Lunar calendar of the gardener and summer resident for March 2020
The summer cottage season begins in March - the first gardening work must be started even before the snow melts. To figure out what time will be the most favorable, the lunar calendar will help. By choosing the right date for certain actions, you can achieve a plentiful and high-quality harvest.
Sowing seeds, planting, transplanting seedlings
On the growing moon (from 4 to 6 March), it is best to sow almost all types of vegetables and melons. Preference should be given to cabbage, various types of peppers, tomatoes. Subject to the rules of care, seedlings can be placed in open ground in April. At the same time, spicy herbs and herbs are sown: basil, parsley, any salad. The period from 6 to 8 is well suited for planting fruit trees and ornamental shrubs, as well as for cutting flowers. For planting root crops, March 11 is best suited - at this time the Moon is in the third quarter in the sign of Libra. The metabolic processes in the root system are accelerated. Plants with a strong root system can be continued until the 16th. In the same period, it is recommended to start preparing bulbous flowers for germination. Spring garlic is also planted. From March 21 to March 24, planting of garden strawberries and rhubarb begins. The favorable time for sowing root crops continues: carrots, parsley and celery. From March 26, the moon again enters the first quarter. At this time, it is best to start planting cabbage, legumes, flower crops. This is a good period for planting seedlings of any trees.
Unfavorable days for sowing seeds, planting and transplanting seedlings
The beginning of March, from the 1st to the 3rd, is an unfavorable period for sowing any seeds, except for dill and some types of annual flowers (provided that the seeds do not require special conditions for germination). At this time, the Moon passes into the second quarter - the process of plant development slows down. From March 8, the full moon phase begins. At this time, it is better to exclude any work on planting seedlings, sowing seeds and picking up grown seedlings. It is also undesirable to sow from March 14 to 16. These days, the moon is again entering a new quarter. It is advisable to give preference to harvesting root crops before planting, pruning fruit trees, preparing the soil on the site. On March 19 and 20, it is recommended to avoid planting seedlings of vegetable crops: the Moon is in the sign of Aquarius, which is infertile for them. On the new moon, any sowing and planting work is strictly prohibited. In March 2020, the phase of the new moon falls on the 24th-26th.
The first week of March is favorable for soil preparation - loosening, watering and fertilizing. Mineral fertilizers are best applied by the 6th, when the moon is in the second quarter. The beginning and middle of March is the best time to treat the garden from pests. It is carried out without chemicals - by irrigation and spraying with heated water. Throughout the month, you can clean the area from snow: it is removed first of all from the branches of garden trees. After removing the snow, you can lightly sprinkle the branches of shrubs and trees with ash to prevent subsequent glaciation of the plants. March 10-12 are the most suitable days for loosening the soil. 13 and 14 are pruning trees in the garden area. If the air temperature is stable at around -5 ° C or lower, then it is best to postpone the formation of crowns until the end of the month (until about the 25th). On the 17th, 18th and 19th, they are perfect for spraying with insecticides. Pest control can be continued until March 21, and at the same time, a general cleaning of the site is carried out, completely removing garbage. It is best to carry out this work on the most unfavorable days for planting. On the new moon, until the 26th, the removal of diseased and dead plants is carried out, shrubs are cut. It is better to devote the very end of the month to feeding the soil. The bark of trees is treated with water-based paint to protect it from the scorching sun rays. This should be done in the first half of the month, while the sun is low enough to the horizon. If the snow has not completely melted, then it is recommended to start organizing nesting sites for birds - useful helpers in pest control.
Vegetable processing, canning and homemade preparations
March is not the most favorable month for harvesting vegetables. Canning, pickling, drying and freezing for future use is usually not carried out this month. The only thing you can do is ferment the cabbage. You can ferment all month, but with the exception of the full moon (March 8-10). If there is an urgent need, it is allowed to make preparations only on those days when the Moon is in the 3rd and 4th phases (from March 10 to 21). In March, you can practice harvesting of root crops for subsequent storage and planting. It is best to do this on those days when the Moon is in Sagittarius, and the process of preserving the necessary substances is actively taking place in the tubers. The most favorable days are March 15 and 16.
