Types and uses of organic fertilizers
Read the previous part ← Specificity of various fertilizers
Compost is often prepared industrially on special sites; they can also be bought on a par with manure and bird droppings.
This will be peat compost from manure or peat compost from bird droppings. They often have a strong ammoniacal odor, which indicates the high quality of the compost, but this is also their drawback - a persistent odor causes some inconvenience for the gardener and neighbors. Therefore, it is not necessary to store such compost, it is better to immediately add it to the soil, well filling it into the furrow to a depth of 18 cm, and the smell will disappear. The ammonia will be absorbed by the soil, and the fertilization efficiency will only be higher.
Can prepare prefabricated composts at my dacha, using peat for this and vegetable waste after harvest or weeds after weeding.
These are the main and ubiquitous organic fertilizers, readily available to gardeners who can widely use them to improve soil fertility. Such fertilizers cannot be replaced with any other fashionable fertilizers.
In summer cottage farming, organic fertilizers play a leading role in increasing soil fertility. The positive properties of organic fertilizers are diverse, and they must be used to the fullest for the rise of suburban agriculture. They are a source of carbon dioxide for air nutrition of plants; this is their main advantage over all other fertilizers. They have a mild effect on the soil, do not sharply increase the concentration of the soil solution, as they slowly decompose and slowly release the elements of mineral nutrition for plants.
That is why the doses of organic fertilizers fluctuate in a very wide range - from 5 to 20 and more kg / m², and it is difficult to “spoil” or overdose the soil with them. Each ton of dry matter of cattle manure contains approximately 20 kg of nitrogen (N), 8-10 kg of phosphorus (calculated as P2ABOUT5), 24-28 kg of potassium (K2О), 28 kg of calcium (CaO), 6 kg of magnesium (MgO), 4 kg of sulfur (SO3), 20-40 g of boron (B), 200-400 g of manganese (MnO), 20-30 g of copper (Cu), 125-200 g of zinc (Zn), 2-3 g of cobalt (Co) and 2-2 , 5 g molybdenum (Mo). Poultry droppings are, on average, ten times more concentrated than manure.
Organic fertilizers have a long-term effect and aftereffect on the soil, at an optimal dose of 10-12 kg / m2, for about 4-5 years. If the dose is less, then their effect is less. They are a source of energy for beneficial soil microorganisms, because microorganisms themselves cannot absorb the energy of the sun the way plants do. They can only use for their life the chemical energy of the organic matter of fertilizers.
These microorganisms enrich the soil with humic compounds and fulvic acids, increasing the absorption properties of the soil and thereby creating a rich soil-absorbing soil complex with a higher capacity to keep nutrients from leaching out. They significantly improve the physical properties of the soil, and after applying organic fertilizers, the soil is easier to cultivate, especially by hand.
On low-humus, poorly cultivated sod-podzolic soils the importance of organic fertilizers is increasing; they act not only as a source of root and air nutrition for plants, but also as an important means of improving the agrochemical properties of the soil. The absorption capacity and the degree of soil saturation with bases (Ca, Mg, K) increase, its acidity slightly decreases, the soil mobility decreases (toxicity decreases) of aluminum, iron, manganese, and the soil buffering capacity increases.
Heavy soils become less cohesive, easier to cultivate, their moisture capacity increases, and less nutrients are lost (washed out) from such soils during heavy precipitation. These are all the positive properties of organic fertilizers.
But organic fertilizers, in addition to the noted positive properties, also have disadvantages... First, the ratio of nutrients in them often does not meet the requirements of plants. Organic fertilizers are a waste of animal husbandry, and the animals have already taken the elements necessary for their growth from the feed. Therefore, organic fertilizers are poorer than the original animal feed.
Secondly, the negative property is the slowness of their action, the later release of nutrients for plants, they are always late with the "supply" of plants with food at the right time and in the right quantities. Basically, the maximum release of nutrients from them is observed in the second half of summer, when the need for nutrients in plants decreases, when all growth processes in plants slow down, and they no longer need excess food.
Plants need nutrients in the soil most of all in the first half of summer, when they are at their maximum growth and development. And organic fertilizers cannot provide this. Therefore, the negative properties of organic fertilizers in practical agriculture must be leveled by introducing them together with mineral fertilizers. The positive effect of their combined use with mineral fertilizers increases sharply.
There is another group of organic fertilizers - green or green manure... Green fertilizers are the cultivated green mass of legumes or other green manure crops for fertilizing purposes. Such plants are usually plowed at the stage of flowering and the formation of the first beans to a depth of 15-18 cm. In terms of efficiency, green fertilizers are equivalent to manure, and with a high yield of green manures, they even surpass it.
