Gardening work in early spring
Fruit and berry plants
Good afternoon, dear gardeners and gardeners.
Spring is coming, today the garden is already 15 ⁰C, and soon they promise an even higher temperature. Warming is coming rapidly, and many gardeners complain that they are not doing anything. There is nothing to be done, you will have to put aside all household chores and take care of the garden: the spring day feeds the year.
Preventive garden treatment
Maybe someone still has a meter deep snowdrifts on the site, but it's time for me in Zaporozhye to “say hello” to the garden trees. This means that you need to examine the flower buds on the branches. On the apricot, the buds have already begun to slowly revive: the scales, which are tightly closed for the winter, began to move apart and seem to brighten.
Why is it important? If you are going to spray a tree, then with strong solutions - a three percent Bordeaux liquid or a seven percent urea solution - you can simply burn these buds. Therefore, after awakening the buds, it is better to treat trees for prevention with less concentrated means.
Spring pruning of trees
I am often asked what to do if the sap flow has already begun, but the trees have not been cut. I never had a particular problem with pruning terms: I cut them when it is convenient for me or something interferes, for example, if the shoot grew in the wrong direction. I do not do pruning only in cold weather.
As soon as I have time, I will begin to prune the apple tree I inherited from the previous tenants. It grows in the shade and drives the shoots up to the light. But since I have a nursery under this apple tree, the more shadow there is, the better. On February 19, I inoculated this apple tree: I cut it from a neighbor's high-quality cuttings and immediately grafted the apple tree onto the apple tree. Two weeks have passed, and I see that the buds on the handle are lively. Of course, it's too early to say anything, but nevertheless, I hope that the vaccine will take root.
Regarding pruning ornamental shrubs: some of them, for example, forsythia, bloom in early spring on the shoots of last year, so it is better not to prune them in the spring. Last year in the spring, I cut half the shoots on my tamarisk, and it bloomed so-so. In the spring, you need to cut off those shrubs that bloom in the second half of summer on the shoots of the current year. After pruning, many young shoots are formed on them, and flowering is much more active.
Fertilizer is of two types. The first type is granular long-playing dressings, which, after being introduced into the soil, dissolve very slowly and gradually penetrate into the root system. It is in early spring that such a granular fertilizer should be used: while it dissolves, time will pass, and when the seedling begins to grow, it will receive everything it needs from the soil.
If you now apply the second type of fertilizer - water-soluble fast-acting, you will provoke plants to grow too early, and unexpected frosts can greatly harm and even destroy them. It is advisable to use liquid fertilizing when it finally gets warmer, and the seedlings begin to actively vegetate.
Rapid warming in spring often leads to early drought. Now the soil is still rich in moisture, but in such warm weather, the water will begin to evaporate intensively and, if there is no precipitation, the sandy soil, which already does not hold moisture, will quickly dry out. Therefore, do not rush to remove mulch from under the seedlings planted in the fall. I will leave my mulching shelter all summer long and will most likely put on some more.
Under a layer of mulch, I made an irrigation hole, in which water will accumulate during rains and irrigation, and mulching plant residues will protect the soil in the near-trunk area from dehydration and the root system from overheating. For our arid, sandy terrain, this is an important point.
When to take cover
I am often asked when to remove the insulation that protects the trunks from frost - agrofibre, garden bandages, burlap or vegetable nets. The fact is that closer to spring there are strong differences between night and day temperatures - from -10 to +10 ⁰C. And this is what happens: during the day, the already quite active sun heats the trunks, and the night frosts can leave frost holes on them. The insulation from the trunks can only be removed when the night temperature stops dropping to -3 ⁰C.
The same is with the shelter of plants: as soon as the weather is warm, remove the shelter, but do not remove it far, keep it ready and follow the forecasts. If forecasters predict frost, you can again cover the already waking plants and protect them from a cold snap.
Curiosities in my garden
Let me say a few words about successfully overwintered plants. One of the gardeners gave me a bamboo - a golden grooved leaf grate. He hibernates with his stems bent to the ground. I also spread the bamboo stalks on the ground for the winter, but did not make a shelter. Now I have already picked up the bamboo and tied it to a peg. This evergreen plant will gradually replace old leaves with young ones in the spring.
