All about the cultivation and use of the medicinal herb sainfoin
The sainfoin herb is a perennial crop of the legume family. Initially, it was used as feed for livestock, but after revealing its beneficial properties, the plant began to be specially sown in the fields to improve the soil and as a honey plant. The herb has found its use in folk medicine - preparations from it help in the treatment of many diseases, contribute to the healing of the body.
Description of the plant and its distribution area
Depending on the species, the plant height is 30-80 cm, rarely 1 m or more. Sainfoin is distinguished from other productive herbs by a long taproot with strong branching in the upper part. The external description of all representatives of the genus is similar - usually it is a herbaceous shrub with pubescent or thorny stems. The leaf plates are complex - each one consists of a couple of dozen small elongated leaves attached to the petiole.
The perennial blooms with large spike-shaped inflorescences of different shades: white, cream, pinkish, lilac. Flowering begins only in the second year in June-July. Flowers open sequentially, but live no more than a day. The entire brush fades in 7-10 days. After that, the fruits ripen - wrinkled beans of gray-green color, similar to beans.
In the natural environment, the plant prefers dry calcareous soils, it is found on mountain slopes, forest edges, in meadows, along roads and river banks. The distribution area is mainly the central and southern parts of Europe, as well as Siberia. Certain species grow in Spain, Portugal, Tunisia, in the north of the African continent, Australia and North America.
The culture has a fairly rich chemical composition, which allows it to be used for animal feed and for medicinal purposes. The terrestrial part of the plant contains a lot of vitamin C, carotene, fiber, carbohydrates, fatty oils, enzymes, phenolic compounds that protect the body from external negative influences.
The nutritional value of grass and beans consists of several types of protein. Of the micro- and macroelements, there are phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, as well as vitamins E, D, five B vitamins.
Useful and medicinal properties
Herbal remedies used in medicine have the following therapeutic effect:
- reduce blood sugar and cholesterol levels;
- increase immunity and contribute to the recovery of the body after physical overload, illness, injury;
- improve concentration and mental ability in general;
- increase the level of hemoglobin;
- normalize the work of the nervous system;
- increase libido;
- are used in the complex therapy of such female pathologies as ovarian dysfunction, irregularities in the cycle, help asymptomatically survive menopause;
- help men to get rid of impotence and reduce the likelihood of prostate diseases.
Honey obtained from the flowers of the plant has high healing properties. It is very aromatic, with a rich taste, useful for colds and for a weakened body.
Harm and contraindications for use
There are no strict contraindications to the use of the herb for medicinal purposes, but there are people who may have an intolerance to the product. This is especially true of honey - in rare cases, an allergy may occur to it. When using drugs and decoctions for a long time, an increase in blood pressure and testosterone production is possible.
Video "Description of the herb sainfoin"
This video explains the health benefits of the herb.
Varieties of sainfoin
In nature, there are about 80 plant species growing on different continents. Many of them are endemic, such as the Siberian species, which is widespread in the western and eastern parts of this region, or Pallas, which is found on the Crimean Peninsula. In central and southern Europe, there are a couple of dozen species, but the following varieties are important for agriculture:
- Sowing. A two-year low culture (0.2-0.7 m) with a well-developed root system, from which many stems and branches grow. In private lands, it is grown most often, since it surpasses other species in green mass.
- Sandy. A powerful shrub grows in the steppes, on the slopes, prefers sandy soil. The stems are practically naked, without thorns, which makes it possible to use the grass for forage. It blooms with large (18-20 cm) inflorescences of white or pinkish color.
- Vicolytic. Bulky shrub about 90 cm high with erect, moderately hairy or bare stems. Blooms in June in large inflorescences of bright pinkish color. Occurs on the outskirts of fields and roads, in meadows.