They can be grown independently in one place and plowed, or grown specifically on another permanent plot in a mowing, after-past way, in order to use the mowed mass in a neighboring plot as fertilizer. Most often, perennial legumes are grown for this, for example, lupine... In order for green fertilizers to give the greatest and more complete fertilizing mass, before sowing under them, it is required to apply 10 kg / m² of manure, 150-200 g / m² of nitrophosphate, 500-800 g / m² of dolomite flour for plowing in the spring. The soil on such a site receives a radical improvement and can only delight the gardener with its new properties.
Green fertilizers can be grown every year after the main crop is harvested, then the second crop in the form of a green mass is crushed with a trimmer and buried for digging in the fall. It will be an additional organic fertilizer, but this does not exclude the use of organic fertilizers in the spring.
Estimated doses of manure are from 8 to 12 kg / m². Doses of poultry manure will be 10 times less than manure; doses of compost, green fertilizers are equal to doses of manure. The term for applying organic fertilizers is spring, before planting, only green fertilizers are applied as they ripen, usually during their flowering phase - in summer. The optimum planting depth of fertilizers when digging the soil is 18 cm.
Therefore, the general rule for organic fertilizers is to apply them only in spring, store organic matter only until spring and use them in spring for plowing, not leaving them in reserve. Only then will they have the strongest effect on the soil and plants. Organic fertilizers are used for all fruit and berry crops and vegetable plants.
There are a lot of mistakes when using organic fertilizers in summer cottages.... This is the introduction of only one organic fertilizers without combining them with mineral fertilizers, and the introduction of these fertilizers without taking into account their negative properties; often applied in the fall, the effectiveness is minimal, since during the autumn and spring periods a lot of nutrients are washed out from fertilizers.
It happens that sometimes either shallow embedding is allowed, or too deep embedding of them in the soil, which also reduces efficiency. In some cases, surface application of organic fertilizers without embedding is practiced, which is completely unacceptable, since all the positive qualities of these fertilizers are lost. Sometimes gardeners store organic fertilizers in piles for a long time, which leads to large losses of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and fertilizers themselves, and sometimes they scatter them across the field and do not embed them in the soil for a long time.
The loss of nutrients is enormous. Composting regimes are also violated, in this case fertilizers do not meet the requirements of sanitation, hygiene and environmental safety, especially when preparing peat-faecal composts.
Unlike organic mineral fertilizers, they are fast-acting fertilizers. The nutrients they contain can be used by plants as soon as they are introduced into the soil. Therefore, with the help of mineral fertilizers, it is easier to meet the changing needs of plants for nutrition during the day and in phases of growth and development throughout the growing season.
Read the next part. Types and use of mineral fertilizers →
Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the North-West Regional Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener
Photo by E. Valentinov
Read all parts of the article "Golden rules for the use of fertilizers"
- Part 1. General information on fertilizers
- Part 2. Specificity of various fertilizers
- Part 3. Types and uses of organic fertilizers
- Part 4. Types and uses of mineral fertilizers
- Part 5. Combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers
- Part 6. Control of soil pollution, lime fertilizers
Dear reader, in the previous post I told you about the diagnosis of plant nutrition, how to determine by external signs which nutrient is lacking in a plant. Today we will talk about "feed" for plants, namely, about organic fertilizers.
Organic fertilizers are a product of the vital activity of animals and humans. They contain potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus - elements necessary for plant nutrition. And although their content in organic matter is small, when compared with mineral fertilizers, they are enough for normal plant growth. Organics also improve the structure of the soil. Using organic fertilizers, we eliminate the likelihood of saturation of plant fruits with nitrates. Therefore, they are more preferable than mineral fertilizers. But I also do not recommend making them immensely.
Manure - is considered the best organic fertilizer. Consists of livestock waste from farm animals. Four types of manure are most commonly used: mullein, horse, sheep and pork... Read about goat and rabbit dung here... Each of them has its own composition, which, in one way or another, is reflected in the plants.
Rotten manure regardless of its origin, it has 0.6% nitrogen, 0.3% phosphorus, 0.75% potassium.
Of all the listed types of manure, the least acceptable as fertilizer pork: the fruits of plants grown on soil fertilized with this type of manure acquire unpleasant taste. Soil fertilized horse manure, it is better to set aside for shrubs - you will get the best combination of acidity, sugar content and a pronounced aroma of the fruit. For semi-stem trees, the most acceptable soil is fertilized sheep dung. Mullein - both the most accessible and the most acceptable type of organic fertilizer for all plants.