Unfavorable days for processing vegetables, homemade preparations and canning
The least suitable for canning are the 1st and 2nd lunar quarters - this is the beginning and very end of the month. Especially should be avoided days when the moon is in the signs of Virgo, Pisces and Cancer (from 4 to 10 March and 21-24). Mold grows best these days, so there is a risk that homemade canned food will be spoiled.
Calendars to help the gardener
Lunar calendar of the gardener and gardener for april 2021
Universal calendar of treatments for the garden, vegetable garden and flower garden
Our very distant ancestors knew about the strong influence of the Moon on all living things of the planet Earth. They passed on their observations from generation to generation orally until it became possible to write them down. Then the history of the first lunar calendars began. But in this section we will invite our readers to familiarize themselves not only with the lunar calendar, but also with the so-called folk calendar. For centuries, people have watched not only the Moon, but also nature in general. As a result, hundreds, if not thousands, of folk signs and beliefs were born related to the life of plants and their responsiveness to human activities. Do you think they have lost their relevance in the modern world? Our folk calendars will help you test this in practice. And if in your work in the garden and garden you are used to relying only on yourself, in this section you will find detailed work calendars for each month of the year. You won't forget anything with them!
Folk calendars "regulate" almost all activities of a person living "on earth" and pay special attention to signs about the weather. It is not surprising, because, to a large extent, the yield depends on the weather conditions. So, for example, the peasants have long noticed that a warm January is not a harvest. Moreover, as a rule, the warm first month of the year always alternates with the cold one. Not paying attention? On our Forum, you can tell about the signs that you follow yourself. We would like to advise, taking into account the lunar and folk calendars, to follow the rules of agricultural technology of certain plants. After all, if you sow cucumbers outdoors in March, no calendars will help them survive. Therefore, if you are not sure when to sow or plant, take a look at our work calendar for the month.
Following the lunar calendar, it is also important for the gardener to know the favorable days for planting each plant. At different periods of time, the development of horticultural crops will be aimed at a certain part of them (root system, yield or attractive appearance):
- vegetable: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- pumpkin seeds: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- nightshade: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- spicy green: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- fruit and berry: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- legumes: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- melons: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- field: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- vegetable, spicy green and field: 2, 3, 19, 20, 29
- floral: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- room: 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31
- curly, ampelous, creeping decorative: 6, 13
- annual flower: 13, 14
- lawn grass: 19, 20.
Beginning of the month
Let's take a closer look at what is allowed to do in the garden at the beginning of May 2020:
- May 1 - decrease. You can carry out fertilizing and watering plants, loosening the earth. You can not cut or treat plants from pests, leave for sowing.
- 2-3 - decreasing. Bad harvest days. It is allowed to weed and loosen the ground, to take care of the improvement of the garden. It is forbidden to feed, water and cut the stems.
- May 4 - decrease. Plants planted during this period will yield a good harvest. Soaking seeds, sowing and planting vegetables for storage are allowed. It is forbidden to work in the root zone on this day.
- 5 May - new moon. Seedlings will be good, but slow in growth. They grow short with a strong root system. The fruits have excellent winter hardiness. Avoid working with the root system, do not replant. Moderate feeding can be done.
- 6-7 is a young month. Infertile period. Work carefully in the root zone of the plant. Auspicious day for watering and feeding.
- 8, 9, 10 numbers - a young moon. Most fertile days. Quite fragile stems can break under a bountiful harvest. The fruits are juicy, but unsuitable for long-term storage. On these days, you can soak the seeds, plant and sow annuals.
- May 11 - young night star. Watering and feeding is not recommended. You can plant sunflowers - the grains will not grow moldy. A good day for planting drought-resistant and non-fertile trees and bushes.
- May 12 - first quarter. Unfavorable day for gardening. Beautify your garden or relax.
- 13-14 is a young month. An excellent time to plant flowers that will delight you with an abundance of colors. You can do pinching or diving of garden crops.
The end of May
- May 15-16 - the plants planted on this day will not bring a bountiful harvest, but they will be resistant to pests and diseases. Future seeds will keep well until the next sowing. Grafting or spraying is not recommended.
