Grafting indoor plants
In order to propagate and cultivate plants, many ways have been invented. Vaccination is considered the most popular. The essence of this method is the engraftment of the desired plant on another, mostly non-decorative and wild. Thus, for example, a garden climbing rose grafted onto the trunk of a Scottish rose hip, otherwise - (wild rose) will eventually produce small flowers hanging down from branches resembling willow branches.
Grafting is used for plants that are difficult to root. These include: rose, azalea, cactus, camellia, rhododendron, citrus. Through this manipulation, it turns out to grow a standard rose form, a weeping form or a dwarf plant.
The rootstock is the plant that is grafted onto. A graft is one of the parts of that ornamental plant that you want to get in the end.
The grafted plant looks like this: top part he has decorative; Bottom part - from a wild plant.
The lower part plays a major role for good growth and nutrition of the plant, and it also protects the plant from diseases. Grafting is done in order to rejuvenate the plant and regulate flowering and yield.
When a plant adapts to new conditions, grafting will not hurt it either. For example, a cactus that has become infected with pathogenic microbes due to waterlogging can be grafted onto an already adapted cactus with the help of its upper part and in this way save it.
How to graft indoor plants correctly
For the successful grafting of a houseplant, several main factors should be considered that affect this:
- Choosing a healthy plant in the scion and rootstock.
- Correct vaccination technique.
- Availability of the necessary tools and materials.
- The choice of the season.
This manipulation is best done in the first spring months, using special literature or practical advice from professionals for information purposes. It is believed that for successful grafting, the scion and rootstock must be from the same species or subspecies. However, oddly enough, such a vaccination very often leads to a negative result. A strong and healthy plant is obtained from different species, but belonging to the same family.
Grafting is done on the part of the plant that serves as a supplier of nutrients. This is usually a trunk or branch. This is how the cycle between the old plant and the new one takes place, as a result they form a single whole, and the main plant receives a new trait or property. The stalk is cut before the start of the vaccination and not before. Next, the leaves are removed and placed in water awaiting grafting.
The main methods of grafting plants
There are hundreds of ways to plant a plant. To a greater extent, methods such as:
- Budding (kidney inoculation) - the bud is cut with a small amount of bark and inserted into the rootstock trunk incision.
- Inoculation by cuttings occurs in the same way as in the method described above, only a stalk is taken instead of a bud.
- Into the cleft - an incision is made horizontally and vertically on the stock, then split. Several cuttings of the scion, previously cut with a wedge, are inserted into the gap formed. Next, the grafted place is wrapped with a gauze bandage, and on top - with tape. This grafting is used for plants such as cactus and coniferous trees or shrubs.
- Oblique grafting - both plants (scion and rootstock) of the same size are cut at the same angle miter. Then they are closely pressed together and pulled together by something tight.
A plant grafted with one of the above methods is placed in a warm, sufficiently lit place. Watering should be moderate but constant. It is not recommended that the active sun hits the newly grafted plant. If the graft is successful, the scion and rootstock will grow together within two weeks.
VACCINATION OF CITRUS (ORANGE, LEMON, MANDARINE, KUMKVAT, SWEET). EXOTIC WINDOWSILL
Indoor plant grafting - gardening
Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.
Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.
Deciduous species are easier to transplant than conifers and evergreen deciduous trees.
The growth, development and productivity of fruit trees largely depend on the degree of their resistance to frost.
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In order to carry out all the work on our own, we need the following:
- Capacity (pots)
- Seeds of selected plants
- Top dressing or mineral fertilizers
Today we will consider only several planting options for the most famous flowers among the gardeners who grow them on their windowsill.
- Geranium is one of the most preferred plants for those who decide to create their own cute garden at home. The best time to sow is December or January. In this case, you should get ready - the first shoots may appear in about a month. The soil for this species should be soft and loose, you can also add a little sand. To increase seed germination, mix the soil with humus. The container should be small with a special drainage hole. Sowing seeds is done on top, at the end, sprinkle the future geranium with earth. The pot should be covered with either plastic wrap or a glass jar. Do not forget that this variety loves light, and therefore you should choose sunny places for the pot. After the shoots appear, remove the film. You need to water in moderation, and when the first leaves appear, be sure to transplant the flower into a separate pot.