For the preservation of nutrients, manure must be properly stored in manure storages or on special sites. It is packed tightly in large piles or piles, otherwise, you risk losing more than half of ammonia nitrogen, 20% of total nitrogen and 27% of the total mass of manure in three to four months. The site for storing manure is well rammed, covered with bedding (at least 30 cm), consisting of dry leaves, peat or ordinary earth - it subsequently absorbs the slurry. Layers of manure are replaced by layers of peat or sod land. It is advisable to sprinkle each 15 cm layer of manure with phosphoric flour at the rate of 20 kg of flour per 1 ton of manure - this prevents nitrogen losses. For the winter period, the manure heap is wrapped in a layer of leaves, reeds or other natural material up to 40 cm thick, and in the winter period it is sprinkled with snow.
Fertilizing the soil with manure (as well as other organic fertilizers) is best done in autumn (except for flooded floodplain areas) for deep digging (up to 35 cm). The rate of application to the soil: 3-6 kg of fresh manure per 1 m2 of land and 2-4 kg of over-matured manure.
Litter manure is best used when digging, evenly distributing it on the surface and immediately embedding it to a depth of 15-22 cm. If you delay the incorporation of litter manure into the soil for more than a day, almost a quarter of its nutrients are lost, and, consequently, the effectiveness of application decreases fertilizers into the soil. In this case, you can improve the structure of the soil well, that is, make it looser, but additional feeding of the plants is possible. It is necessary to apply bedding manure in a semi-rotten form, after 4-6 months of storage.
Bird droppings the most concentrated and fast-acting type of organic fertilizers, depending on the origin, it has, for example, in thermally dried chicken manure - 4.54% nitrogen, 3.65% phosphorus, 1.74% potassium. Fresh bird droppings (percentage) contain:
- chicken - from 0.7% to 1.9% nitrogen, from 1.5% to 2.0% phosphorus, from 0.8% to 1.0% potassium
- pigeon - from 1.2 to 2.4 nitrogen, from 1.7 to 2.2 phosphorus, from 1.0 to 2.2 potassium
- goose - 0.6 nitrogen, 0.5 phosphorus, 1.1 potassium
- duck - 0.8 nitrogen, 1.5 phosphorus, 0.4 potassium.
However, nitrogen in it decomposes rather quickly: up to 50% is lost only within two months of storage. In order to reduce losses, several storage methods are used:
- with peat or sawdust (in a 1: 1 ratio)
- in winter - frozen, and in spring, as it thaws, add 15-20% straw cutting or 20-30% humus, or 10-20% superphosphate
- air drying is also possible.
Usually, bird droppings are used for feeding, pre-fermenting it and then diluting it with water, since in its pure form it can cause burns when it comes into contact with plants. It can also be used in mixtures with other organics in strictly metered quantities.
Depending on the method of use, shelf life, the rate of application of poultry droppings varies, but there are some general rules.
We introduce bird droppings in the mixture under digging at the rate of –1 kg of mixture per 1 m2 of soil surface.
When fermenting poultry manure for feeding, dilute it with water in the ratio:
- 1 part fresh droppings to 20 parts water
- we dilute stale droppings depending on the shelf life, for 1 part of the droppings we take 10-12 parts of water with exposure for a day, not forgetting the rule: the longer the droppings were stored, the less water must be added to obtain liquid feeding.
If the weather is not hot, then you can feed the plants with dry powder of bird droppings, scattering it in the aisles and embedding it in the soil during loosening.
Compost refers to combined organic fertilizers and is subdivided into:
- manure-phosphorus (adding superphosphate to manure in a ratio of 3-5% to the weight of manure)
- peat-manure or peat-manure-phosphorus (adding to 1 part of manure up to 4-5 parts of peat and up to 3% of the weight of manure superphosphate)
- peat-faecal or peat-slurry (add up to 20% slurry or feces and up to 3% superphosphate in relation to the weight of peat)
- collection composts from waste (straw, vegetable tops, tree foliage, household waste, ash, sawdust, feces, pieces of plaster, etc.).
When adding superphosphate to the compost, it is recommended to also add 1% lime in order to make the phosphorus contained in the fertilizer available.
All types of composts are laid on a well-tamped ground area in a stack, the size of which is a maximum of 1.5 meters in height and 2 m in width, in frequent layers of different components. The most moisture-consuming material is laid in the first layer - peat, straw cutting, chaff, chaff. This is followed by a moisturizing layer: slurry, feces solution, water. Lime, ash, superphosphate is evenly distributed over all layers. On top of the compost is covered with a layer of earth or peat.
To maintain the moisture required for composting, you should practice watering the compost stack 2-3 times a month (in dry weather - once a week). Shoveling the compost before it ripens is carried out 1-2 times. The degree of compost readiness is determined by its appearance: matured compost is a dark, decomposed, almost homogeneous mass.