- 17-18 is a young month. Excellent fertility. Plants do not respond well to infections, but are resistant to disease. The day is good for feeding, fumigating from pests, soaking seeds.
- May 19 - full moon. Bad harvest time. A good day for planting plants for ornamental purposes. You can plant seedlings and cuttings.
- 20th number - decreasing. The seeds will be of good quality. It is not recommended to water or prune plants as they are susceptible to damage.
- May 21, 22, 23 - decrease. Good yield. The seeds are of high quality, the fruits are medium in size. Time to plant perennial trees and bushes. It is not recommended to work with roots.
- 24-25 - decreasing. It is forbidden to plant, transplant seedlings. These are barren days. A bad harvest can surprise you with its unusual shapes.
- 26, 27, 28 - the third quarter. Great days for planting potatoes.
- 29-30 - decreasing. Infertile period. On this day, you can plant plants for good greenery, but not for fruit.
- May 31 - decrease. Fertile days. Plants will be stocky and short.
The lunar cycle strongly affects the environment. In plants, the movement of the sap changes, thereby activating the work of the root or ground part.
Thus, knowing the phases of the Earth's satellite will help you efficiently plan work in your garden.
The benefits of the Siberian gardener's lunar calendar 2021
The lunar sowing calendar of the gardener and gardener of Siberia for 2021, planting with auspicious days for lovers of gardening and gardening, is nothing more than a faithful assistant and guide to competent knowledge in this area, working with land on their summer cottage, backyard or other land plot ...
From the lunar sowing calendar of plantings of a gardener and gardener of Siberia for the upcoming 2021, you will learn about auspicious days when you can work on your site, what and when crops or flowers can be planted, watered, fed, loosened, weeded and collected, and much more.
He will also tell the gardeners about the unfavorable days of each day of the next year, on which it is strictly forbidden to work on the ground, to perform any manipulations with plants and soil. He will also tell you about which days it is best to carry out certain work with certain plants, taking into account the change of the lunar phases, because the growing moon is important for some, while the waning moon is useful for others.
It is difficult to overestimate the benefits of the 2021 lunar planting calendar for the gardener and gardener of Siberia for sowing and planting, because it will tell the gardener, summer resident, gardener and farmer - when you can work with the soil, water and feed, sow seeds, plant seedlings, start planting root crops, and so on. , and on what day is it worth postponing all vigorous activity so as not to harm your crops, vegetables and fruits.
The influence of the moon
Planting for the moon is a great way to get a good harvest. It was used by people many years ago. During the growth stage, the edges of the lunar month are directed to the right side. The peculiarity of this phase of the moon is to activate the metabolic process in that part of the plants that is above the earth's surface. During this period, you can:
- plant crops that bear fruit above the ground, for example, root crops, melons, fruits and berries
- tie up
- to process
- to inoculate.
All activities will be successful.
On a note! The waning moon is characterized by the direction of the sharp tips of the crescent to the left. It is not advisable to engage in gardening and vegetable gardening. Especially carry out pest control or transplanting seedlings.
Plants that bear fruit below the surface of the earth can be planted. These include tuberous and bulbous plants.
The satellite is practically invisible in the night sky. At this turning point, all metabolic processes freeze. It is not advisable to engage in gardening and vegetable gardening, especially replanting and pruning.
Time is taken for personal relaxation. However, you can do:
- removing areas of the tree that are withered and damaged
- destruction of pests
The rest of the activities are left for later.
Both edges of the lunar disk are directed to the right. Metabolism is activated in the aerial parts of plants. The probability of causing damage to the root system is minimal. On the growth of the moon, it is permissible to conduct:
- planting crops that bear fruit above the ground, such as cucumber, pepper, melon, herbs, fruit tree, flowers, medicinal herbs
- making foliar dressings.
You can not cut the branches and graft them. So you can lose all landings.
Favorable landing days in the Moscow region are those dates that are not chosen on the days of the full moon. During this period, or more precisely, before and after, a turning point comes. It is not suitable for:
- preparing them for long-term storage.
Heat treatment, binding, grafting, loosening are strictly prohibited.
