Common Breadfruit Diseases – How To Fix Unhealthy Breadfruit Trees

Common Breadfruit Diseases – How To Fix Unhealthy Breadfruit Trees

By: Mary Ellen Ellis

Breadfruit is a tropical and subtropical tree that produces an abundance of tasty fruits. If you have the right climate for this tree, it’s a great decorative and useful addition to the landscape. Your breadfruit may get damaged by disease, though, so be aware of what may strike it and what to do with a sick breadfruit tree.

Breadfruit Diseases and Health

There are a number of diseases, pathogens, and infections that may attack your breadfruit tree. It is important to be aware of breadfruit disease symptoms and types so that you can take measures to save your tree before it is too late. Your tree will be less likely to succumb to illnesses if you take care of it and provide it with everything it needs to grow and be healthy.

This is a very tender tree, so growing it where temperatures drop below 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius) can make it susceptible to disease. It also needs fertile soil that runs deep and drains well, a lot of humidity, and a seasonal application of basic fertilizer.

Diseases of Breadfruit Trees

Unhealthy breadfruit trees will not produce adequately and may even die. Know what diseases may afflict your tree so you can protect or treat it as appropriate:

Breadfruit fruit rot. This infection is fungal and begins to show signs on lower fruit. The first sign is a brown spot that turns white with mold spores. It is usually spread by contaminated soil splashing up onto the fruit and then by wind. You can prevent fruit rot by trimming back low branches and removing any affected fruit before they contaminate the rest. Mulching under the tree also helps.

Anthracnose. This is another fungal infection, but unlike fruit rot it causes leaf blight. Look for small dark spots on leaves that grow larger and turn gray in the middle. Infection may set in where insects have caused damage. This disease can cause severe damage to trees, so remove affected branches as soon as you see it. A fungal spray may also help halt the disease. Protecting your tree from insects will make it less susceptible.

Root rot. Some types of fungus can cause root rot in breadfruit. Rosellinia necatrix is one such soil-dwelling fungus that can quickly kill a tree. It can be hard to catch, but it may help to ensure your soil drains well and that young trees especially are not in standing water.

Insects. Breadfruit trees are susceptible to infestations of mealybugs, soft scale, and ants. Look for signs of these insects and use sprays if needed to manage infestations that may cause damage or make your tree more vulnerable to fungal infections.

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TN #69 Tree Gardening

By: Roy Danforth and Paul Noren
Published: 2011-01-01
From: ECHO Technical Notes
From: ECHO Technical Notes

Central African Tree Garden

Lack of food security is one of the biggest challenges that Central Africans face each day as they toil in their gardens, trying to produce enough food to simply feed their families and afford other expenses in life such as health care or schooling for their children.

Main factors limiting production include trees, and the lack of means to renew farming supplies. But the fact of the matter is this: how well Central Africans’ gardens do determines how well they will survive. In order to combat this form of poverty, we have found one major principle Central Africans can practice that we believe will improve their chances of survival—and that is simply to practice “diversity,” both in what they eat and in what they grow.

Diversity in the diet helps to guarantee enough nutrients from each of the three major food groups of protein, fat and carbohydrate (energy), as well as the vitamins and minerals that are necessary to achieve healthy bodies and strong minds.

A diverse agricultural system must be established to ensure that the proper foods are available for a family to eat. Over the decades that we have served here in Central Africa, we have found that a type of agroforestry system known as “tree gardening” has been the most successful way to promote this kind of diversity. Education, via seminars, has been the method for sharing information on this kind of system, along with demonstrations and visits to Gamboula’s Garden of Eden where we have planted over 500 different kinds of fruit and other useful trees and vines. Eden is also the hub of the agroforestry part of our ministry the agroforestry staff go out to villages (over 100 villages were visited over a 10 year period prior to the writing of this document in 2011) to train local farmers interested in establishing agroforestry cooperatives and in planting tree gardens. Our ministries here in Africa have been based on learning new ways to raise nutritious foods from both annual crops and tree crops, and then teaching others about them.

What is Tree Gardening?