In the summer, the compost ripens at the following times:
- dung-phosphorus - 1.5-2 months
- peat-based - 2 - 3 months
- peat-faecal - 1-2 months
- prefabricated - here are the constituent parts from 3 to 7 months, depending on the composition.
Compost uses both soil fertilization and soil mulching. In the latter case, sod beds of perennial grasses are used, shifted with manure (you can add phosphorus flour - 5-7 kg per 1 m3). They must be stacked so that the edges of the stack are slightly higher than the center - rainwater irrigation or slurry will saturate the stack without flowing off the edges.
For autumn fertilization, the compost is laid in the period from April to July. Compost intended for mulching or for atspring application to the soil, laid in the period from July to October. In the latter case, it is necessary to insulate the stack of compost for the winter period: in the fall, overlay with dry tops, straw or sawdust
a layer of 30-40 cm and sprinkle on top with a ten-centimeter layer of earth.
Norm atcarrying tocomposts atbehold atidov —2-4 kg nbut m2.
The content of elements in composts of various types:
- manure-phosphorus has up to 1.5% nitrogen, up to 0.85%
phosphorus, up to 0.12% potassium
- peat-manure - up to 0.8% nitrogen, up to 0.2% phosphorus, up to
- peat-faecal - up to 1., 7% nitrogen, up to 0.3% phosphorus,
up to 0.26% potassium
- prefabricated - up to 0.5% nitrogen, up to 0.4% phosphorus, up to 0.6%
Brownies waste (vegetable peels, sour food, paper, rags, etc.) are as nutritious as other organic fertilizers. These wastes decompose especially well and become homogeneous if they consist of 30-40% of paper and rags. Given these qualities, this type of rotted fertilizer is applied under any crop. In terms of the composition of nitrogen and phosphorus, rotted house waste is identical to prefabricated composts, but they have more potassium - up to 1%.
The application rate in the form of fertilizer is 4-6 kg per 1 m2.
Woody aboutfiles and witholomnaya Rcutting used mainly as soil mulch in row spacing of crops. It should be remembered that sawdust as a ripper can only be used after moistening with a solution of mullein or ammonia saltpeter. A solution of fresh mullein is prepared for 3 liters of mullein 10 liters of water. For 3 buckets of sawdust, 10 liters of such a solution will be needed. In order not to introduce resinous substances harmful to plants into the soil, it is better to use old (long-standing) or scalded sawdust (half a bucket per 1 m2) for mulch. The rate of application of this type of fertilizer depends on the structural characteristics of soils - on heavy soils, it is applied more, on light ones - less.
Fertilizers from fallen leaves prepared in the fall. Leaves are collected, piled up,compact, dig up the pile several times until complete decomposition. It is not recommended to use the leaves of diseased trees infected with pests. It makes no sense to collect oak leaves in such heaps, since, according to many experts, they contain substances harmful to other plants. The fertilizer obtained from fallen leaves contains from 1 to 1.2% nitrogen, from 0.1 to 0.2% phosphorus and the same amount of potassium. It should be brought in at 2-4 kg / m2.
For light soils (sod-podzolic, sour sandy and sandy loam) the best suitable as organic fertilizer silt from the bottom of reservoirs, in which there are a lot of trace elements, vitamins, organics, stimulants. Before applying to the soil, it must be dried and ventilated. Application rate - 2-4 kg / m2. The number of basic elements depends on the type of sludge, namely:
- in the lake - from 1.8 to 2.5% nitrogen, from 0.2 to 0.4% phosphorus and from 0.3 to 0.5% potassium
- in the pond - from 0.2 to 2% ‘nitrogen, from 0.1 to 0.5% phosphorus and from 0.1 to 0.3% potassium
- in the river - 1% nitrogen, 0.25% phosphorus, 0.7% potassium.
When you know the percentage of elements in some kind of organic fertilizer, it is easy to choose the right fertilizer for a particular plant.
If, for example, you have determined by external signs that a plant lacks a certain element for nutrition, then you can always choose a certain type of organic fertilizer, which contains a deficient element more than other nutrients: so with a lack of nitrogen, lake sludge will do, and if there is a shortage potassium - goose droppings or if there is a lack of phosphorus, duck droppings should be used. Just do not forget that these types of fertilizers are highly concentrated and they must be applied carefully, insisting and diluting with water so as not to harm the plant.
Dear reader, the next post will be devoted to mineral fertilizers and the rules for their use.
If you comment on the article and share a link to it, I will be very grateful to you. I wish you high yields. See you on the blog pages.