Both ends point to the left. At the decreasing stage, all nutrients are directed towards the root system. The time is not suitable for treatment against pests and diseases. Do not transplant seedlings. However, they confidently carry out:
- planting root crops
- thinning of densely spaced seedlings
- division of perennial crops
- weed removal
- top dressing
- planting of young trees, shrubs, their grafting, pruning.
On a note! It is enough to simply distinguish a growing lunar disk from a decreasing one, since if you mentally attach a pencil to the month, it will look like the letter P - growing. As it descends, its mirror image is formed.
This is how the phases of the moon are recognized.
Lunar sowing calendar of the gardener and the gardener
15 JUNE, Monday, 23rd, 24th lunar day from 01:48.
To increase the yield of vegetable crops, they should be fed with the help
organic and mineral fertilizers. It is good to alternate root fertilizers with
spraying. The right day for collecting
harvest and for the production of homemade canned food.
plants: prune houseplants well, prepare cuttings for
reproduction, as well as fertilize indoor fruit shrubs (lemons, oranges, pomegranates, avocados and
better not to do? there are no particular restrictions.
allowed, but when absolutely necessary.
16 JUNE, Tuesday, 24th, 25th lunar day from 02:00. ARIES,
Moon without course from 03:49 to 12:35
Today it is possible to work with soils. In the near-trunk circles and between the rows on
the beds are loosen the soil and after
watering mulch it so that the moisture does not evaporate too quickly. it's the same
helps to fight weeds.
plants: Make sure that the plants do not overheat in the sun.
Signs of overheating - drooping or starting to turn yellow leaves under normal
better not to do? there are no particular restrictions.
allowed, but when absolutely necessary.
Wednesday, 25th, 26th lunar day from 02:12. TAURUS
Today is a good day for pest control or for preventive work... Pests can appear on any
plants, not only those on which fruits ripen. For example, the danger to
colors represent different caterpillars, spiderweb
tick, aphid other. These insects slow down flowering and take away from plants
strength. In the fight and prevention against insect pests, you can use
infusion of onion peels, soap solution or infusion of tobacco dust.
plants: a good day for pest control and prevention
measures against their appearance.
better not to do? there are no particular restrictions.
Thursday, 26th, 27th lunar day from 02:26. TAURUS
Moon without course from 15:02 to 23:59
Can be planted today roots.
It's not too late to plant carrot, but
some summer residents advise doing this in June, since the activity
some pests of carrots at this time are noticeably reduced, which means
the yield of the root crop will be higher, and also such carrots will be better stored
plants: good soil management, replace topsoil,
prepare mixtures for future transplants, apply fertilizers for the development of root
better not to do? there are no particular restrictions.
Friday, 27th, 28th lunar day from 02:45. TWINS
Good time for plant pest control, as well as for any
preventive work. With the advent of more stable heat, insect pests
especially strongly activate their activities, therefore inspect plants should be done regularly. You can spray the garden
different drugs, however, you should first try natural remedies, and
use chemicals as a last resort.
plants: good pest control or any
better not to do? plant greens and leafy vegetables.
better not to water, bad day.
Saturday, 28th, 29th lunar day from 03:09. TWINS
The day before the new moon is considered unlucky for any endeavors. Special
today we do not advise you to burden yourself physically, and any
plants: it is better not to deal with plants today.
better not to do? plant or transplant any plants.
better not to water, bad day.
Having learned how to vaccinate, you will enrich your stock of knowledge about gardening, and this will help you to properly care for grafted plants; you will no longer depend on the presence or absence of interesting fruit and ornamental seedlings in stores; you will gain the opportunity for creativity; you will experience pleasure, both from the process itself and from monitoring the results of your own labor, because you can really influence the winter hardiness and productivity of crops, their resistance to diseases.
Very often, due to confusion in varieties, the wrong fruit crops that we wanted come to the garden plot. Time passes, and the question arises before the gardener, what to do with such trees? You can uproot them and plant others, or you can act differently - to inoculate .
Only healthy trees with a well-developed leaf apparatus, annual growth of at least 20 cm and light-colored wood of the grafted branches are suitable for grafting. The stem and their skeletal branches should not be damaged by frost and sunburn. Those that are injured by rodents or during treatments are also not suitable. The age of the re-grafted tree is not significant, but two-, three-year-olds are impractical due to their weak growth. In areas with severe winters, fruit trees up to 6-8 years old are re-grafted in one year, and older ones - in two or even three years.