Sowing and growing a medicinal plant
In many private farms, the grass is grown as a green manure or melliferous crop, as well as to feed livestock and horses. It is sown in spring, in March-April, as soon as the soil warms up to + 7 ... 10 ° C, or in autumn, at the end of September. As a green manure, it is sown on unstable clayey soils with high density. The powerful rhizome of the plant will loosen the soil and enrich it with nitrogen, making it suitable for more demanding crops.
The plot for sowing is prepared in advance. If the soil is acidic, it is lime. You need to sow not deeply, by 3-4 cm, otherwise you can not wait for seedlings. Since plants are often affected by various ailments and pests, it is recommended to sprinkle the seeds with ash before sowing. The best grass precursors are beets, potatoes, and corn.
In order for the honey plant to produce more nectar, the plantation must be irrigated regularly during the flowering period.
Collection and procurement of raw materials
They start mowing grass for hay a week earlier than alfalfa, somewhere in early June, but the time is different in different regions. It is important to have time to mow before the buds are laid, since during this period the beneficial substances in the plant are contained in maximum concentration. During the season, the grass is mowed 2 times. To make it grow quickly, the cut is performed at a height of 7-8 cm.
For treatment, the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the plant are harvested. The collection of the ground part is carried out during the flowering period, the roots - with the onset of autumn. Raw materials are dried in the shade under a canopy, or in a dark, well-ventilated room. The roots are washed and cut into pieces before drying.
The use of sainfoin
For medicinal purposes, herbal decoctions are used, which are prepared according to a special recipe, depending on the diagnosis:
- To reduce sugar and strengthen the body: 1 tbsp. pour a spoonful of dry raw materials with 300 ml of boiling water, insist for 4 hours in a thermos, filter and take half a glass before meals.
- For female diseases: pour 1 tbsp with a glass of boiling water (200 ml). a spoonful of herbs, insist 6 hours to get a concentrated composition, drink 1 tbsp. spoon before meals up to 4 times / day.
- In the treatment of impotence: pour a spoonful of dry grass with a glass of boiling water, simmer on fire for 10 minutes, cool, drink 0.5 glass before bedtime for 1 month.
As you can see, sainfoin is a very useful crop, especially in private lands. Its cultivation does not require much effort and money, and the benefits are invaluable both for health and for the economy.
The best cucumber varieties in Ukraine - Top 10 parthenocarpic cucumbers *
* The article is compiled according to the data of the seed producers
We offer you the top of some of the best varieties of self-pollinated cucumbers, which can be grown not only in the open field, but also in glass and film greenhouses. We also want to note that these varieties of cucumbers showed high productivity, resistance to stress and versatility in application.
1. Cupid F1 (Bejo) - ultra early (40-45 days) self-pollinated large-tuberous cucumber. The hybrid gives a high and uniform yield throughout all fruiting. The fruits are small-thorny, cylindrical, evenly colored green, without yellow spots, with a small seed chamber and refined skin, without a bitter aftertaste. Length / diameter - 3 3.3: 1. Can be transported over long distances without loss. Heat resistant. It can be eaten fresh, pickled and canned. HR: Ccu / Px. IR: CMV / CVYV / Pcu.
2. Poseidon F1 (Solare Sementi) - an early variety of self-pollinated cucumber. The plant is tall with a small distance between nodes and well-developed roots. Actively yields the harvest at the very beginning. Fruits are 13-15 cm long, the proportion of width to length is 3.3: 1. Forms 2-3 fruits in one sinus. The color is saturated green with a glossy overflow, without a white spot at the tip, the surface is coarse. Used for the market and processing industry.
3. Mimino F1 (Lucky Seed) - parthenocarpic, very early variety for universal use. Plant of semi-determinant type, medium-sized, large leaves. Fruits are dark green, with considerable tubercles and snow-white thorns, length 10-12 cm. Very tasty, without bitterness. Tolerant to true and downy mildew and oversporosis.