Before using any organic fertilizer for the garden or vegetable garden, you must carefully read the instructions on the package. The only thing that is necessary is to observe the dosage, because an excess of nutrients and trace elements will do more harm than good. It will be useful to get acquainted with the peculiarities of using the funds.
- For indoor plants. Before using the product, you need to make sure that it is suitable for a particular crop. 5–20 drops of liquid top dressing are added to purified water and mixed thoroughly. The granular preparation is poured into the soil, the effect will appear during watering. To achieve the desired effect, the agent is used once every two weeks.
- Garden. A solution is used to fertilize the seeds: 50 ml of the product per 10 liters of water. About 3 liters of consistency falls on a kilogram of seeds. Soaking lasts up to 10 hours. Foliar feeding of plants is carried out with a solution: 40 ml per bucket of water. Can be used 3 times per season.
- Garden. Bacterial fertilizers are used to ensure that trees and shrubs take root faster. Before planting, it is necessary to soak the cuttings for 2-4 hours. Apply a solution in the ratio of 50 ml of the product to 10 liters of water. You can also spray the plant leaves no more than once a week. Root feeding is carried out once every two weeks.
It can be concluded that organic fertilizers are a budget option that can replace any chemicals and pesticides. It is important to take a responsible approach to the choice of the necessary drug and carefully study the instructions before use.
For more information on bacterial fertilizers, see the next video.
The nutritional value of poultry manure can be compared with a complex mineral fertilizer. It is a storehouse of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus. Saturated with bacteriophages, it not only fertilizes, but also disinfects the soil, suppressing a number of pathogens. However, it is these features that dictate some of the rules for the use of fertilizers.
Due to the fact that poultry manure contains a large amount of uric acid, it is not recommended to apply it fresh, but only as part of composts, with the addition of sod, peat or soil (in a ratio of 1 x 2). It is possible to apply as a tincture - 1 part of droppings to 20 liters of water (to stand for 10 days). In this case, watering with this mixture must be carried out on well-moistened soil in the grooves of the row spacings. And since this fertilizer begins to act in about 10 days, after it enters the soil, it is better to sprinkle the holes into which it is introduced, to speed up the process, with earth.
If you use bird droppings as the main organic fertilizer, and it is excellent for this, then the application rate should be 1 - 1.5 kg per 1 sq. M. A bright aftereffect of such soil filling is observed for 2-3 years. Spring-summer dressing can be done three times per season: dry droppings - 0.2 kg per 1 square meter, wet - 0.4 kg per 1 square meter.
Fertilizers play a vital role in gardening. "Food for Plants" allows you to get large yields of large, beautiful and healthy fruits and vegetables, lush flowering of ornamental plants and lush green grass on the lawn. The use of fertilizers is especially important for owners of plots with poor sandy or loamy soil. But the rich soil is gradually depleted and requires additional feeding.
Such types of fertilizers as peat or sand are used in tons, mixing with the ground, in the case of compost or manure, we are talking about hundreds of kilograms, and mineral, inorganic fertilizers for the garden and vegetable garden are added with caution, in small quantities. An excess of them is even more dangerous than a deficiency, because everyone has heard a lot about the so-called "nitrates"? Unscrupulous producers of vegetables and fruits abuse nitrogen fertilizing, as a result, the harvest ripens early, the yields are large, but they accumulate an excess of nitrogen compounds harmful to humans.
There are many subtleties of using various fertilizers: some need to be used when planting seedlings, others before flowering, others during fruiting, and the fourth in the fall, before the wintering of the plant. Some proportions of fertilizer are better for tomatoes, others for strawberries, still others for potatoes, and still others for lawns. You can find out the necessary ratios, terms and methods of laying fertilizers for the garden and vegetable garden from the articles in this section.
Ask questions, if you do not find the information you need, experienced gardeners-experts will surely answer you. If you do not mind sharing your own experience of using plant food, write!
Types and uses of organic fertilizers - garden and vegetable garden
Plants remove a significant amount of nutrients from the soil, and in order for the soil to retain its fertility, it needs systematic replenishment. fertilizers ... Sandy, sandy loam, loamy soils especially need them. Without fertilization, plant growth slows down, yields decrease.
Depending on the chemical composition, fertilizers are mineral ( nitrogen , phosphoric , potash , magnesium , complex, calcareous), organic (manure, bird droppings, compost, peat, feces, green fertilizers and others), organomineral and bacterial. Some directly affect the plant, others indirectly.
Fertilizer application improves the nutrient, water, thermal regime of the soil, its chemical and microbiological properties and generally increases its fertility.