Tree gardening is the practice of raising fruit trees and other beneficial trees in a garden that also contains annual crops, such as corn, peanuts, and cassava. Tree gardening adds beneficial trees and their products to an existing farming system that central Africans already practice. The system has many advantages:

  • As the farmer cares for his/her annual crops, the fruit trees are automatically cared for as well
  • Once established, trees require little labor for maintenance
  • Fruit and nut trees add protein, vitamins, and carbohydrates to diets that lack some of these basic nutrients
  • Adding a mixture of trees to the local terrain increases diversity and improves the stability of the soil and of the environment in general
  • The whole family can be involved in planting, care, harvest, and enjoyment of the edible and nutritious products
  • After a few years, trees become the dominant planting, creating a sustainable food production system that will be available to that family for generations to come.

Early on, we thought farmers who were interested in planting fruit trees could establish a fruit tree orchard next to their annual crop gardens, but we were wrong. In every case, clearing a piece of land and directly planting fruit trees met with failure, mainly from weeds not being cleared. With the onset of the dry season, dry brush and weeds are easily ignited and wildfires consume both brush and trees. But in a tree garden, because there is a large amount of space between the trees (especially when planted 8 to 10 meters apart), it makes sense to plant annual crops to utilize the space for a couple of years. As the space is weeded for the purpose of helping the annual crops grow well, the fruit trees are also weeded.

Jackfruit has the nutrition from the three food groups and is a favorite amongst the Fulani

Once well-established, trees need little care and will continue to produce food for decades. Where women do most of the gardening, we have seen men eager to learn to plant and care for fruit trees. This helps alleviate some of the women’s work load in putting food on the table. In cultures where a people group relies heavily on one starchy crop, such as cassava, adding additional kinds of carbohydrate sources to the diet can improve chances of survival. For instance, the mosaic virus that has plagued cassava leaves has reduced yields in many parts of Central Africa, forcing people to make larger gardens. Cassava also requires a lot of labor to process for eating. Another cassava disease (brown streak virus) attacks the root and has the potential to wipe out cassava as a food source. If a farmer diversifies with other carbohydrate sources, especially ones that come from trees, he/she will require less labor to raise those crops and less labor to process them. Should one carbohydrate source become unproductive (as is the case with cassava), the farmer will still have other sources.

Another benefit of the tree gardening system is the increased number of food sources for protein, vitamins, and minerals. Different kinds of fruit and nut trees in the garden certainly contribute to this. However, in our tree gardening system, we educate people on the benefits of raising beans and vegetables between the planted trees, which also improves the nutrition in their diets.

The addition of trees has also helped improve soil structure and fertility. With the foliage cover over the soil, erosion is reduced and the fallen leaves return organic matter to the soil. We have also seen wildlife return and “re-inhabit” a tree garden.

Principles for Establishing a Tree Garden

Tree Garden Location

When seeking a place for a tree garden, first consider soil fertility and access to water. Trees, like other crops, need fertile soil to do well. Generally, places where people have chosen to plant their annual crops have decent soil fertility. Nevertheless, it will be important for the soil beneath the trees to be rich in organic matter, so look for a source of compost to mulch the ground under the trees when they are being established. Many gardens are located near streams, as the soils there generally have more organic matter (due mainly to forest trees that are also present in those locations). Sunlight is important even in a tree garden, so be careful of planting a tree garden too close to the forest, as it might get too shady. But being close to the water allows the tree gardener to hand-water the trees during the dry season.

Gardens are usually far enough away from the villages that goats and other destructive animals are not a problem. However, if a garden is close enough to a village for goats to get to it, they will eat the leaves and branches and demolish the trees in no time at all! Goats are a tree garden’s worst enemy, so if your tree garden is where there are goats, build fences around the garden or around each tree. If you do not do this, you will not be able to raise trees. Yes, it is possible to plant fruit trees around a home, but all of the above requirements must be met in order to successfully raise a few trees.

Tree Gardening seminar in a village

Establishing the Tree Garden

Trees and annual crops can be planted at the same time. Be careful not to plant the large annual crop (such as cassava) too close to the fruit trees, or competition for soil nutrients, water and light will take place and the trees will be retarded in their growth. (Cassava is especially competitive for soil nutrients.)

