Caladium - care and reproduction, feeding and soil

Caladium - care and reproduction, feeding and soil


Caladium is better known under the popular name "elephant ears". Another name for the Caladium is “the heart of Christ”. As you may have guessed, this flower got such fancy names because of the shape of its leaves. The leaves of the caladium are beautiful and very brightly colored; lovers of this flower often call them "paper" - for their subtlety and color scheme.

Caladium life cycle

Caladium - a seasonal plant, "active" from late spring to autumn. In the fall, caladium leaves begin to dry and fall off - which means it's time to hide your caladium in a secluded place until next spring. It will be comfortable for Caladium to spend the winter in a dark place - under your bed, in a dark closet. But don't hide the Caladium too far - you should bump into it from time to time so you don't forget to water. Dry ground is a sure sign that it's time to water a sleeping Caladium!

In the spring Caladium needs to be taken out of the "den". Carefully inspect the tubers of the plant for diseased and diseased areas. Remove dead tubers, sprinkle the wounds with charcoal. Live tubers should be transplanted into fresh substrate mixed with charcoal. Caladium tubers should be planted to a depth equal to the diameter of this tuber. Water the soil well after planting. Cover the pot with an opaque bag - Caladium likes to wake up in a dark and well-humid place. Periodically, the bag must be removed to allow the earth to breathe. As soon as the first shoots appear, the bag needs to be removed so that your caladium gets used to the ambient temperature. Also, do not forget to spray and water the young plant, but do not overdo it: from too abundant and frequent watering, the tubers can rot.

What kind of lighting is needed

Caladium likes bright enough, but not direct sunlight. Optimum caladium will feel in the north-east and north-west windows. Caladium categorically does not like direct sunlight and drafts.

Caladium "frozen" - the temperature in the room should not fall below 15 degrees, so even in summer it is not recommended to move Caladium to the balcony.

Feeding Caladium

The period of active growth in Caladium is quite short, all life processes are optimized, so the flower needs regular feeding.

March-April - once a week we feed Caladium with liquid fertilizers (it is better to take those that are focused on decorative deciduous plants), sometimes you can use foliar dressing.

Somewhere from mid-July, the amount and frequency of feeding should be gradually reduced. Watering should also be reduced in August.

How to propagate

When you take out the overwintered Caladium from its secluded spot in March, think about whether you want to have more Caladiums? Then you need to do as follows: when the tubers have already sprouted a little, you need to take the tuber and cut it into pieces so that on each part there is an eye, a growing point. Places of cuts should be treated with crushed charcoal, allowed to dry in the open air. Immediately after planting, such tubers are not watered.

Important: Caladium cannot be transplanted during the growing season.

What soil to plant

Caladium loves loose and airy soil. The substrate should be rich in nutrients. Earthen mixtures that are used for dieffenbachia, spathiphyllum are suitable.

Important: it is not recommended to wipe the caladium leaves - they are very thin and vulnerable, it is better to spray.


  1. Indoor Plants Information

Sections: Houseplants Ornamental-deciduous Aroid (Aronic) Plants on K

Calla lilies care

Calla: care and cultivation reproduction, planting or transplanting. The house plant calla is distinguished by its unpretentiousness in care, it grows both in the shade and in the sun, loves water during the flowering period, and the rest of the time is watered every 10 days. The main thing in home care for calla lilies is the correct planting / transplantation. Before planting, calla lilies can be stored for a while in the refrigerator in the vegetable compartment.

The tubers are available from January to April. When choosing, you should pay attention to the condition of the tubers, which must be elastic and always have live apical buds, with a light yellowish and not wrinkled skin in the upper part. Avoid shriveled, wrinkled tubers with no signs of living tissue and skin that is gray over the entire surface.

In March, but no later than April, you need to interrupt their rest and plant them in a pot. It is necessary to use a nutritious soil: a mixture of sod, leafy soil and compost (1: 1: 1 :). You can add 1 tbsp. superphosphate per 3 liters of the mixture. Homemade calla lilies do not tolerate cramped dishes, which is why they may not bloom. but too large pots will not work, otherwise all the forces of the plant will go to the formation of the root system. A whole thicket of half-meter leaves grows from a modest-looking tuber.

Before planting, it is sometimes advised to hold the tubers for 2-3 hours in a not strong solution of potassium permanganate, or they are planted immediately. This procedure will protect your future plant from pests and decay. After soaking, previously hidden defects are often found - rot, dried mechanical damage. The damaged area must be scraped out with a knife to healthy tissue, covered with brilliant green.

