oleosa
    Classificazione Tossicologica: non classificato
    Ambientale: Pericoloso per l’ambiente (N)
    Registrazione Min.San. n. 13212 del 15/06/2009

    DELTACID SPEEDY cs VEBI – 250 ml insetticida abbattente zanzare

    DELTACID SPEEDY cs VEBI – 250 ml insetticida abbattente zanzare


    DELTACID SPEEDY è un insetticida/acaricida concentrato ad ampio spettro che associa una duplice azione: l’elevata efficacia immediata della Tetrametrina e la prolungata azione residuale della Deltametrina, garantendo ambienti liberi da insetti per almeno 2 settimane dal trattamento. Entrambi i principi attivi sono sinergizzati con un’alta quantità di Piperonilbutossido che facilita la penetrazione dei principi attivi negli insetti, riduce le resistenze e ne aumenta l’efficacia. DELTACID SPEEDY è efficace per il controllo di insetti volanti (come mosche, tafani, vespe, zanzare comuni e zanzara tigre, flebotomi), contro gli insetti striscianti (come blatte, formiche, pulci, pesciolino d’argento e cimici), contro gli insetti infestanti i magazzini (come tignole, punteruoli del grano, alfitobio e tribolium) e altri animali come ragni e invasori occasionali (acari).

    Deltametrina 2 g
    Tetrametrina pura 3 g
    Piperonilbutossido 8 g
    Coformulanti q.b. a 100 g

    DELTACID SPEEDY è efficace verso tutti i tipi di insetti che comunemente infestano gli ambienti domestici, civili, industriali e zootecnici quali: abitazioni, industrie alimentari (in assenza di mangimi o bevande), sale di mungitura, mezzi di trasporto, ambienti rurali, stalle, ricoveri di animali, letamai, depositi di rifiuti, magazzini, scuole, ospedali, cinema, negozi, caserme, alberghi, ristoranti, mense, centri turistici, balneari e campeggi. Il prodotto è consigliato anche per il trattamento di aree verdi come viali alberati, siepi, tappeti erbosi e cespugli ornamentali per il solo controllo delle zanzare.

    Il prodotto diluito in acqua può essere applicato all’interno di edifici, aree esterne e aree con vegetazione utilizzando pompe a pressione, nebulizzatori elettrici o a motore e atomizzatori.

    Reg. Min. della Salute N. 19950

    Video: What happens to soil properties when you add compost or cover crop?