I also received two arundo reed seedlings as a gift. The upper part of this plant dies off for the winter and must be pruned, and in the spring new shoots grow from the root. The seedling I kept at home has already started to grow. It is a very beautiful variegated form with colored striped leaves. The thick and sturdy pipes that remain after pruning resemble bamboo and can be successfully adapted on the farm.
The evergreen large-flowered magnolia, which I planted in the open ground under the southern wall of the barn, also wintered well. Rosemary and bushes shield her from the chilling cold wind. The same magnolia overwintered in a container nearby. On frosty days, I covered my southern beauties with an old agrofibre.
Finally, let me remind you that now is the best time to purchase and plant seedlings. For example, I'm going to buy something else this year and plant it on my site.
This is approximately the same work for every gardener in early spring, at least in our country, in the south of Ukraine.
Spring Gardening Videos
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
Gardening in spring always starts with tillage. To do this, use a variety of garden tools: hoes, rakes, "cats" and cultivators. After digging, loosen the soil thoroughly. The depth of loosening should not be too great: a maximum of 2-3 cm. Plant roots grow and develop better in loose soil, since it is well supplied with oxygen. Also prune and kill weeds while loosening. It is better to get rid of them at the germination stage than to deal with tall grass later. If you carried out a very deep digging of the soil, then the seeds of many weeds remained in the lower layers of the earth. And from there they, as a rule, do not germinate.
In the spring, add only humus to the soil, and leave the compost and manure for autumn. Traditional application rate for organic fertilizers is 1 bucket per square meter. Fertilization methods are different. Place them in the grooves when digging, or sprinkle them evenly over the surface and then dig up the soil. Instead of organic fertilizers, you can add mineral fertilizers. So, in the spring, add nitrogen to the soil while loosening. This is especially true of the area where the beds and the flower garden will be located. One cubic meter requires 30-40 grams of nitrogen fertilizers.
Spring gardening: while the snow melts
The weather in spring is known to be changeable. Therefore, the time for gardening work is difficult to coincide with a specific date. It depends primarily on weather conditions. Focus on what is happening in your garden. After all, even with neighbors, the situation may be different.
The alternation of thaws and frosts, which is common in February-March, is dangerous for lawns. The melted snow is covered with a crust of ice, which makes it difficult for air to reach the lawn grasses. As a result, in the spring, bald spots may form on the lawn and it will have to be repaired. To avoid this, it is advisable to break the ice crust as it forms.
Dump snow from tree tops whenever possible. March snow, which gained moisture during the thaw, becomes heavy and can break tree branches.
In spring, rodents are especially active: hunger spurs them on. Therefore, do not forget to "trample" the snow around the tree trunks from time to time so that the starving pests do not damage the bark.
In late February and early March, conifers located in open areas of the garden can be severely affected by sunburn. Conifers, the crowns of which at the beginning of winter were pulled together with twine, will not hurt to wrap them in several layers of burlap or other covering material. The main thing is that it does not transmit ultraviolet light too well. Shade screens can also be used. They are usually installed on the side where the sun shines the most, and the plant is most at risk of being "burned". The shelter is removed after the snow melts.
A sharp rise in air temperature in spring, when the ground has not yet thawed, is also dangerous for conifers. At this time, the needles are actively working (photosynthesis begins), evaporating moisture, and the roots are not yet able to extract it from the frozen ground. A kind of "dehydration" occurs. To preserve the plants, the ground under them is watered with warm water as soon as the snow melts.
Fruit trees can also suffer from the bright spring sun. If you didn't have time to whitewash the trees in the fall and renew the whitewashing in February, now is the time to wrap the trunks above the soil surface with light-colored paper or newspapers. It will be possible to remove the harnesses in late March - early April. The whitewash can be renewed when the snow melts and the temperature rises above 5 ° C. It is advisable to have time to do this before the leaves begin to bloom. Until the earth warmed up, and the pests wintering in it did not wake up.
When warm days come, but the snow is still lying, you can start pruning your garden trees. It must be completed before the start of sap flow. It is best to prune in the early morning when the snow is still dense and comfortable to walk on. Please note that heavily thickened crowns are thinned out not in one year, but within two to three years. Otherwise, multiple wounds can weaken the tree. The work begins with the removal of large branches.