Spacing is important for fruit trees as well. In general, fruit trees are planted 8 to 10 meters apart. Small trees like papaya or mulberries can be planted at shorter distances. You can plant trees in rows or simply in a random fashion, depending on whether or not your space is limited. Understand that every tree has its own particular growing needs—not all trees are alike in that respect. So it is important to learn about the growing requirements of each fruit tree you want to raise. Once you have planted your trees, continual watering, mulching with compost, and protection from pests, are very important. These practices will help the trees reach their highest production potential more quickly.

In summation, a happy tree is one that has a small basin around it to easily trap rain water, is mulched with compost on a regular basis, and has a fence around it to successfully keep goats from destroying it. An ideal size for starting a tree garden is around an acre or 0.4 hectare (4000 sq m). A garden of this size can easily fit 25-40 fruit trees plus beans, vegetables, and other food crops. The idea is to continue to plant trees on new plots each year until a family has enough to really increase their food security.

Selecting Fruit Trees

In more than thirty years of working with small farmers in Central Africa, during which we introduced many new varieties and kinds of fruit trees, we have found the following fruits to be excellent for the family tree garden:

  • Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) or Chempedak (Artocarpus integer): The jackfruit is the first fruit tree to plant in your garden. It is fastgrowing, quickly produces large amounts of fruit, and has nutritious flesh and seeds that provide carbohydrates, protein, and vitamins and minerals. Jackfruit is highly variable as far as time to production and quality of fruit. There are early-bearing, good-quality jackfruit trees established in Central Africa now and it is worth the time to find out where one is in order to get a superior variety. A close relative is the chempedak, which gets established more slowly but which some say tastes better than jackfruit. However, note that the chempedak season isn’t as long as jackfruits.
  • Mango (Mangifera indica): Considered one of the best tropical fruits, there are many different varieties to choose from. However, not all of the best grafted varieties from Florida do well in the humid tropics, so be careful to select ones that have proven themselves adaptable to your particular region.
  • Avocado (Persea americana): This fruit is nearly unique to all other fruits in that its pulp is creamy and oily, best eaten in combination with a carbohydrate, such as corn or bread. The many varieties differ in shape, taste, and consistency, so people often plant grafted trees if available, to get the best-quality fruit. However, the vast majority of avocados are planted from seed of selected varieties.
  • Safu (Dacryodes edulis) is a native African tree producing oily fruit that are eaten cooked or roasted, often along with a starchy food. It is a favorite fruit tree in parts of Central Africa and a very good choice for a tree garden.
  • Citrus spp.: This group includes orange, grapefruit, lime, lemon, mandarin, and the pummelo. All of them produce excellent pulp high in vitamin C, and are excellent for making drinks or eating out-of-hand. However, most citrus trees do not grow well in the humid tropics due to myriad insect pests and diseases. One disease called tristeza kills the whole tree and can literally wipe out a whole citrus orchard. Citrus do best in dryer, cooler regions of the tropics.
  • Canistel (Pouteria campechiana): Also known as “egg” fruit, canistel has a texture much like a hard-boiled egg yolk, but tastes more like an extra-sweet sweet potato. This fruit has proven very popular amongst Central Africans and goes great with tea or coffee. Some varieties grow and produce in two years.
  • Rollinia (Rollinia mucosa): Like other annona types, the rollinia is not usually a large tree. But it produces a particularly large fruit that is not overly sweet and that is delicious as a cooled dessert fruit.
  • Bunchosia (Bunchosia armeniaca): Grown from seed, this small tree is the ultimate in fast-food of your hardwood fruiting species—it produces many small, thumb-sized fruits in only a year’s time. When the red fruits soften, they taste like strawberry jam with the consistency of peanut butter. This tree is very popular with Central Africans.
  • Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense): This conically shaped tree produces dark red fruit with sweet white flesh. It is perhaps the closest thing to a regular apple in the tropics. Select the best, non-astringent varieties for planting.
  • Star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito): The “caimito” or chrysophyllum as we call it here, is a handsome tree with green/gold leaves and purplish/white fruits the size of your fist. The sweet flesh has an excellent taste and the tree is usually a heavy producer. It produces ripe fruit in dry season.