The tuber is planted to a depth of 10 cm (if the tuber is small, then the hole is about 5 cm). A shallower planting will lead to leaf lodging in calla lilies. Over-watering the soil is not worth it - this can provoke rotting of the tuber. Before the emergence of shoots, you need to hold the flower under the film, which is why heat and humidity are well retained.

It is advisable to pick up a deep pallet for the pot. You can simulate the conditions of wet South African meadows by pouring water into a sump and maintaining it at a constant level (3-5 cm). Indoor calla lilies can also decorate water cascades, fountains or a large aquarium so popular today. But then it should not be fertilized abundantly, so as not to harm the fish. The plant does not like complete flooding, so place the pot at a shallow depth.

Spraying begins with the appearance of green leaves, otherwise the tips of the leaves will dry out, giving the plant an unkempt appearance, and flowering may also be delayed. Scaly leaves appear first from the soil. After their appearance with a characteristic plate, you can start feeding with mineral fertilizers. At the beginning of the season, calla lilies require more nitrogen, and during flowering, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.

Close observation of the leaves will allow the calla to be used as a living barometer. With a decrease in pressure (that is, to rain), droplets of water appear on the tips of the leaves and covers of the inflorescences.

The flowering period of calla lilies is short - about a month. One shoot gives - the only peduncle, and with good care - two. If you don't plan on growing your calla lilies from seed, cut off the buds as soon as the cover turns green. Seed formation is detrimental to tubers.

After flowering, watering should be sharply reduced. The leaves should fade on their own. Dig up the tuber, peel it of old dry leaves and store it in the refrigerator until next season, sprinkle it with dry peat or dry sand. Inspect it regularly during storage, as the main danger is overdrying.

If the tuber begins to lose water and shrivel, this means that you dug it out too early and the protective skin did not have time to form. In this case, only early planting of such a tuber can help.

General information about the flower

Cymbidium, like most orchids, is an epiphyte. Its habitat is the crowns and trunks of trees in tropical forests. In rare cases, you can find representatives of the cymbidium that grow on the ground, on rocky soil. The type of growth is sympoidal - the development of the plant does not occur due to the trunk, which the cymbidium simply does not have, but due to the formation of new rosettes of leaves, from which a peduncle appears in the future. Over time, pseudobulbs appear in the center, which are essentially the growth points of the orchid. The peduncle can be either straight or curved, directed downward - spectacular flowers are located on the peduncle itself. Cymbidium blooms for several months. Cut stalks will delight you with their beauty for a long time.

Paradise - do it yourself!

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The romance of Russian gardens, the mysteriousness of Eastern traditions, the naturalism of English landscapes or the pretentiousness of the French landscape - how do you imagine your site? If these options are not to your liking, why not give up on all the delights and give preference to a bright country style with lots of fun accessories made from littered trash? We are waiting for you in search of ideas, tips and step-by-step instructions, because all this has been painstakingly collected just for you!

We responsibly declare - there are no obstacles to cardinal gardening of your summer house with your own hands! At Sotk, he will accompany you from the moment the idea appears to the finish line of the finished result, helping you with practical advice, video tutorials and photo galleries. Indeed, in the construction of the same gazebos there is nothing difficult, if you know what materials it is easiest to do from, and you will make garden furniture in a few days from improvised means! But the most important thing is that such a "homemade" will look much better on your site than plastic and metal!

Caring for a pyracantha in the garden

Growing a pyracantha in your garden is easy enough. The shrub should be provided with timely watering, weeding, feeding and loosening of the surface of the trunk circle. In order to significantly reduce the number of weeding, watering and loosening, the surface of the trunk circle is covered with a layer of mulch (organic matter). It should be remembered that this plant needs mandatory pruning.

How to water

Such a crop is resistant to drought, and therefore does not need systematic irrigation. But if the plant is planted in open soil very recently, then until it takes root, it should be provided with regular watering. The established bushes should be watered only in the hot dry period, while this should be done no more than 1 time in 7 days. If the plant does not have enough water, then its foliage becomes lethargic, and the shoots begin to turn yellow and become too soft. To exclude the spread of water over the site during irrigation, it should be poured into a prepared trench dug along the perimeter of the trunk circle. It should be noted that the deeper the soil is saturated with water during irrigation, the better. When the bush is watered, it is necessary to loosen the surface of the trunk circle well, and also remove all weeds.

Top dressing

Often it is not necessary to feed such a plant. The first feeding is carried out at the beginning of the intensive growth of the bush; for this, a complex mineral fertilizer with a low nitrogen content is used. The same feeding is carried out in the last summer weeks.


