Black alder tree
This tree belongs to the genus alder, the birch family, has several names. Black alder, sticky, European (Alnus glutinosa). Alder originated from Europe. The plant is light-loving, but it also tolerates the shade well. The soil loves fertile, well moisturized. Prefers abundant watering. It grows to a height of 35 meters and can last for about a hundred years. It is planted with seeds.
Description of black alder
The deciduous tree is quite tall, it can be multi-stemmed. The bark of an adult tree is almost black; in a young plant, it is still light brown, but quite dark.
The leaves of black alder are alternate, dark green, oval or rounded with a notch in the upper part, sticky, shiny.
Alder has monoecious flowers that form catkins. They bloom in early spring, sometimes even faster than leaves. During the entire period of growth and development of the tree, the process of laying earrings takes place. With staminates, this happens in 5-6 months, somewhere from July, and with pistils - 1-2 months from September. On the pedicels, expanded thyroid, there are three male flowers. The outer part (perianth) is simple, 4-incised or 4-leafed. The female ones are located in the sinuses of the scales, which contain a lot of pulp, and are located in pairs.
At the time of ripening, the scales harden and form a so-called cone, very similar to the fruit of conifers. Black alder reproduces with the help of seeds or aerial shoots (stump growth).
Alder fruits are small cones that have a narrow wing, but they can be without it. At first, the color of the fruit is green, then it becomes brown with a red tint. The ripening period occurs at the beginning of autumn. For the winter, the cones are closed, and at the beginning of spring they open and seeds fall out. The wind carries them away, and melt water also contributes to the spread of seeds.
Where does black alder grow
This plant can be found almost throughout Europe, except for the northern part. Asia Minor, North Africa and North America are also climate suitable for alder. In Russia, alder grows in its European part.
The tree loves moist, drained soils and therefore alder can often be seen on the banks of rivers, lakes and other bodies of water. Wetlands are also suitable for this plant, as well as clay and poor soils, rocky and sandy.
It perfectly coexists with such trees as ash, birch, oak, linden and spruce. But he can create his own thickets (alder). Where alder grows, the soil is enriched with nitrogen.
Pests and diseases
A pathogenic fungus of the genus Tafrin can infect a tree. A similar parasite harms female earrings, provoking outgrowths of them in the form of leaves. Other types of fungi damage the leaves, stain them, and shrivel.
Application of black alder
Tree bark and cones have long been used in the medical field. Infusion on the bark is a good astringent and acts as an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. A decoction from the bark of the plant is excellent for constipation, it can be a hemostatic agent and heals wounds well. The drug from seed fruits is used for problems of the stomach and intestines, this broth has astringent and disinfecting properties. Tincture of leaves and bark expels bile from the body, relieves spasms and inflammation.
May be a natural dye for wool and leather. It makes it possible to get yellow, as well as red and black. The cinnamon color comes from the buds. Alder is rightfully considered a melliferous plant. Bees, from the resinous substances of alder leaves and buds, produce propolis. Dry leaves of the tree can be fed to livestock.
Black alder wood itself is soft and light, but also fragile. It is used in carpentry and furniture, used in the construction of hydraulic structures. It is a good material for boxes that can hold food or household items. Coils and other products are also made from alder.
You can also get wood vinegar and charcoal from this plant in order to paint, for this you need to perform dry distillation. Alder also takes part in the production of gunpowder. Smooth trunks are used for hedges. Alder is indispensable for stove heating. Thanks to her, before, they got rid of excess soot that accumulated in the pipes of the furnace. If you smoke fish on sawdust and alder shavings, you get a very tasty dish. Sagging on alder trunks is an excellent decorative element of decoration.
Collection and procurement of raw materials
The so-called bumps can be harvested from November to March next year. In this case, it is necessary, with the help of a secateurs, to carefully cut off the end of the branch on which the cones are located, and cut them off. Those fruit that themselves fell from the branches are already unusable.