4. Cybria F1 (Rijk Zwaan) - early ripening parthenocarpic with a large yield of early harvest. It can be cultivated in film and glass shelters in early spring and summer. The plant is generative, powerful, but requires good nutrition in return. Easily transfers the load of fruits, without stopping in growth and without losing the ovary. The fruits are large lumpy, dark green. Zelentsy are very tasty and crispy. The length to thickness ratio is 3.2: 1.0. Resistance: Ccu / Px (ex Sf) CMV.
5. Lutoyar F1 (Yuksel) - an ultra-early parthenocarpic variety of semi-bouquet type cucumber. Not prone to stress, bears fruit for a very long time. Ties 2.3 or more ovaries in one knot. The shoots are medium in the degree of tillering. Zelentsi are cylindrical, dark green, without cavities, solid, 12 cm long, weighing 90-110 g, odorous. In one sample, 19-24 fruits can be removed from the plant. Ideal for pickling and pickling. Resistant to downy mildew, powdery mildew and bacteriosis. It can be grown in greenhouses and in the field, in spring and autumn.
6. Ecole F1 (Syngenta) - parthenocarpic hybrid with fast recovery from stress. Versatile to use. The plant is vigorous, generative type and with a short distance between nodes. In one bosom simultaneously forms 4-5 fruits. Fruits are strong with a small seed chamber, green in color. Fruit length is 8-12 cm on average. This variety can be grown on pickles. Has tolerance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) cucumber olive spot (Ccu) powdery mildew (Px).
7. Arctic F1 (Arena F1) (NongWoo Bio) - early (33-40 days) parthenocarpic hybrid of cucumber. Grows well in greenhouses and outdoors. The plant is strong, sufficiently covered with leaves. The distance between the nodes is not large, in each sinus there are on average 2-3 greens. Fruits of the Arctic F1 have the shape of an elongated cylinder, of the same type, large tubercles, green, weighing 160-180 grams. The average length of a gherkin is 10-11 cm, diameter is 3-3.5 cm. This variety can be sown in two turns. Main advantages: high yield, uniform yield and fruit quality.
8. Meringue F1 (Seminis) - an early ripening hybrid of parthenocarpic for cultivation in all types of greenhouses and grown in the field. Great for factory processing and fresh market. Fruits with good commercial qualities. Fruits are large lumpy, 11-13 cm long, weighing 90-100 grams, length / diameter ratio 3.2: 1. The plant is tall, with excellent regeneration ability. High resistance (HR): CMV / Ccu. Intermediate stability (IR): Px.
9. Satin F1 (Nunhems) - parthenocarpic gherkin with early (38-40 days) ripening and harvest in the open field. Fruits with large tubercles, dark green, with delicate skin and tasty pulp, 10-12 cm long. Not difficult to grow and adapted to stress in the open field. The variety is easy to carry and transportable. Leaves are not very large, which guarantees an open plant, and this makes harvesting easier. The hybrid is versatile, especially good when salted. Relatively resistant to downy mildew, powdery mildew and cladosporium.
10. Grasshopper F1 (Elite row) - early ripening (38-39 days from germination) parthenocarpic bundle variety of female flowering type. Developed by breeders for cultivation in open and closed ground. Ties 2-6 fruits in knots, which then grow back in order. The plant is vigorous, branching is small. Zelentsy with large abundant tubercles, white thorns, 10-12 cm long. Excellent for salting and preservation. A hybrid resistant to powdery mildew, olive spot, cucumber mosaic virus and downy mildew.
Californian breed standard
Like any broiler breed, California rabbits should produce the highest meat yield and the lowest bone count. Therefore, with a general strong constitution, the representatives of the Californian breed have a light, thin skeleton.
The maximum amount of meat in rabbits is on the hind legs, respectively, in the Californian, the extended sacro-lumbar region and well-muscled hind legs. And the body, on which there is little meat, is compact.
Broiler breeds do not need long legs, and Californian rabbits also have short legs.