Correct, competent use of fertilizers - a very important norm of farming when growing fruit trees, shrubs, berries, vegetable crops. Both the yield and the quality of the fruits, including the taste, depend on this. When applying fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account the biological characteristics of plants, the composition of the soil, the presence of nutrients in it, its moisture content, air saturation, etc. For example, on light sandy and sandy loamy soils, the greatest yield increase is achieved with the combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers. In turn, on both light and heavy soils, the use of organic fertilizers enriches the soil with humus, thereby creating conditions for increasing the doses of mineral fertilizers and growing intensive varieties of crops that require a lot of nutrients. But we must also take into account the fact that during the growing moon the earth "does not want" to perceive liquid. The best effect is achieved when fertilizing, especially in a dissolved state, on a full moon or when the moon is waning.
On rich chernozem soils, plants often lack phosphorus on podzolic loamy soils - nitrogen, and then phosphorus on light sandy loam - both nitrogen and potassium, and phosphorus.
The gardener is obliged to constantly observe the plants. They are able to signal a lack of certain nutrients in the soil, which should be replenished immediately.
Plow well. Manage. Pigeon droppings should be scattered over a meadow, vegetable garden or field.
Save it carefully. any dung.
... What will you get manure from?
Straw, lupine, legumes, chaff, leaves ..
Lupine will be good on red ground, on loose and dark ground, on heavy, gravelly, sandy.
Cato the Elder, Roman Senator (2nd century BC)
Depending on the composition, organic, mineral, organo-mineral and bacterial fertilizers are distinguished. Among the mineral fertilizers, lime fertilizers are often distinguished. Among organic fertilizers, a separate group is made up of green (green manure) fertilizers.
Organic fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizers
To organic fertilizers include manure, humus, slurry, bird droppings, peat, compost, wood ash, etc. Application of organic fertilizers - this is the guarantee of a rich, high-quality and healthy harvest, with a minimum amount of nitrates in crops.
Fruit and berry and vegetable crops are very demanding on soil fertility, since they take out a lot of nutrients with the harvest. For their replenishment and accumulation, it is necessary to systematically make organic and mineral fertilizers.
Infusion of nettle. How to make nettle fertilizer
Nettle is an annoying weed on our sites. But it turns out that this plant as if itself asks to help us. Nettle fertilizer is a nitrogen-potassium fertilizer suitable for almost all plants. True, there are exceptions, legumes, onions and garlic do not respect nettle infusion. Preparation of such a fertilizer will not be difficult.
- for a start we collect nettles, armed with gloves and closed clothes.
- we chop it, it is not necessary to grind it strongly.
- put in a container. It can be any barrel or tub. (I am using an old baby bath). Taking into account that during fermentation, the volume will increase.
- fill with water. So that the water hides our nettle completely.
- it is better to install the container in a sunny place to speed up the process.
- cover with a lid.
- stir every day.
- on hot summer days, the process will take about 5-7 days, at cool temperatures it will take up to 2 weeks.
- the finished fertilizer has a characteristic odor, marsh color, foams.
- water with solution (1:10).
- the remaining tops can be composted.
Compost. How to cook properly
Environmentally friendly fertilizer... It requires a minimum of money, since the raw materials for the compost are under our feet. Weeds from our own plot, fallen leaves in the forest, straw, hay, food leftovers - everything will be used.
- Choosing a place. It can be a pit, a box, or just a bunch. The place is preferably shady.
- First, we make drainage from thin branches or straw (10 cm),
- then we lay out our organic matter with a layer of 30 cm (pre-chopped), it is advisable to alternate between a dry and a wet layer.
- Sprinkle with lime and wood ash, moisten. Can be spilled nettle infusion, «Baikal» or other liquid fertilizer.
- Now the soil layer is no more than 10 cm.
- Now dry hay, organic matter, lime and other ash, moisture, soil layer 15-20 cm. The heap must be covered with earth.
- In the process of cooking, stir a bunch to allow air to enter. Moisten if necessary, but do not fill.
In this way, at least a year later, your compost will be ready.
Consists of solid and liquid secretions of farm animals and bedding materials (peat, straw, sawdust). The value of manure depends on the type of animal, bedding and storage methods.
1 ton of fresh manure contains an average of 4.5 kg of nitrogen, 2 kg of phosphorus, 5 kg of potassium, 4 kg of calcium. In addition, manure contains all the trace elements necessary for plants. It is the main organic fertilizer with a long-lasting effect. An increase in yield when applying manure on light soils is observed in for 3-4 years, for severe - 5-6 years.