- Streptocarpus is very popular and is an excellent plant for planting at home. If you provide it with good lighting, this flower will delight you with its brightness throughout the year. It is necessary to start work in the spring. The pot must have a hole for the liquid to drain. The best soil for streptocarpus is a mixture of agroperlite, vermiculite and peat. Sprinkle the seeds of the plant evenly in a pot and sprinkle a little with earth. The location for the pot should be warm and light. After planting, cover the container with foil and water it from time to time. After the sprouts appear, the plants are transplanted into a deeper pot.
- Gloxinia is considered one of the easiest plants to plant at home. The soil should contain a large percentage of peat, in addition, fertilizers can be added. Even a small plastic cup is suitable as a container for disembarkation, and do not forget to cover it with foil. This will allow you to create the necessary conditions for the normal development of gloxinia.
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Grafting indoor citrus fruits can speed up the onset of fruiting and produce higher quality fruits. Typically, citrus grafting is carried out in two ways: "with an eye" (budding) or cuttings. Citrus fruits of the same type can be grafted onto each other (for example, a lemon seedling - a cultivated lemon, an orange seedling - a cultivated orange), and it is also practiced grafting citrus fruits of different types one on top of another (for example, lemon - on an orange, grapefruit - on a lemon, kinkana - on mandarin).
For successful grafting of citrus fruits, the period of active sap flow is optimal, when the bark is well separated from the wood: in April and early May, citrus fruits can be grafted in August. Also, the key to success is cleanliness, speed and accuracy of the vaccination. Before grafting, you need to prepare everything you need: a stock and a scion with well-ripened wood, an budding knife, an elastic tape, a garden pitch.
The rootstock is a potted plant, which can be grafted into a room seedling of a lemon, orange or grapefruit 1-2-3 years old with a stem not thinner than 6 mm. Orange seedlings are considered the best stock among citrus fruits, since they are drought-resistant and give good growth (however, tangerine is difficult to graft on an orange), grafting on deciduous citrus tripoliate is undesirable.
A graft is a "peephole" or a stalk that is grafted onto the stock; it is cut immediately before grafting from a previously prepared 1-2-year-old branch taken from a fruiting cultivated plant. After separation from the plant, thorns and leaf blades are removed from the branch, and the leaf petioles are left next to the buds. From the moment of cutting from a cultivated plant until grafting, the twig is stored in a damp cloth, packed in a plastic bag.
Of the two methods of inoculation, the simpler and more reliable budding is inoculation with an "eye" (in April - with a sprouted "eye", and in August - with a "dormant"). Thoroughly cleaning the stem of the stock from dust with a wet cotton swab at a height of about 5-7 cm from the ground, carefully make a T-shaped cut in the bark of the stock with a sharp clean knife, without touching the wood: first a short transverse horizontal cut about 1 cm long, and from its middle down - a longitudinal vertical incision about 2.5 cm long. The formed corners of the bark are slightly bent with a knife and inserted into the incision a "peephole" cut from the prepared twig, holding it by the leaf petiole saved next to the bud.
It is better to choose a ripe, well-formed bud from the middle of the branch for grafting. Above and below the selected bud (at a distance of 1.5 cm from it), two short transverse notches are made on the bark of the twigs. Then an oval cut of the bark is made with the kidney between the serifs, leaving a small reserve of the bark to the left and right of the kidney. When cutting the "eye" from a branch, you should try to capture almost one bark, and the area under the bud must be cut off with a piece of wood (shield). The inner surface of the "eye" cut must not be touched with fingers, so the cut is held by the leaf petiole.
An oval cut with a bud inserted into the rootstock bark incision is covered with the corners of the rootstock bark, smoothing and pressing the edges of the bark from the sides and bottom up for close contact, ensuring good fusion. The site of inoculation is tightly wrapped with elastic tape above and below the "eye" (only the bud and leaf petiole remain without wrapping). After the inoculation in the pot, a "mini-greenhouse" is built to create a favorable microclimate for the kidney, the greenhouse is periodically ventilated. If the grafting is unsuccessful, the leaf petiole soon turns black and dries to the scutellum.Usually, the kidney takes root after 2-3 weeks (this is evidenced by the yellowed leaf petiole, which is easily separated from the flap), the tight winding of the graft is weakened.