  • Banana (Musa spp): As an herbaceous plant rather than a tree, the banana can be grown just about anywhere if there is good soil moisture and compost around the base of the plant. It also likes some shade. Many varieties of the banana exist, both “dessert” types and “cooking” types. Most produce in less than a year. Currently, the banana is the most eaten fruit in the world.
  • Carambola (Averrhoa carambola): Also known as the “star” fruit, carambola generally produces heavily in all months of the year, as long as there is enough moisture. Sweet varieties are normally grafted—most seed-grown varieties have sour fruit. The fruit can be eaten fresh out of hand or put into fruit salads. The tree is not large, and is best planted near the house so you can keep a good eye on the fruit. Grafted trees begin fruiting in a year
  • Soursop (Annona muricata): One of many annona types that you could have in a garden, soursop seems to survive a particular disease that kills most annona trees. Soursop is also one of the largest of the cultivated annonas. The flesh is white and sour/sweet at the same time, usually eaten fresh or made into a drink or sauce.
  • Coconut (Cocos nucifera): One of the most useful (and widely used) fruit trees, since all plant parts can be utilized. The edible nut meat is high in protein and fat. Next to oil palm, coconut is the most frequently requested tree for purchase from our nursery. Young coconut trees are highly susceptible to termites and seem to grow best in a coastal environment or in well-weeded, rich soil.
  • Papaya (Carica papaya): Papayas are universal, as the fruits are available just about all the time, and quick to produce. However, many varieties have poor taste or are not so sweet, so be careful to select seed from good varieties (e.g. Red Thai).
  • African Oil palm (Elaeis guineesis): An African native species, oil palm is adaptable to almost all soils. It is the number one cooking oil source for all Central Africans. The oil contains vitamin A which is often lacking in the Central African diet during dry season. Selected hybrids of this species are extremely productive.
  • Governor’s plum (Flacourtia indica): This highly productive tree potentially bears heavy crops of small (2 cm) fruit, with flesh resembling a plum. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into jams. Plant a grafted variety—otherwise production could be disappointing or not at all (especially if you end up with a male tree!).
  • Mulberry (Morus spp.): The dark red or black mulberry tree is grown from cuttings and can begin production in less than a year. Under ideal soil conditions and moisture, it can yield several crops a year of sweet delicious fruits that are excellent for jams, drinks, or in salads.
  • Moringa (Moringa oleifera): A fast-growing, versatile tree with edible leaves, pods, flowers, and roots. Highly nutritious, but a little bit spicy hot—hence the name, “horseradish tree.” Moringa tends to grow better in areas not consistently hot and wet.
  • Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum): One of the best tropical dessert fruits, with a very sweet, firm, yet juicy flesh, similar to the grape and related to the litchi. Generally, several trees are needed for good pollination and fruit production. The tree takes several years to grow and produce, but it is worth the wait.
  • Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana): Known as the “queen” of tropical fruits, mangosteen is one of the most perfectly delicious dessert fruits known to humankind! Though the tree takes 8 to 10 years to begin production, every garden ought to have one.
  • Malabar chestnut (Pachira glabra): Also known as the “peanut” tree, this fast-growing and adaptable tree is an excellent source of protein. The tree will practically grow on rocks and in other horrible soil conditions. The thumb-nail size seeds are harvested after the pods explode, and are eaten raw or roasted in a pan.
  • Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis): Yellow passionfruits, both sweet and sour varieties, make excellent juice and are high in vitamins A and C. The giant passionfruit is always sweet and has a different flavor than the smaller yellow varieties. Both plants are vines and must be raised on supports. Purple passionfruit is good for highland areas.
  • Guava (Psidium guajava): Guava trees seem to be everywhere in Central Africa. They are highly productive and very useful fruits are best eaten out-of-hand but are also used to make jams, sauces, and juice.
  • Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis): Probably the best source of carbohydrate from a fruit tree. Breadfruit can be prepared in many ways much as the cassava root can—roasted, mashed, boiled, or French-fried. This handsome tree is only propagated by root cuttings, and does best in the warm, humid tropics with a short dry season.
  • Pineapple (Ananas comosus): This small, unusual plant—a bromeliad—grows in just about any kind of soil, but likes warm humid regions with a three to four-month dry season. The plant produces one delicious sweet large fruit, highly prized by most people. Many varieties exist, so select planting material from a good-tasting sweet variety that is already growing in your area without regard to color. Some of the less colorful fruit are the sweetest. If not already growing in your area, test the new variety out, which is what we have done with so many introduced species in Eden.