Shrub transplant is performed in the same way as the primary planting. First you need to prepare a planting pit, which should be a couple of times larger than the estimated size of the root system, taken together with a lump of earth. After that, a bush is removed from the ground and placed in a prepared hole. It should be remembered that the transplanted plant must be provided with systematic, frequent and abundant watering, which will help the pyracantha to take root in a new place as soon as possible.


Such a shrub needs systematic formative pruning. Pruning can be done throughout the season. However, experienced gardeners recommend pruning the bush for the first time in the middle of spring, the second time in the middle of autumn, and the last time in late autumn, practically in the first winter weeks. It should be understood that pyracantha and sea buckthorn need to be grown and pruned in different ways, despite the fact that these plants have external similarities.

When the shrub blooms in springtime, you should prune it at your discretion. So, if you wish, you can not cut out part of the inflorescences, after a while decorative berries grow on them. When pruning, it should be remembered that the formation of fruits and flowers is observed only on those stems that are more than 1 year old. The second time, the bush should be cut in the middle of the autumn period, while it is necessary to cut out all those stems and branches that thicken the bush or shade the ripening apples, which begin to rot from this. The last pruning for the season is carried out in late autumn, while you need to cut out all the extra stems, branches and foliage. During pruning at any time of the year, the stems must not be shortened more than 1/3 of the length.

If the shrub is already old, it will need anti-aging pruning, for this the bush is shortened to 0.3 m relative to the surface of the site. Remember to carry out the pruning with very heavy gloves protecting your hands, as the pyracantha has many thorns. This plant can be used to decorate the wall of a building; for this, the stems must be directed along the supports in the required direction, and do not forget to fix them. In this case, the pruning of the bush may not be necessary at all.

Breeding pyracantha

For propagation of such a plant, you can use seeds or green cuttings. You can make podzimny or spring sowing of pyracantha seeds. Before sowing the seed in the spring, it must be stratified. But it should be borne in mind that plants grown from seeds cannot preserve the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.

Most gardeners prefer to propagate such a shrub vegetatively, or rather, cuttings or layering. With this method of reproduction, it will be possible to preserve the varietal characteristics of the mother plant. Such a culture can be propagated by lignified or green cuttings, while the latter give roots much faster. Cuttings are harvested in the spring during pruning. To do this, cut branches are taken, reaching a length of 15 to 20 centimeters. All leaf plates must be removed from the lower part of the cutting, then the lower cut must be immersed in a solution of an agent that stimulates root growth. After that, they are planted at an angle in moistened sand, while on top of the container should be covered with a cap, which must be transparent. Provide regular airing and watering to the cuttings. After about 20 days, the cuttings will have to take root, but they will need to be grown in greenhouse conditions for 12 months, and only with the onset of the next spring period, the grown plants can be planted in open soil. To create a hedge, seedlings from cuttings are grown in greenhouse conditions for two years.

If there is already an adult shrub in the garden, then the easiest way to propagate it is to use layering. To do this, in the spring, you should choose several powerful, completely healthy and low-growing stems. Under the plant, it is necessary to make the required number of grooves into which the selected shoots are then laid, only their tops should rise above the soil surface. After the stems are fixed in the grooves, they need to be covered with nutritious soil.Throughout the season, the layers should be regularly watered and weeded; for the winter, they should be covered with a layer of fallen leaves. With the onset of spring, the layers must be cut off from the parent bush and transplanted to a new permanent place.


Some of the species of this plant have a fairly high frost resistance. For example, the narrow-leaved pyracantha grown in the Moscow region and Moscow is capable of wintering in the open field. However, in order to protect the plants from possible severe frosts and little snowy winters, the surface of the trunk circle must be covered with a sufficiently thick layer of loose leaves. If during wintering the plant suffers from frost and freezes to the root collar, then the protected roots will remain intact and the shrub will quickly recover in spring, but do not forget to cut out all damaged branches and stems during the first pruning.

Diseases and pests

Pyracantha has a fairly high resistance to diseases and pests. Quite rarely, aphids settle on such a shrub. And most often this happens if the plant is too weak due to improper care or violation of agricultural practices. Immediately after the aphid is found on the bush, it must be sprayed with an insecticidal solution; this should not be postponed until later, because insects multiply rapidly and can settle on neighboring plants or infect the pyracantha with an incurable disease.