The head is small and light. The ears do not exceed 10.5 cm.
The weight of an adult animal of the Californian breed is 4-5 kg.
Features of the color and quality of the skin in the Californian breed
Since the Californian rabbit was bred with the participation of three breeds, he took the best from them: delicious meat from chinchilla from New Zealand white, the ability to grow rapidly from the Russian ermine color and the quality of the skin.
The color of the Californian rabbit breed is similar to the color of the Russian ermine so that it is easy to confuse them. Although, of course, there are differences. The photo below is a Californian breed.
And in this photo there is a Russian ermine rabbit.
The ermine mark is larger and darker. Although in reality it will be very difficult to distinguish between these two breeds of rabbits, since the size and saturation of the marks depends on the air temperature.
Rabbits of these breeds are born white, markings appear later. Moreover, the lower the air temperature at the time when the marks appear, the more saturated and larger these dark areas are.
Important! The Californian rabbit standard only allows black and brown markings. Any other color of markings indicates an unclean crawl.
Photo of another breed of rabbits, similar in color to the Californian.
This is a butterfly breed rabbit. It is really possible to confuse this breed with the Californian only due to inexperience. The butterfly breed is distinguished by the presence of black spots on the body and the absence of dark markings on the paws. But at a young age, rabbits can be similar. To accurately determine the breed, just look into the eyes of the rabbits. The Californian rabbits have red eyes, while the "butterfly" has dark eyes.
Features of the Californian breed
Although the Californian is an industrial breed, keeping Californian rabbits by private owners is also not difficult. Perhaps the animals will grow a little slower, but this is usually not important to private traders, since private traders do not have the number of rabbits to incur serious losses, but usually there is not enough time for slaughter.
The Californian breed has a calm disposition, which is why rabbits of this breed are increasingly kept as pets. And here the next details of rabbit organisms come to light: although the Californian is advertised as a breed capable of living on mesh floors, in fact, such floors are harmful to any breed of rabbits. If possible, the animals should be provided with a smooth floor to avoid pododermatitis.
This is not possible on a rabbit farm, as productivity comes first. In the apartment, the rabbit can be equipped with a comfortable cage. It is not difficult to clean up after one animal.
Private traders who keep several rabbits, depending on their ingenuity, find a variety of options: from a galvanized sheet of iron with holes punched in it for urine drainage to keeping animals in pits.
Differences between the ways of keeping rabbits
There are three methods of keeping rabbits: in a cage, in an aviary, and in a pit.
Experienced rabbit breeders have long abandoned the enclosures, since the enclosure is a plot of land fenced with a net, open from the sky. The open-air cage is usually deepened half a meter into the ground so that the rabbits cannot dig a passage under it to freedom. In the aviary, boxes are placed as a shelter for animals. But the economic losses of rabbit breeders with this method of keeping are very high.
Firstly, the rabbits fight among themselves, and it is impossible to get a high-quality skin with this content. Secondly, rabbits do not know that they cannot undermine the net, therefore they periodically undermine and run away. Thirdly, predators, feathered and four-footed, are unfamiliar with the concept of "someone else's property" and are happy to catch defenseless animals.
Someone thinks that this method is most consistent with the natural lifestyle of rabbits. They suggest making a hole 1 m deep, cementing the bottom to prevent feces from getting into the ground and "leaving the rabbits to their fate." As planned, the rabbits themselves will dig holes in the side walls of the pit, which will then need to be equipped with dampers. You can start digging holes yourself. The rabbits will continue.
In theory, it is believed that animals will not get out of the hole, since they dig passages either horizontally or with a downward slope. At the same time, for some reason, no one thinks about where, in this case, in nature, rabbits take the second and third exits from the hole. And since the rabbits themselves know perfectly well that they also dig passages with a rise to the surface, periodically rabbit breeders who breed animals in a hole are forced to fill such passages with concrete to freedom and artificially dig the correct hole for rabbits nearby.