The buds must be well dried. To do this, they must be spread out in an even layer in a room with good ventilation (attic, for example), or placed under a canopy. When it's warm outside, drying can be done in the fresh air, but do not forget to stir everything. After high-quality drying, the cones are stored for up to three years.
Black alder tree
Botanical name: Black alder, or sticky alder, or European alder (Alnus glutinosa), a species of the Alder genus, the Birch family.
Homeland of black alder: Europe.
Lighting: light-requiring, shade-tolerant.
The soil: moist, fertile.
Maximum tree height: 35 m.
Average tree lifespan: 100 years.
Black alder - description of the tree, photo and video
Birch family, genus alder. Black alder is a fairly large tree that grows up to 35 meters in height. It is considered a deciduous tree, from the birch family. A fairly large tree, its growth varies from 30 to 35 meters, where the climate is more severe, there the tree is lower.
Black alder - description of the tree, photo and video
Straight trunk, dark brown bark, with large cracks. Shoots are also reddish-brown in color, slightly sticky to the touch. Leaves are of various shapes, but mostly alternate or rounded predominate, and occasionally petiolate.
The fruit is a small nut, in general, it is not edible, but animals occasionally eat it. Black alder blooms in April, and the fruits appear in May. In general, the lifespan of a given tree does not exceed 150-300 years, again everything depends on the climate.
The most common throughout the European part of the CIS, also in Western Siberia, as well as in Asia. In Russia, it is most common throughout the European part, as well as in the Caucasus. It prefers to grow mainly along the banks of rivers, swamps, small lakes and bodies of water. It can form pure stands, mainly of its own kind.
Black alder - not in vain is called the healing power of the royal tree, alder bath procedures are recommended with a sufficiently weakened immunity, such procedures also rejuvenate the body and increase overall stress resistance. A special enzyme that is obtained from alder extract is called thmelin, it is very widely used in pharmaceuticals. In Russia, it has long been BLACK ALDER, famous for its healing properties.
This is due to the high content of tannins in the bark. When the bark is heated, substances are released that have the following properties: anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory and desensitizing properties. Ever since the reign of Ivan the Terrible, alder baths were considered a distinctive feature of the royal people, as well as the first persons of the state, they were used for general rejuvenation, as well as for prolonging life.
In Finland, there is a belief that if a person takes a steam bath in an alder sauna, he will be cured of all diseases. In general, in the Scandinavian countries, black alder is considered a rather scarce and rare tree, so it is highly valued and quite expensive.
This type of tree is often considered a pioneer of the forest, since after cutting down, it forms pneumatic growth, so it grows with even greater volume.
Therefore, this tree often grows on moist and oxygen-poor soils. This tree begins to bear fruit abundantly from 3-4 years old, the fruits ripen by about October, but they get enough sleep from the cones only in winter, or at the beginning of spring. But, in wild specimens, fruiting occurs only from 10 years.
Black alder has excellent wood, which immediately after felling is either white or slightly pinkish. Due to the fact that alder wood does not rot for a relatively long time, it is widely used for the construction of underwater structures. Also, furniture is made from the wood of this tree, and it is also suitable for small crafts.
From the bark of this tree, during industrial processing, yellow and black paints are obtained, which are later widely used in construction.
Alder black video
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How to collect, sow black alder seeds and care for plantings?
Black alder, or sticky (Alnus glutinosa) is a frost-resistant and fast-growing deciduous tree that can live up to 300 years in favorable conditions and grow up to 35 meters. Black alder begins to bloom at the age of 10.
Black alder does not tolerate calcareous soils, loves moist fertile soil and grows well in a sunny or slightly shaded place. Alder feels especially good near water bodies, in wet areas. Alder is one of the plants that improve the soil: nodules with microorganisms assimilating nitrogen from the air are formed on its roots.
Black alder is used for medicinal purposes (decoctions from cones and bark, infusion of fresh leaves have bactericidal, astringent and hemostatic properties, help with gastrointestinal diseases), its beautiful pink wood is easily processed. Alder is also good for garden decoration - its foliage remains green until late autumn. Bred alder varieties with decorative pale yellow leaves. Alder is also used to protect the garden from cold winds (as a backstage or hedge).