While there is still snow on the site, you can store it in barrels and other containers for water. In April, this melt water will be useful for planting in a greenhouse or garden beds (if the spring is friendly).
In the middle or end of March (depending on the weather), it's time to start airing sheltered for the winter roses and other thermophilic plants (rhododendrons, hydrangea). It is best to ventilate shelters on sunny days at above-zero temperatures. The main task is to provide access to fresh air, preventing condensation from accumulating, and gradually accustom the plants to the new temperature regime. Therefore, the covering material should only be slightly raised in the first days, gradually increasing the access of fresh air.
Melted water may need to be drained from the lowlands of the garden. This water has little oxygen, and tree roots can suffocate if it stagnates.
In areas where the snow melts quickly, beds with crops and perennial flowers planted before winter can become bare. Additional measures may be needed to prevent freezing. For example, beds with podzimny plantings and flower beds can be sprinkled with a thin layer of peat chips or covered with foil. You can do the same with the beds in which you plan to sow early green crops: radish, dill, lettuce, Chinese cabbage.
As the snow melts, care should be taken to shade flower perennials wintering with green leaves (phlox subulate, badan, highlander,some primroses). To create shade, you can use spruce branches or stretched burlap. It is advisable to install improvised screens on the south side, not laying directly on the plants. They can be removed when the soil thaws and warms up.
As soon as the snow layer becomes thin or completely melts, you can free it from shelters daffodilsand lilies... These plants tolerate light frosts well.
The first spraying of garden trees against pests and diseases is usually carried out when the average daily air temperature reaches + 5 ° C. Before budding, it is necessary to have time to treat the trees with an insecticide against the eggs of the apple sucker, scabbards, various aphids, fruit mites, leaf rollers, caterpillars of the apple moth wintering on the bark.
Immediately after the snow melts, it is time for a grandiose general cleaning of the garden. It is necessary to remove last year's dry leaves, plant debris, windbreak, the remains of supports and shelters and other garden debris that has accumulated since autumn. At the same time, you can remove the first weeds that appear until they are strong and easily uprooted. Wash greenhouse frames and glass, clean gutters, clear garden paths of moss, tidy garden furniture - the active season is coming.
Disinfection after trimming
The second point: when you do pruning, it is recommended to cover the wounds with some kind of garden varnish. The classic garden variety should not be used. It is under the film of garden varnish that fungal infections usually develop. Modern garden varnish, balsam with fungicidal additives, is another matter, this is a good thing.
It is imperative to disinfect the wounds. Yes, large ones are possible. But what about the small ones? After all, if you cut the tree well, how will you then process these small wounds? Therefore - spraying.
Tulip and lily bulbs are a favorite delicacy of insidious rodents who spent the whole winter on starvation rations. So that they do not spoil the beauty of your flower garden, pour poisoned bait into paper bags and press deeper into the snow covering the flower beds with bulbous plants.
In the first decade of March sown flower crops on seedlings: verbena, morning glory, levkoy, cineraria, petunia and sweet peas. Memo to the florist - article 15 flower crops that need to be sown for seedlings in March.
To prepare for sowing sweet pea seeds, fill them with hot water (+ 60 ... + 80 ° С) so that it only covers the peas, and leave overnight.
Alyssum, or lobularia
Seeds of crops that are strong are struck by a black leg: aster, levkoy, lobelia, alissum, gelichrizum, antirrinum, - treated with fungicide before sowing. They are sown only in sterilized soil and from time to time watered with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate. Seedlings and seedlings of such plants are watered using a syringe with a removed needle, deepening its tip into the ground.
Our market will help you choose fungicides for a summer residence - an illustrated catalog, with the help of which it is very convenient to compare offers from different online stores.
If you are a fan of planting something, getting new seedlings or planting a different variety in the crown of an apple tree, then March (especially the first half) is a great time to collect material for inoculation. That is, for harvesting cuttings.
- Cuttings should be cut no thinner and preferably no thicker than the size of a simple pencil. The length is enough 15–20 cm. The cuttings should have live buds.
- After cutting, the lower ends of the cuttings must be dipped in warm paraffin.
- After waiting for it to harden, place the cuttings in a bag or thick cloth.