Also, the disadvantages of the pit include:
- the difficulty of catching extra individuals
- tainted skins
- possible compacted fencing of rabbits due to free access of rabbits to females
- inability to provide rabbits with an individual diet.
A plus would be that, according to statements, the rabbits in the pit are no longer afraid of rats. But the rats themselves may not know what is written about them on the Internet, but be well aware of how to dig holes in the ground. And leftover food will surely attract rats.
Comment! Rats are nocturnal animals and humans often live next to them, not even knowing about their existence. If you saw a rat during the day, it means that the animal is either sick, or the population has grown too large and there is not enough living space for everyone.
This is to the question of whether there are rats in the pits. Only rats and rabbits can answer it exactly.
Given that Californians are a thermophilic breed, living in a pit may not suit them.
A well-made cage is guaranteed to protect rabbits and their young from rats, and living of each animal in a separate cage will preserve the skin and allow you to assign individual rations to the animals.
The insulated cage allows you to keep rabbits outdoors even in winter. If the cage is additionally equipped with a heated mother liquor and a heated drinker, then up to -10 degrees the rabbit has nothing more to wish for. In case of more severe frosts, it is better to bring the cages with animals indoors.
There are two points of view regarding the rabbit diet.
The first dates back to the domestication of rabbits. It is believed that the animals need carrots, grass, cabbage, silage and other succulent food in addition to hay and grain mixtures.
The second appeared with the development of industrial rabbit breeding and the appearance of full-feed granules, designed specifically for the fastest growing rabbits in an industrial environment.
Given that California rabbits were bred for industrial farms, the second option is more suitable for them. It is also less labor intensive for the owners. In addition, juicy foods often cause bloating in rabbits.
This renal tea is called "Ortosiphon staminate", and it is used to treat various ailments of the organs of the urinary system. This healing drink has the ability to relieve inflammation and have antiseptic and diuretic effects, all thanks to the plants in its composition. Orthosyphon is a small perennial plant. Leaves of a plant and its shoots are used as a medicinal raw material. Orthosiphon staminate renal is approved for use in pregnant women and during the lactation period.
What does it contain?
The drink is used to treat various ailments of the urinary system.
What is the composition of renal tea that is so popular in the treatment of liver diseases? The described herbal tea contains a storehouse of useful substances:
Benefits for the kidneys
The main property of orthosiphon is a diuretic effect, due to which the plant has found its application in medicine for the treatment of all kinds of kidney pathologies, accompanied by edema, inflammatory processes, excretion of protein in the urine, as well as for the treatment of urolithiasis, inflammation of the bladder and urethra. The beneficial properties of this medicinal herb allow you to remove acids, urea and chlorides from the body. It has been observed that renal teas are capable of suppressing the pain that accompanies kidney disease.
Reviews and videos about rabbits of the California breed
On the Internet, you can find quite a few reviews and videos about the Californian breed.
A kind of advertising video about the Californian from the owners of the private farm "Moryak", engaged in breeding European rabbits:
Expert assessment of the Californian breed:
Reviews of the owners of California rabbits
Daria Kochetova, Moscow I do not breed rabbits, I have nowhere. Yes, and I can not breed them for meat, I love them too much. I keep them as pets. I have three of them. All different breeds and all females. Comparing, I can say that the Californian is the most intelligent of them all. If she also directed her thought process into a peaceful channel, there would be no price for her. And so: he will be able to open the cage, then he runs with a bowl in his teeth and knocks it on the floor. She likes the sound, you see. Likes to jump on the bed by my side. It will stretch to its full length and wait for it to be stroked. And kind, besides. The Polish rabbit is small, and that dog is still angry. Almost not on her, immediately bite. It's bad that the Californian is driving, and she doesn't want to give her any change. Evgeny Zyryaev, p. Dobrodeevo I have been breeding rabbits for a long time. First, he raised a breed of gray giants for meat. Then I decided to see if the California one was really more profitable, although it was twice as small. It turned out yes. Califorinians take due to the rapid turnover: the growing time is half that of the giants - and due to the higher percentage of meat in carcasses in relation to the bones. I will completely switch to the Californian breed.