Such a culture is also susceptible to infection with a bacterial burn, which is considered an incurable disease. In this regard, experienced gardeners recommend growing only those varieties that are resistant to this disease. Such a shrub can also infect a scab or late blight, and this also happens due to the fact that the plant is poorly looked after or does not follow the rules of agricultural technology of this culture. The plant can be cured with a solution of a fungicidal preparation, for example, Fundazole.

Growing and propagating hydrangea

Hydrangeas - an ornamental plant is great for creating separate groups, for decorating curbs, home or lawn.

In the early years, young plants are not very decorative, so low-flowering plants (mahonia, forsythia) or daffodils, peonies, tulips and other plants can be planted with them.

A hydrangea needs a sunny or slightly shaded area that is not open, otherwise the inflorescences begin to become smaller, growth slows down, and the soil dries out.

The upper part of the plants can fall into the sun, and the base itself can remain in the shade. Do not plant hydrangeas under bushes or near trees, as the root system of plants will always need moisture and nourishment, which will take up the roots of the trees.

Place and soil for growing hydrangeas

The soil is rich in humus, loose with air and water permeability, moderately moist. Soil pH should be in the range of 5.5. The ideal soil mixture for growing hydrangeas will be a mixture of leaf and sod land, peat, sand and humus, taken in equal proportions. It is easy to observe the change in the level of acidity of the soil: if the hydrangea flowers begin to change color to pink, then the soil is slightly alkaline, if to blue, then the soil is acidic.

Based on this, the soil can be maintained at the desired pH for the plants.

For acidification of the soil, fertilizers are suitable ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate (1 tablespoon per 5 liters of water) or potassium chloride.

If the soil is heavy, add some coarse sand when planting young seedlings. Plants respond poorly to calcareous soil.

Mulching hydrangea bushes with peat, compost or needles has a beneficial effect on their development.

Planting hydrangeas

If a hydrangea seedling with a strong root system, then it can be planted in September, if not, then in late spring.

Before planting hydrangeas, do not fertilize the soil with ash. Add peat with sand or soil with needles. Prepare planting holes 50 × 50 cm, drain. Fill the pits with soil and apply Kemira or Asid plus acidifying fertilizer with alkaline soil.

Water and mulch with peat or sawdust to retain moisture in a layer of 10 cm. Loosen the mulch 2 times during the summer.

Basic tips for planting hydrangeas

Before planting hydrangeas, mineral and organic fertilizers are applied to the soil.

To get a large hydrangea bush, plant a seedling that is already 4-5 years old, making a hole 35-40 cm deep and 50-70 cm wide.

For frequent plantings, hydrangeas (creating a hedge) are planted in holes with a distance of 0.7-1 m, but after a few years, thinning pruning is carried out.

Hydrangea bushes are planted, both in spring and autumn, if there are no harsh winters in the region:

  • When planting hydrangeas in spring, the roots of the seedlings are shortened and annual shoots are cut off, leaving 3-4 pairs of buds. After planting, the bushes are watered, and a little later, when the water is absorbed, they are mulched with peat with a layer of 6-8 cm.
  • In the fall, fertilize the hydrangea with a complex mineral fertilizer, and in the spring - with urea at the rate of 20 g per bucket of water (2-3 buckets of fertilizer per adult bush).

Moderate application of slurry has a good effect on the development of inflorescences, but with an excess of the severity of the inflorescences, the branches can break off.

Pruning hydrangeas is very important for an ornamental shrub. The flowering of hydrangeas begins 2-3 years after planting, if it started earlier, then without regret, cut off all the inflorescences so that all the plant's strength goes to the development of the bush. Carry out rejuvenating pruning ("on the stump") of adult bushes, do not be afraid, flowering will be in the same summer.

The main reasons why hydrangeas do not take root

The main reason is soil with unfavorable properties: chernozem, alkaline or dung-humus soil. Alkaline soil at pH 8.0-9.0 contains a large amount of lime and low iron content, which can cause chlorosis of the leaves. In this case, the plants need to be fertilized with a solution of ferrous sulfate at the rate of 5-6 g of the drug per bucket of water.

Watering hydrangeas with hard water is not allowed.

If you are growing hydrangeas that bloom on the shoots of the current year, then pruning should not be carried out during the growing season.

Care and feeding of garden hydrangea

In the spring, do not rush to remove the shelter.

Water once if it rained a week and 2 times in dry weather, pouring 30-50 liters of soft water under each adult plant (rain or settled tap water with infrequent addition of vinegar or lemon juice to prevent leaf chlorosis). If the soil was mulched with peat, then it can be watered abundantly once a month.