Manure must be properly stored. The best way is cold (in tight piles), which means less nitrogen and other nutrients are lost. For such storage, a special area with compacted soil is set aside, and if the soil is sandy, a film is laid on which peat is laid with a layer of 25-30 cm or chopped straw to absorb the slurry. Manure is stacked in a pile 2 m wide, 1.5 m high and of arbitrary length and trampled well. The stack is covered with peat, and in its absence with a layer of soil of 20 cm. If stored for a short time in the spring-summer period, it can be covered with plastic wrap and one or two layers. To prevent the film from being blown away by the wind, heavy objects are placed on the edges of it or drop them.
Manure should be brought to a semi-rotted state and, in this form, introduced into the soil for horticultural crops. It is brought in in the fall or spring, depending on the cultivated crop and the mechanical composition of the soil. For early potatoes and early sown and planted crops on clay soils, manure should be applied during the autumn digging of the soil. For late crops (cucumber, pumpkin, zucchini, squash, late cabbage) on sandy soils, it is permissible to add manure during spring digging. The application rate of manure is on average 4-6 kg per 1 m 2.
Manure. How to determine the type of manure
The manure contains a lot of substances that are vital for plants. These include potassium and calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus, magnesium and iron.
Manure is of several types:
- fresh manure Is a light brown mass.
Natural manure cannot be used. As this can lead to the death of plants. It is better to let this manure "brew". Usually it is used for digging in the fall or sprinkled with earth with other organic fertilizers.
- The highest quality manure is considered in combination with straw.
Manure can be used as a "foundation" in greenhouses, greenhouses, beds. Manure with dry hay, moss or peat is placed on the bottom, then a decent layer of earth. Heat will be generated during decomposition. Cucumbers will feel comfortable in such a bed.
- half-over-mature manure Is a dark brown mass with elements of straw. Term (3-6 months). More often used for liquid plant nutrition (1 kg per 10 liters of water). In the soil during autumn digging (5 kg per 1 square meter)
- rotted manure is a black smearing mixture. Exposure period (not less than a year). Good when creating soil mixture for seedlings (at the rate of 1 part of manure for 2 parts of land). When using liquid top dressing (2 kg per 10 liters of water)
(The aging period is more than a year). It is a completely ready-to-use organic fertilizer. It is also used on its own as soil and soil. Suitable for all types of plants.
Obtained by the complete decomposition of manure and various plant residues (leaves, grass, etc.). It is characterized by a high concentration of nutrients in a form available to plants.
Humus valuable organic fertilizer. It is used for the preparation of greenhouse soils, potting and soil mixtures for growing seedlings, seedlings, mulching, adding to the soil when planting trees, shrubs and flower crops. The dose of humus introduction is on average 2-3 kg per 1 m 2.
Slurry. How to prepare slurry
it fast acting, mostly nitrogen-potassium fertilizer... It contains on average 0.3% nitrogen, 0.4% potassium and about 0.1% phosphorus. Nitrogen and potassium in slurry are in a soluble form, readily available for plant nutrition.
Slurry is used to feed garden and vegetable plants during the growing season, diluting it in water in a ratio of 1: 5, in the preparation of peat slurry composts. To increase the fertilizing efficiency of the slurry solution, phosphorus fertilizers are added to it, for example, superphosphate at a dose of 30-50 g per bucket (10 l).
Bird droppings. How to properly use bird droppings
Fast acting organic fertilizer with a high content of basic nutrients, which are in a form readily available to plants.
Its duration is about a year. Fresh raw chicken manure contains 1.6% nitrogen, 1.7% phosphorus, 0.9% potassium, thermally dried - twice as much (respectively 4.5 3.6 1.7%).
Produced by poultry farms dry droppings is a free-flowing granular fertilizer and, unlike raw fertilizer, has a number of positive properties: it does not contain germinating weed seeds, pathogens, does not have a sharp, unpleasant odor.
Keep fresh bird droppings it follows, like litter manure, in a dense (cold) way, composting it when stacked with various moisture-absorbing materials: peat chips, sawdust or straw cutting in a ratio of 3: 1 (by weight).
Dry manure should be stored in bulk in plastic bags, barrels, boxes, protected from moisture.
Bird droppings used for fertilizing vegetable and horticultural crops both in natural form for the main dressing, and diluted in water for feeding. The dose of introduction of raw manure per 1 m 2 is 0.4-0.5 kg, dry - 0.2-0.3 kg. It should be scattered over the surface of the site evenly and immediately embedded in the soil.
For liquid dressings poultry droppings are diluted with water immediately before introduction in a ratio of 1:10 and mixed thoroughly. The dose of dry manure is half as much, and it is diluted with water in advance so that the nutrients can dissolve well.
Peat. Peat types
Contains a significant amount of organic matter (upland and transitional 94–96%, lowland 72–94%). However, not every kind of peat is suitable in its pure form.