The California breed may not be very suitable for beginners, but if a breeder already has experience in keeping rabbits and wants to try raising meat rabbits for sale, then the Californian breed is one of the best choices.
For the treatment and prevention of liver diseases, doctors prescribe a good herbal tea called "Urophyton". It consists of the following plant components: birch leaves, marigold inflorescences, horsetail herb, licorice rhizomes, bearberry and plantain leaves. "Urophyton" has the following actions on the body:
It is prescribed for the treatment of cystitis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis and urethra. The instructions say that it is not recommended to use "Urophyton" for pregnant women and during lactation, as well as for individual intolerance to the constituents of tea and children under 12 years of age. To maintain the health of the kidneys and their therapy, tea should be drunk strictly according to the instructions, which indicate the following dosage: 2 times a day, 100-200 ml during the meal.
How and from what to take motherwort tincture with valerian, mint?
- Neurological disorders and gynecological problems are solved by alcohol tincture. It is enough to take 30-40 drops diluted with water.
- With nervousness, increased pressure in the circulatory system and tachycardia, alcohol is taken 3-4 times a day, 40 drops.
- For insomnia, a decoction is prepared with motherwort and Valerian officinalis in equal proportions.
- To eliminate mastopathy, the herb is mixed with yarrow and boiled in boiling water. The course lasts six months.
- A mixture of St. John's wort, peppermint and dry motherwort helps with pancreatitis.
- For the treatment of problem skin, tincture of motherwort, sage and oak bark is used. The mixture is applied to problem areas or added to the bath.
For children and people with epilepsy, it is best to prepare a medicinal decoction, rather than use alcohol tincture. The aqueous solution is stored for no more than 3 days. It's best to brew a fresh, healing drink every day.
Take such a tincture is strictly dosed.
In this case, mint is used as a good analgesic and choleretic component, moreover, it gives the tincture a pleasant taste.
Valerian tincture in combination with motherwort tincture will help people suffering from:
- severe overwork
- heart rhythm disorders
- increased anxiety
This product is also available in tablets.
By adding a few drops of mint tincture to the motherwort and valerian tincture, you will get a good sedative.
"Maryin root" - the poetic name of a peony in the common people
Peony tincture is mixed in a 1: 1 ratio with motherwort (or hawthorn) tincture to obtain a natural sleeping pill. Take three times a day from 15 to 30 drops. You can also add mint. The sleeping pill effect will be stronger and the taste will be more pleasant. After all, peony tincture does not have the most pleasant aftertaste.
Everyone knows the effect of Corvalol on the heart muscle, so this is the first remedy for the heart - it slows down the heartbeat, gently soothes.
The tincture must be washed down with water.
Like other tinctures from the list, this one should be taken starting with 10 drops. In case of exacerbation and to provide quick relief, take 30 drops at a time, observing the reaction.
It is not uncommon to add valerian and peony tincture to such a mixture for greater effect. It is believed that such a tool is almost universal.
Tinctures the maximum dose at a time is 30 drops. Accordingly, taking such a dose 3 times a day, you will have a total of 9 drops per day. Rounding up, we get the maximum value - 100 drops per day.
Violating the dosage, you risk going to the hospital!
Are lovage and celery the same thing?
One of the most common mistakes that novice connoisseurs of the healing power of plants make is drawing an analogy between celery and lovage. Yes, indeed, these two plants are very similar in appearance and belong to the same umbrella family. But each has its own special value: celery - as a vegetable, lovage - as a spice and medicinal plant. And if you have a place for celery in your garden, then do not be too lazy to plant lovage next to it - this will be a valuable contribution to your health and the well-being of your family.