- Put it in the snow or the refrigerator door before the vaccination period begins (which will be in about a month).
- On a tree, be sure to isolate all cuts with garden varnish or garden paint.
Advice to gardeners and gardeners, summer cottage all year round, garden work, summer cottage, work on the plot, caring for fruit trees, pruning plants, spring work in the garden and vegetable garden, pruning trees, whitewashing trees
The awakening of nature begins when there is still snow everywhere. March - the beginning of active work of a gardener. You must definitely visit your country estate and prepare the garden for the summer. Every little thing that you forget about can be reflected in the future harvest. Let's talk about the most urgent matters: weed control, soil preparation, pruning, whitewashing.
Main events in March
1. During the period of active snow melting, you need to skillfully manage the abundance of water. In high areas, transverse grooves are created to evenly move the flowing down moisture. This will prevent washing out of the fertile layers. In lowlands, it is required to remove stagnant water and make drainage. It is important to ensure the outflow of melt water from plantings of raspberries and strawberries.
2. Preparing the soil, working with snow. The procedure consists of breaking the infusion and removing the snow seals. Around the trees and shrubs, the snow mass builds up and is trampled down. This helps to concentrate and retain moisture.
3. Berry bushes are cleaned of pests, poured over from a watering can with hot water.
4. At the end of March, fruit bushes are prevented. On examination, twisted and dried branches are revealed and removed, as well as with powdery mildew, flames, black-gray dots and bloom. Spraying with copper sulfate is carried out. At positive temperatures, chemical treatment is carried out.
5. March is dangerous for tree bark. This is the time of the most severe UV injuries. Treatment of trunks with sunscreen emulsions, whitewashing is required.
6. Mineral fertilizers are scattered under the crown, which with melt water will support future fruiting.
7. Procurement of grafting cuttings for spring operations or rooting is underway. The period may continue until bud break.
For many, such an event at the beginning of spring seems surprising. The method is simple and effective. A layer of peat, ash or ordinary earth is applied to the snow-covered beds. It is covered with an old film, fixed with poles, pipes, stones.
This will accelerate the melting of snow and the germination of weeds. The cover is removed when shoots are visible. Now loosen the soil with a hoe or rake. After two days, cover and repeat the procedure. As a result, your vegetable beds will not need weeding until at least mid-summer.
The branches are inspected, the thickening is eliminated. The crown is being adjusted: 12-15 branches of different ages and 5-7 annual shoots. All underdeveloped shoots directed towards the inside of the bush, inclined to the ground, should be cut off. Old 7-8 year old branches are cut at the base. Shorten the ends of fruiting shoots (black currant) by 10-15 cm.
The kidneys affected by the mite are plucked out; they are enlarged and spherical in shape. Scabbards are scraped off with a sharp object, which stand out on the bark in the form of light beige "commas".
Containers with naphthalene or bleach powder are poured into the middle of the bush against the sawer and the firewood. On the ground, according to the projection of the crown, mustard and ash are poured and covered with roofing material, tar paper, film. This will exclude the release of pests from the soil.
Try to detect mechanical injuries of bark and wood in early spring and take action. If hares have visited your area and have eaten young branches ... Remove them completely or make a cut on the lateral bud in the desired direction with a pruner.
Vole mice do more damage. Eating bark and wood, they can completely destroy a young bush or tree. Light wounds can be ignored - they will heal on their own. In case of significant damage, you need to clean the edge of the bark and close the entire plane with garden pitch. This technique will prevent drying out.
Sometimes heavy snow mass and wind will cause splitting. This happens especially often in old junipers. Timely measures will completely restore the affected bush or tree. Make a strong harness, restore the skeletal structure by connecting the fracture section. You can use regular duct tape. Place a block under the branches, a support-rogatulin.
Pruning fruit trees
Freezing may occur in winter. If the branch is damaged, it must be removed. It is easy to determine such a defect - cut the kidney. A healthy and full-fledged core will have a light green color. A brownish-brown tint indicates tissue dying off and such a branch can be safely cut off. Otherwise, it will become a breeding ground for fungi and infections.
For fruit-bearing trees, sanitary pruning is performed, the thickening of the crown is eliminated. This is shortening or completely removing branches. Tops are cut out, shoots directed inside the crown, growing vertically.