Cut off the faded inflorescences with a garden pruner, since flowering begins at the base of the blooming brush and when peeling off the inflorescences, you can accidentally touch the top of the branch and peel off the buds.

Do not remove fallen leaves under the bushes. Add pine needles. Apply Kemira-universal fertilizer before flowering.

  • At the beginning of growth, under hydrangea bushes, add 30-35 g of sulfuric potassium, 30-40 g of superphosphate, 20-25 g of urea per 1 sq. M.
  • When budding, add 40-45 g of sulfuric potassium and 60-80 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. M.
  • In the last days of August, apply 15-20 kg of compost or rotted manure under each plant.
  • In autumn, in dry weather, water the hydrangea bushes abundantly, then the plants will better tolerate frost. Treat the bushes with Bordeaux mixture. In mid-October, spud the bushes to a height of 30 cm. From above, you can cover with agrospan. In early November, bend the branches of the hydrangea to the ground and cover with spruce branches or dry leaves. Place the box on top.

Hydrangea cuttings

In general, pruning of hydrangeas that bloom on the shoots of the current year is carried out before sap flow. However, if you want to cut hydrangea bushes in the future, then prune it at the beginning of sap flow, before budding, for their better rooting (rooting rate is about 70%). With this method of cuttings (lignified cuttings), the planting material is of higher quality.

So, in the spring, in the first half of April, you saw that the plant buds began to develop, they swelled a little, which means you can cut off the bushes for grafting. Treelike hydrangea begins to develop after hibernation faster than panicle hydrangea, therefore, pruning of treelike hydrangea should be done earlier. Cut off the shoots, leaving 3-4 buds on them. Cut the cuttings from the resulting branches so that each of them has 2 nodes, making an oblique cut under the lower bud, and a straight cut above the upper one, at a distance of 2-3 cm from it. After that, plant the resulting cuttings in a greenhouse in a peat-sandy soil, deepening the lower bud by 3 cm, cover with polyethylene and water abundantly. Then water the cuttings every day, depending on the dryness of the soil.

Cutting panicle hydrangea takes place in a slightly different way. Cut back shoots from last year to a third of their length. Cut the cuttings from the cut branches according to the tree-like scheme and plant them in the greenhouse in the same way. Plant rooted cuttings outdoors in summer.

If the propagation of hydrangeas is carried out with green cuttings in the summer, then they are planted for rooting in July, after having previously treated with "Kornevin" or "Heteroauxin". However, their root system does not have time to develop well, which can lead to their death in winter.

Hydrangea bushes can also be cut in autumn in September-October, before the winter shelter of the bushes. Cut the shoots and cut the cuttings so that each has 2 leaf nodes, remove the lower leaves, cut the upper ones in half, leaving 1 cm of the shoot from the lower bud and upper leaf. Treat the cuttings in a solution of foundationol (10 g of the preparation per bucket of water) for 30 minutes. Next, lower the stalk with the lower cut into the root formation accelerator, and then deepen it into the garden soil in pots to the upper leaves. Compact the earth around the cutting, and anoint the upper cut with brilliant green for disinfection.

Cuttings can be planted in rooting pots in several pieces, depending on the volume. After planting the cuttings in the ground to a depth of 1 cm, deepen the "Glyokladina" tablet - protection against root rot. Next, place the pot in a transparent plastic bag, tie it up and place it on the windowsill. In winter, in frosty weather, protect the pots from the cold with newspapers and make sure that there is no ice formation inside the bags.

Air the cuttings several times a week, but for a short time so that the young leaves do not have time to dry out, remove the old fallen leaves. In the spring, in cloudy weather, take the pots outside (balcony) to harden the plants. Determine the readiness for planting in open ground at the end of the twisting and hanging of the leaves.

Propagation of hydrangea by layering

This is also the case. In the summer, inspect the hydrangea bush and select a branch that is very close to the ground. On a branch, near the ground at an interval of 12-15 cm, remove all the leaves, clean the bark from the lower side, pin it to the ground and cover it with earth so that the end of the branch is in the air, and 1-2 knots are in the ground.

You can cut off the branch from the mother only when the new plant takes root and takes root well (it will become a full-fledged independent plant).

  • if the hydrangea is periodically watered with a raspberry solution of potassium permanganate, then the white flowers will acquire a pink color
  • if metal shavings are introduced into the soil under the hydrangea bushes, then the color of the flowers will turn blue
  • withered hydrangea petals will turn brown, which can be a good craft material.

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