Some people prefer to plant fruit trees around their homes, which is a good idea because they can keep an eye on the trees as they care for them. When a fruit tree produces, the owner can keep track of the fruit so it doesn’t walk away! However, in the village, soil is usually more compact, less fertile, and more difficult to water. Besides, space in a yard is limited so that only a few trees can be planted.

Jackfruit starts producing in two years and is the largest tropical fruit

Medicinal plant use in Vanuatu: A comparative ethnobotanical study of three islands

Ethnopharmacological relevance

Our study shows that large parts of Vanuatu's medicinal flora remain unexplored and that a high variability of medicinal plant knowledge between islands exists.

Aim of the study

The following questions are comparatively analyzed for three islands of Vanuatu: who are the medicinal plant specialists and how important is their knowledge today? Which plants are used to treat common diseases?

Materials and methods

On Loh, Ambrym and Aneityum plant related information was collected using semi-structured interviews, transect walks and participant observation. A total of 29 medicinal plant specialists were interviewed.


Medicinal plant specialists are either peasants or people with a high rank in the local social system such as members of the chief's family or priests. Their knowledge may be very broad (Loh, Aneityum) or specialized on specific diseases (Ambrym). Medicinal plant knowledge is transmitted family and gender specific (Loh) or gender and family independent (Ambrym and Aneityum). Overall, 133 medicinal plant species were documented of which 117 are new to Vanuatu's ethnopharmacopoeia. Mainly members of the Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae, followed by Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae and Zingiberaceae are utilized. The majority of documented species are trees (33%), followed by herbs (22%) and shrubs (21%). Leaves accounted for the highest number of use reports (43%). The highest diversity of medicinal plants is found for the most common diseases such as skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory system and urogenital system diseases. Only a small overlap of taxa between the islands was found.


The biocultural diversity of Vanuatu is reflected in the variability of medicinal plant knowledge and differences in the traditional medicinal system between the three islands investigated. Traditional medicine is more vital on remote islands. The better connected the islands are to the main city, the more dominant western medicine becomes and traditional medicine mainly remains to treat illnesses with a magical origin.


  • 1 Etymology and history
  • 2 Botanical description
    • 2.1 Shape, trunk and leaves
    • 2.2 Flowers and fruit
  • 3 Food
    • 3.1 Aroma
    • 3.2 Nutritional value
    • 3.3 Culinary uses
      • 3.3.1 South Asia
      • 3.3.2 Southeast Asia
      • 3.3.3 Americas
      • 3.3.4 Africa
  • 4 Wood and manufacturing
  • 5 Cultural significance
  • 6 Cultivation
    • 6.1 Production and marketing
    • 6.2 Commercial availability
  • 7 Invasive species
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

The word jackfruit comes from Portuguese jaca, which in turn is derived from the Malayalam language term chakka (Malayalam: chakka pazham), [13] [16] when the Portuguese arrived in India at Kozhikode (Calicut) on the Malabar Coast (Kerala) in 1499. Later the Malayalam name ചക്ക ( cakka) was recorded by Hendrik van Rheede (1678–1703) in the Hortus Malabaricus, vol. iii in Latin. Henry Yule translated the book in Jordanus Catalani's (fl. 1321–1330 ) Mirabilia descripta: the wonders of the East. [17] This term is in turn derived from the Proto-Dravidian root kā(y) ("fruit, vegetable"). [18]

In northern India, the jackfruit is known as कटहल (Kathal) in Hindi or कटहर (kathar) in Nepalese, which is derived from the Sanskrit कण्टकफल (kaṇṭakaphala), from kaṇṭaka meaning 'thorn' and phala meaning 'fruit'. [19] [20]

The common English name "jackfruit" was used by physician and naturalist Garcia de Orta in his 1563 book Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India. [21] [22] Centuries later, botanist Ralph Randles Stewart suggested it was named after William Jack (1795–1822), a Scottish botanist who worked for the East India Company in Bengal, Sumatra, and Malaya. [23]