Trees of all fruit crops can be grafted, but apple, pear, plum and mountain ash are most successful in this operation. Cases of incompatibility when re-grafting cultivars are rare. Practice shows that it is quite permissible to plant summer varieties on winter ones and vice versa. Several varieties can be grafted onto one tree, but they must necessarily be of the same ripening period, otherwise the rhythm of growth processes is disturbed in a re-grafted tree, which leads to a decrease in its winter hardiness.
Trees can be planted in whole and in part, that is, individual branches. The greatest effect of grafting is observed when not random grafts are re-grafted, but specially selected varieties with high winter hardiness. Grafting insufficiently winter-hardy varieties into the skeletal branches of a winter-hardy tree significantly increases their survival in harsh winters. Such winter-hardy varieties suitable for grafting are called skeletal-formers.
The over-grafted variety can speed up or slow down the ripening of the grafted variety and affect their keeping quality. For example, grafting summer varieties into the crown of a winter variety delays ripening and increases the keeping quality of fruits. As a result of grafting winter varieties into the crown of a summer variety tree, fruit ripening is accelerated, but keeping quality somewhat worsens.
Terms of vaccination.
Fruit trees are grafted by cuttings or buds in spring and summer. But as experience shows, novice gardeners are better at spring grafting with a cuttings. In stone fruit crops, such an inoculation can be started early, after the onset of positive night temperatures, without fear of slight frosts. It is necessary to cope with this operation before the buds bloom on the grafted trees. For trees of pome crops, grafting is feasible practically during the entire growing season. The success of spring grafting largely depends on the condition of the cuttings, which are harvested in winter. Cuttings with frost-bitten wood (light brown color on the cut), with open buds or with dried, non-elastic bark are unsuitable, because they do not take root well and grow slowly. The best results with spring grafting of pome crops are obtained during the period from bud break to the end of flowering. For summer grafting, cuttings are taken from the lower part of the growth of the current year, where the buds are already well formed. Leaves with half the cutting are removed. We recommend grafting pome crops trees in summer and early autumn for a summer resident only for areas with mild winters.
Harvesting and storage of cuttings.
Cuttings for spring grafting of pome and stone fruit trees are taken from annual shoots of healthy, vigorous trees. The best time for harvesting them is considered the beginning of winter - after the first 5-10-degree frosts, which contribute to the hardening of annual shoots, due to which the cuttings tolerate storage much better. Strongly growing spinning tops are of little use as cuttings, since grafts from them develop slowly and bear poor fruit. The cuttings are tied and each bunch is labeled with the variety name. Better plastic labels, but if wooden labels are used, then so that the pencil inscriptions do not rub off and the wood does not darken, they are wrapped in plastic wrap. It is recommended to tie the bundles with synthetic twine or soft thin wire, because ordinary hemp rope often overheats during storage of cuttings and varieties can mix. Before grafting, the cuttings are stored in a basement at a temperature of 0 ± 3 ° C. The bunches are placed vertically, with the cuts down and from the sides they are spud with sawdust or sand, keeping the mass moist during the winter. In the absence of a basement, the cuttings are stored in an unheated room, first wrapped in a damp burlap, and then in paper or film. After the snow falls, a snow pile is made and cuttings are transferred to it. So that the pile does not melt longer in spring, it is placed on the north side of the building or a high fence and covered with some kind of heat-insulating material (peat, sawdust, etc.). When the snow in the pile begins to actively melt, the cuttings are taken out, wrapped again in wet sacking and foil, and stored in a cold place before grafting (on the ground under the shed or house on the north side). A small number of cuttings can be stored in your home refrigerator wrapped in a wet cloth and plastic wrap. They are periodically inspected and, if mold is found, the cuttings and fabric are rinsed with cold water. Allow to dry, wrap again and dampen the fabric. After mild winters, cuttings of pome crops for spring grafting can be harvested in early spring, before bud break. But with stone fruit crops, this is usually not done, since almost every year their annual shoots freeze slightly. For summer budding or summer grafting by cuttings, annual shoots are cut immediately before grafting.