- If peat has a neutral reaction and there is a lot of calcium in its ash, it is suitable for fertilization.
- ! If the reaction is acidic and there is a lot of iron and aluminum in its ash, then peat is unsuitable for fertilization.
Before introducing peat into the soil, it is necessary to check its agrochemical properties.
- Horse (sphagnum) peat the most acidic: pH 2.8-3.6
- low-lying peat has a pH of 4.8-5.8, and sometimes a neutral reaction, which is explained by the rather high content of calcium. In the latter case, peat can be used in its pure form for liming.
- To fertilize garden plots, only well weathered lowland peat with a high degree of decomposition (35-60%), containing more than 5% calcium or more than 2% phosphorus. The dose of peat introduction is 1-2 buckets (4-8 kg) per 1 m3.
- Dry pulverized peat before applying to the soil, it must be moistened.
Peat and manure compost. How to cook
- It is prepared from all types of peat, the moisture content of which does not exceed 60% (air-dry), with a peat and manure ratio of 3: 1 - 4: 1.
- A layer of peat and manure is alternately stacked in a stack 2-3 m wide, 2 m high, the length of the stack is arbitrary.
- First, peat is placed on the site with a layer of 30-40 cm and manure is evenly spread on it with a layer of 10-15 cm.
- The stack is completed with a 20 cm layer of peat. There is no need to compact the stack. Loose styling promotes better air access, which accelerates the decomposition of organic matter.
In dry weather, the stack is soaked with slurry or water. During the summer, it is shoveled several times. After 4-5 months, the compost is ready for use and is similar in properties to manure. Peat-manure compost is applied when digging the soil in a dose of 3-4 kg (about half a bucket) per 1 m 2.
Peat and fecal compost. How to cook
Fast-acting organic fertilizer, contains an average of 0.7% nitrogen, 0.3 % phosphorus and 0.3% potassium. When composting faeces with peat, nitrogen losses are reduced, an unpleasant odor is eliminated, and the result is a free-flowing, easy-to-use fertilizer. For the preparation of such composts, 0.5 tons of feces are taken for 1 ton of low-lying peat, and up to 2 tons for 1 ton of high-moor (sphagnum) peat.
The method for laying a compost heap is as follows:
- A funnel-shaped depression is made in the peat heap, into which (at the specified ratio) feces are introduced.
- After the feces are absorbed, peat is poured on top with a layer of 20 cm. The compost heap is not compacted so that the temperature rises in it (about 70 ° C). Under the influence of high temperature in the compost, helminth eggs, many pathogens, die.
- Later, the compost is shoveled several times to obtain a homogeneous mass. It should be used as a fertilizer in the second year after laying in a dose of 2-3 kg per 1 m 2 when digging the soil.
For sanitary reasons, peat-fecal compost should not be applied under strawberries and vegetables that are eaten fresh.
Amateur gardeners use sawdust as a loosening organic material for soil application, composting, as well as for mulching crops and plantings.
To increase the air permeability and moisture content of the soil, sawdust is added during digging in the amount of 2-5 buckets per 1 m 2 (more on heavy clay soils, less on light sandy soils).
! However, it is not necessary to apply only sawdust, without mineral fertilizers, since, being mineralized, they absorb nitrogen from the soil and reduce its fertility.
To make up for the loss of nitrogen, mineral fertilizers with an increased dose of nitrogen are added to the sawdust.
- 30 g of urea or 70 g of ammonium sulfate, 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium chloride are added to one bucket of sawdust.
- Due to the fact that sawdust has an acidic reaction (pH 3-4), they are neutralized by adding 120-150 g of ground chalk or hydrated lime per bucket of sawdust.
Fertilizers are thoroughly mixed with sawdust, after which they are introduced into the soil, compost or used for mulching.
Sawdust is added to the compost in a layer of 10-15 cm; when mulching, the thickness of the sawdust layer around the plants should be 2-3 cm.
Ashit is a product of wood combustion and everything connected with it. It is an environmentally friendly and very useful potash fertilizer. Wood ash rich in potassium, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, zinc, magnesium and iron. One of the most versatile fertilizers. Suitable for absolutely all plants.
Reduces soil acidity (deacidifies it), loosens the soil, changing its structure. Ash also protects plants from harmful insects and microorganisms. The application of this fertilizer must be correct and for each crop individually.
It is used in the form of aqueous solutions, when mulching the soil, spraying, dusting.
Aqueous ash solutionR preparation is very simple: for 10 liters of hot water, 1.5 cups of ash. Insist for a week, stir occasionally, strain. Do not throw away the thick, but add it to the compost.