The jackfruit was domesticated independently in South Asia and Southeast Asia, as evidenced by the fact that the Southeast Asian names for the fruit are not derived from the Sanskrit roots. It was probably first domesticated by Austronesians in Java or the Malay Peninsula. The word for jackfruit in Proto-Western-Malayo-Polynesian is reconstructed as * laŋkaq. Modern cognates include Javanese, Malay, Balinese, and Cebuano nangka Tagalog, Pangasinan, Bikol and Ilocano langka Chamorro lanka or nanka Kelabit nakan Wolio nangke Ibaloi dangka and Lun Dayeh laka. Note, however, that the fruit was only recently introduced to Guam via Filipino settlers when both were part of the Spanish Empire. [24] [25]

Shape, trunk and leaves Edit

Artocarpus heterophyllus grows as an evergreen tree that has a relatively short trunk with a dense treetop. It easily reaches heights of 10 to 20 m (33 to 66 feet) and trunk diameters of 30 to 80 cm (12 to 31 inches). It sometimes forms buttress roots. The bark of the jackfruit tree is reddish-brown and smooth. In the event of injury to the bark, a milky juice is released.

The leaves are alternate and spirally arranged. They are gummy and thick and are divided into a petiole and a leaf blade. The petiole is 2.5 to 7.5 cm (1 to 3 inches) long. The leathery leaf blade is 20 to 40 cm (7 to 15 inches) long, and 7.5 to 18 cm (3 to 7 inches) wide and is oblong to ovate in shape.

In young trees, the leaf edges are irregularly lobed or split. On older trees, the leaves are rounded and dark green, with a smooth leaf margin. The leaf blade has a prominent main nerve and starting on each side six to eight lateral nerves. The stipules are egg-shaped at a length of 1.5 to 8 cm ( 9 ⁄16 to 3 1 ⁄8 inches).

Flowers and fruit Edit

The inflorescences are formed on the trunk, branches or twigs (cauliflory). Jackfruit trees are monoecious, having both female and male flowers on a tree. The inflorescences are pedunculated, cylindrical to ellipsoidal or pear-shaped, to about 10–12 cm ( 3 15 ⁄16 – 4 3 ⁄4 inches) long and 5–7 cm (2–3 inches) wide. Inflorescences are initially completely enveloped in egg-shaped cover sheets which rapidly slough off.

The flowers are small, sitting on a fleshy rachis. [26] The male flowers are greenish, some flowers are sterile. The male flowers are hairy and the perianth ends with two 1 to 1.5 mm ( 3 ⁄64 to 1 ⁄16 in) membrane. The individual and prominent stamens are straight with yellow, roundish anthers. After the pollen distribution, the stamens become ash-gray and fall off after a few days. Later all the male inflorescences also fall off. The greenish female flowers, with hairy and tubular perianth, have a fleshy flower-like base. The female flowers contain an ovary with a broad, capitate or rarely bilobed scar. The blooming time ranges from December until February or March.

The ellipsoidal to roundish fruit is a multiple fruit formed from the fusion of the ovaries of multiple flowers. The fruits grow on a long and thick stem on the trunk. They vary in size and ripen from an initially yellowish-greenish to yellow, and then at maturity to yellowish-brown. They possess a hard, gummy shell with small pimples surrounded with hard, hexagonal tubercles. The large and variously shaped fruit have a length of 30 to 100 cm (10 to 40 inches) and a diameter of 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 inches) and can weigh 10–25 kg (22–55 pounds) or more. [8]

The fruits consist of a fibrous, whitish core (rachis) about 5–10 cm (2–4 inches) thick. Radiating from this are many 10-centimeter-long (4 in) individual fruits. They are elliptical to egg-shaped, light brownish achenes with a length of about 3 cm ( 1 1 ⁄8 inches) and a diameter of 1.5 to 2 cm ( 9 ⁄16 to 13 ⁄16 inch).

There may be about 100–500 seeds per fruit. The seed coat consists of a thin, waxy, parchment-like and easily removable testa (husk) and a brownish, membranous tegmen. The cotyledons are usually unequal in size, and the endosperm is minimally present. [27] An average fruit consists of 27% edible seed coat, 15% edible seeds, 20% white pulp (undeveloped perianth, rags) and bark and 10% core.