Preparing the tree for grafting and grafting.
Trees for spring grafting by cuttings are pruned at the same time as this operation. When pruning, the subordination of the branches is observed. The branches of one tier are re-grafted at the same height from the soil surface, and the central conductor is 30-40 cm higher than the grafts made on the branches of the upper tier. All small twigs at a distance of 15-20 cm from the cut are removed so that they do not interfere with work.
When re-grafting a young tree, the grafting zone should be 1 to 2 m above the soil surface. If it is below 1 m, then in the winter months it can freeze a lot (especially in the first years after the operation), and if it is above 2 m, then care for the crown and collection of fruits are very difficult later. The skeletal branches of a young tree are grafted from the trunk at a distance of 40-50 cm.
In mature trees, the place of grafting of skeletal branches of the first tier is determined by their thickness. In the Non-Black Earth Region, the diameter of the branch at the site of grafting should not exceed 5-6 cm in pome crops, and 3 cm in stone fruits. Larger-diameter sections grow slowly and often freeze in one of the next harsh winters. Branches extending from the trunk at an angle of less than 30 ° are not suitable for this operation. They are to be cut the next year after the tree is grafted. Re-grafting of very thick skeletal branches at a distance of more than 1.5 m from the trunk is also undesirable, since then the fruiting of the grafted variety will be concentrated only along the periphery of the crown.
The stalk is grafted on top of the branch, and with a diameter of more than 3 cm - also from one or two lateral sides. If this is done from the bottom of the branch, the stalk takes root worse and in the future may break off under its own weight. The success of this operation largely depends on the skill and accuracy of the gardener and the condition of the tool. As with any surgical operation, cleanliness and accuracy must be observed in everything. This also applies to the preparation of instruments. Before setting the cutting, the shoot, from which the cutting is cut, and the grafting site on the branch, are carefully wiped with a clean, damp cloth. If the prepared stalk falls to the ground, it is carefully wiped off, and the cut is refreshed with a knife.
At the junction of the cutting with the branch, as we already know, a strapping tape is tightly applied and all open sections of the cuts are carefully covered with garden pitch. In hot spring years, it is recommended to reapply garden varnish to bare surfaces. If the gardener has little experience in vaccination, and the weather is very hot in spring, then you can increase the survival rate of cuttings using narrow plastic bags that are put on the ends of the grafted branches. The put on bags should be 10-12 cm longer than the grafted cuttings. They are removed when shoots begin to grow on these cuttings.
There are quite a few such methods, but the following have proven to be the most simple and reliable during the spring grafting period: improved copulation with the tongue, into the side cut, into the split and behind the bark. Success with all these methods essentially depends on a correctly made oblique cut at the lower end of the cutting. The length of the cut should be 3-4 cm, and the surface should be flat and clean. It should overlap with the plane of the grafting knife without gaps. A kidney is left on the cut above the cut, which stimulates its survival, and when the graft is broken off at the cut point of the re-grafted branch, it helps to restore it. The upper end of the cutting is cut over the bud, leaving no hemp. It is better not to touch the slices at the lower end of the cutting with your fingers, because they leave traces of fat and the grafting components grow together in these places very slowly.
Method for improved copulation with a tongue used when the re-grafted branch and the stalk are of the same thickness.On the stalk and branches, oblique cuts of equal length are made and, stepping back 1/3 from the sharp end, splits are made with a knife, slightly not reaching the beginning of the cut. Slices on the handle and branches are applied to each other so that the tongue on the cut of one of them enters the cleft of the other. The slices are aligned until they completely match. Then the regrowth will be fast, complete and lasting.
The splitting method is applicable only for re-grafting of small branches, the diameter of which does not greatly exceed the diameter of the cutting. The branch is cut off with a pruner, and the remaining stump in the center is split with a grafting knife. The lower part of the cutting is shaped like a wedge. The stalk is inserted into the gap so that the bark and cambial layers of the hemp and the stalk coincide on at least one side of the re-grafted branch. In the case of grafting larger branches in this way, the gap does not overgrow for a long time, which can cause the branch to die off due to tissue decay.