Alder is propagated by cuttings (in the fall in the open field), as well as by sowing seeds.
Alder blooms in March-April (even before the leaves appear), throwing out catkins is pollinated by the wind. Female flowers are united in dark red spikelets, and then cone-shaped infructescence is formed from them. At first, alder cones are green, then turn brown and ripen in autumn, but do not open until late winter and early spring. Therefore, ripe alder cones can be harvested for a very long period of time: from the moment of ripening to the moment the seeds fall out of the cones. Black alder seeds are small, flattened black nuts with two antennae. To find out if the seeds are ripe, you need to rub the lump in your hand: ripe seeds will easily sprinkle from it.
A part of an alder branch with ripe cones is cut off and hung in a dry and warm place over a cloth. The warmth and dryness encourage the buds to open and the seeds erupt. Then the alder branches with cones are additionally shaken off over the fabric in order to remove the stuck seeds that did not fall out on their own. It is recommended to store dried and debris-free alder seeds in a closed glass bottle for no more than 2 years.
Full-fledged alder seeds have good germination without any stratification. It is recommended to sow black alder seeds less frequently (no closer than 5 mm from each other) to provide seedlings with good conditions at the initial stage of growth. Alder plantings need to be regularly and well moistened, but do not allow stagnation of water in them.
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The meaning of the word ALDER in the Encyclopedia of Biology
, genus of trees and shrubs of this. birch. Includes 30 species, distributed mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia, grow (usually along rivers and streams) gray alder, black alder, or sticky alder, shrub alder, etc. Gray alder is a low deciduous tree, sometimes a shrub. The trunk is thin, gray, smooth. The leaves are simple, whole, ovoid, do not turn yellow in autumn and fall green. Blossoming before the leaves open. Dissolved flowers are located on the same tree: male - in cylindrical earrings, like a birch, female - in erect egg-shaped spikelets, during flowering they look like purple-raspberry rice grains. After flowering, 5-lobed scales, in the axils of which female flowers sit, grow into small dark brown cones. Fruits are small flat two-winged nuts, carried by wind and spring waters. Alder lives up to 80-100 years. Used to strengthen river banks, ravines and slopes. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria develop on the roots of trees, contributing to an increase in soil fertility. Wood (slightly orange, light) is used in plywood and furniture production, for firewood. Dye and tannins are obtained from the bark. Compound fruits (cones) are used in medicine.
European part of Russia, Western Siberia, Western Europe, Crimea, Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa
forms forests on fertile soils of excessive moisture along streams and rivers in large areas, grows on humified soils with flowing moisture, where it forms "black alder bogs"
in youth ovoid, loose, later more decorative, cylindrical, with a trunk extending to the top, but often multi-stem
deep stem, with a powerful main root and a large number of lateral roots and roots, with nodules of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria
in the first 3 years the growth rate is average, then fast
hygrophilous, tolerant of stagnant water
bark is dark brown, fractured with age
young shoots are greenish-brown, sticky when blooming, smooth, branches are red-brown, covered with white transverse lenticels
obovate, obtuse or sharp, 0.5-0.8 cm long, pedunculated
alternate, obovate or rounded, 4-9 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, notched at the apex, broadly wedge-shaped and whole at the base, crenate-serrate in the rest of the edges, less often double-large toothed, young - sticky, shiny, glabrous or hairy, adults - weakly shiny, glabrous, glandular-punctate, underneath with red beards in the vein corners, on petioles 1-2 cm long, late falling
end of April, before the leaves bloom, 4 days
brownish-black broad-ovate cones 12-20 mm long and 10 mm wide, sit 3-5 on a long stalk, nuts are red-brown, flattened, with a narrow transparent wing and short, dried at the top of the columns, pollinated by the wind
early to mid-October, fruiting from 7 years of age