The fruit matures during the rainy season from July to August. The bean-shaped achenes of the jackfruit are coated with a firm yellowish aril (seed coat, flesh), which has an intense sweet taste at maturity of the fruit. The pulp is enveloped by many narrow strands of fiber (undeveloped perianth), which run between the hard shell and the core of the fruit and are firmly attached to it. When pruned, the inner part (core) secretes a sticky, milky liquid, [8] which can hardly be removed from the skin, even with soap and water. To clean the hands after "unwinding" the pulp an oil or other solvent is used. For example, street vendors in Tanzania, who sell the fruit in small segments, provide small bowls of kerosene for their customers to cleanse their sticky fingers. When fully ripe, jackfruit has a strong pleasant aroma, the pulp of the opened fruit resembles the odor of pineapple and banana. [8]

Ripe jackfruit is naturally sweet, with subtle pineapple- or banana-like flavor. [8] It can be used to make a variety of dishes, including custards, cakes, or mixed with shaved ice as es teler in Indonesia or halo-halo in the Philippines. For the traditional breakfast dish in southern India, idlis, the fruit is used with rice as an ingredient and jackfruit leaves are used as a wrapping for steaming. Jackfruit dosas can be prepared by grinding jackfruit flesh along with the batter. Ripe jackfruit arils are sometimes seeded, fried, or freeze-dried and sold as jackfruit chips.

The seeds from ripe fruits are edible once cooked, and are said to have a milky, sweet taste often compared to Brazil nuts. They may be boiled, baked, or roasted. [8] When roasted, the flavor of the seeds is comparable to chestnuts. Seeds are used as snacks (either by boiling or fire-roasting) or to make desserts. In Java, the seeds are commonly cooked and seasoned with salt as a snack. They are commonly used in curry in India in the form of a traditional lentil and vegetable mix curry. Young leaves are tender enough to be used as a vegetable. [8]

Aroma Edit

Jackfruit has a distinctive sweet and fruity aroma. In a study of flavour volatiles in five jackfruit cultivars, the main volatile compounds detected were ethyl isovalerate, propyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, isobutyl isovalerate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 1-butanol, and 2-methylbutan-1-ol. [28]

A fully ripe and unopened jackfruit is known to "emit a strong aroma" – perhaps unpleasant [8] [29] – with the inside of the fruit described as smelling of pineapple and banana. [8] After roasting, the seeds may be used as a commercial alternative to chocolate aroma. [30]

Plant Safety in Pet Homes

Some plants may not be deadly, but can cause stomach upset if ingested. It can be difficult to keep cats away from plants since most cats go wherever they can, including on countertops and window ledges. Gary Weitzman, DVM, president and CEO of the San Diego Humane Society and author of the 2019 book “National Geographic Complete Guide to Pet Health, Behavior, and Happiness: The Veterinarian's Approach to At-Home Animal Care,” suggests elevating plants whenever possible.

“Whether indoors or outdoors, putting your plants in containers or large planters will elevate them so your pets can’t access them to dig or chew on them,” Dr. Weitzman says. “Hanging planters are a great option as well.”

If you suspect your cat has ingested any part of a plant that’s poisonous to cats, even just chewing or licking the leaves or flowers, take immediate action, Dr. Weitzman says.

Call your veterinarian or an animal poison control hotline quickly. Two animal poison hotlines that are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week are the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at 888-426-4435 (consultation fee may apply) and the Pet Poison Helpline at 855-764-7661 ($59 consultation fee applies).

If possible, Dr. Weitzman says, take photos of the plant in question and bring a sample with you to the veterinarian. “You’ll also need to provide information, if you know it, about the amount ingested and the time since exposure,” he says.

Unfortunately, a lot of times cats nibble on plants without their parents’ knowledge. In the case of the cat who ingested the toxic lily, her parent at first was not aware that the cat had eaten a toxic plant.

“The cat owner had no idea that the cat ate a lily. She just knew that the cat stopped eating and was hiding in a corner,” Dr. Osborne says.

After the cat’s parent had answered a lot of questions, she went home and realized that some of the little pebbles and dirt from the lily plant’s pot had spilled onto one of her tables.

“That’s how we put two and two together,” Dr. Osborne says. “Being able to nail it down to a particular plant is great when you can, but I think it’s somewhat rare.”

This story illustrates why it’s so important to seek immediate veterinarian care any time your cat is acting sick. The sooner you get your cat to a veterinarian for treatment, the better the outcome.

Watch the video: Breadfruit Products: Untapped Commercial Potential