Side cut grafting method with the simultaneous removal of a branch above the cutting site without leaving a hemp, it is applicable for re-grafting of branches, the diameter of which significantly exceeds the diameter of the cutting. It is especially effective when re-grafting young trees with branches 3-4 cm in diameter. With this method, a side cut is made on the selected branch of the branch. The grafting knife is placed at an angle of 30 ° to the axis of the branch (it should be under the elbow of the hand in which the knife is located), and the fingers of the other hand are pressed on the butt of the knife. The knife is moved forward and deep into the branch, making sure that its blade cut only the bark and only slightly touches the wood. After that, the branch is shortened over the incision, without leaving a hemp.At the lower end of the cutting, two oblique cuts are made, forming a pointed wedge. If the cuts are made correctly, then the oblique wedge should look like an isosceles triangle. The stalk is pushed into the incision so that the cut surfaces of the stalk and branches coincide with layers of cambium on the outside. Inoculations made in this way, the wounds heal quickly and the joints have greater mechanical strength.
Bark grafting method applicable for branches whose diameter is much larger than the diameter of the cutting. They use it only during the period of intensive sap flow. Top or side of the hemp remaining from the cut to the base of the branch for a length of about 2.5 - 3 cm cut through the bark to the wood. The edges of the bark on both sides are slightly turned off with the end of a knife. After that, a stalk is taken and a 3 cm long oblique cut is made at its lower end under the kidney. To increase the contact area of the cambial layers of the stalk and the branch on the other side of the oblique cut, a small section of the bark is removed at the end of the stalk. The stalk prepared in this way is inserted behind the bark, making sure that the upper part of the oblique cut is 2–3 mm above the surface of the end of the branch cut, and the bud on the opposite side of the oblique cut is below the end of the hemp. Then the wound at the end of the hemp overgrows faster, since not only the cambium of the grafted branch, but also the callus formed on the cut of the cutting takes part in this process. And yet, a characteristic feature of this method is that the graft grows together with the re-grafted branch very slowly and is often broken off by the wind in the first two to three years after the operation. Therefore, an individual support must be provided for each vaccination. It is advisable to use the bark grafting in combination with the lateral incision grafting.
During the summer periods of grafting with a cuttings, the most widespread method is the lateral incision. It is done without cutting the branch over the cutting site. The branch above this place is removed without leaving the hemp in the spring of the next year after budding on the grafted cuttings.
The length of the grafting stem. For spring and summer grafting of pome and stone fruit crops, a cutting with 3-4 buds is usually used. Moreover, in cherries, it is taken from the lower or upper part of the annual shoot, since the cutting from the middle part is unsuitable for grafting. The buds here are mainly floral, so that such a stalk that has taken root fades and dries up. Longer cuttings (6-8 and even more buds) can be used for re-grafting of pome crops located in areas with good wind protection. The growth shoots appearing in such cuttings do not develop as strongly as in cuttings with 4 buds. They ripen better and suffer less frost in the first winters. In grafts with long cuttings, growth shoots develop from the upper buds, and from the lower ones, ringlets and fruit twigs, which give fruit already in the second year after grafting.
Binding material for grafting. A tape made of polyethylene film 2-2.5 cm wide is used as a binding material for grafting with a handle. It is tightly applied in the form of a spiral to the grafting site so that the loops overlap each other somewhat. The hemp end is not closed. Tight application of the tape is the key to high survival rate of vaccinations. The plastic tape is elastic and does not interfere with the growth of the vaccinations in the first two to three weeks.
Adhesive insulating plastic tape can also be used as a strapping material, but it should be applied with the adhesive side out.
Garden var. No matter how neatly the strapping is applied, there are still open sections of the cuts. If the top cut on the cutting, the end of the grafted branch and the open cuts at the junction of the cutting with the branch are not covered with garden varnish, they will dry out and the cutting will die. Petrolatum has proven itself well as a garden varnish. It easily and evenly lays down on fresh sections at low temperatures, adheres well to them, does not dry out for a long time, retains elasticity, does not spread in hot weather and does not burn the tissues of the bark and cambium. In the absence of a garden varnish, it can be replaced with children's plasticine.