After bud germination, the sprout is gradually accustomed to room air, increasing the airing time of the greenhouse, the inoculation winding is removed. After another 3 weeks, when the shoot is already growing from the grafted bud, the stem of the stock is cut obliquely 3 mm above the base of the shoot and the cut is covered with garden pitch. For vertical growth, the shoot is neatly tied to a stick installed in a pot.
For grafting with a handle, the stem of the stock is wiped from dust and cut horizontally at a height of 5-7 cm from the ground. From the edge of the hemp down, a longitudinal incision of the bark is made about 1-1.5 cm long, the corners of the bark are slightly bent with a knife and the stalk is inserted. To obtain a good cutting from a previously prepared twig, a part with ripe wood is cut off, having 2-3 nodes with full buds and leaf petioles in the lower part of the cutting, an oblique flat cut is made, approximately equal in length to the cut of the bark on the rootstock. After the lower part of the cutting has been introduced under the bark, its cut should be in contact with the rootstock wood. Pressing the cutting to the stock, smoothen the corners and edges of the rootstock bark from the sides and bottom up, pressing the bark to the lower part of the cutting. The grafting site is tightly wrapped with elastic tape, and the upper cut of the hemp is covered with garden var.
After the inoculation in the pot, a "mini-greenhouse" is built to create a cuttings of a favorable microclimate, the greenhouse is periodically ventilated.
If the grafting is successful, the leaf stalks on the cuttings soon turn yellow and fall off (if they turn black and dry, then the graft has not taken root), the grafting winding is weakened. After bud germination, the grafting winding is removed and the sprouts are gradually accustomed to room air, each time increasing the airing time of the greenhouse.
From the grafted cutting (on which, unlike budding, not one, but several buds grow), the crown of the future tree is formed faster than from the "eye". The grafted part is timely and regularly pruned to form a lush crown. The "wild" shoots appearing below the grafting site must be removed immediately.
Site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
Vaccination of actinidia is rarely used, although in some cases it is irreplaceable. For example, if you want to have both male and female forms on one plant at once, or to get a harvest the next year. There is practically no detailed information on this topic, while in the actinidia vaccination there are pitfalls that you should be aware of. Today we'll talk about them.
Among berry crops, actinidia occupies a prominent place due to unpretentiousness to growing conditions, unsurpassed taste of berries and high content of vitamin C. The traditional way of propagation of actinidia kolomikt is green cuttings. Other common methods of reproduction (by seeds, layering) have their own specifics and are used to a limited extent.
The tested and proposed alternative methods of vegetative propagation of actinidia can be used in breeding work and home gardening, when it is required to have several varieties or forms on one plant, or, for example, both male and female forms.
The use of actinidia grafting as a process accompanying breeding work, when culled seedlings (formerly total male forms) can be used as rootstocks.
It is generally known that seedlings have a more powerful and well-embroidered root system compared to rooted cuttings, and plants grown from seedlings often outperform plants from cuttings, all other things being equal. For this reason, simply discarding seedlings and not using them in the future seems very wasteful.
An additional positive point is the acceleration of the onset of fruiting in grafted plants compared to cuttings. The first berries on grafted plants can be obtained as early as the next year after grafting, while cuttings bloom for the first time generally not earlier than in the third year (rarely in the second year) after cuttings.
It should be noted that traditional budding and copulation technologies recommended for fruit crops are not applicable to actinidia due to the peculiarities of its biology. In particular, attempts to make budding in the traditional terms for fruit crops are doomed to failure - in almost 100% of cases, the eyes do not take root.
Inoculation in the early spring period, both with a bud and a cuttings, not only fails, but can also lead to the death of the stock due to the specific intensive sap flow with the so-called crying.
Considering the above, we experimentally studied the grafting of actinidia kolomikta varieties Leningradskaya krupnoplodnaya and Lakomka by the method of budding and the method of summer copulation with a cuttings with awakening buds for 3-5-year-old seedlings that entered the flowering time and were unpromising for further breeding work (rejected).
Both methods require special preparation of the scion. It is necessary to obtain semi-lignified shoots with well-formed or awakening buds as early as possible - by early to mid-June. To do this, in mid-late May, a strong, intensively growing shoot of the current year is selected on the mother plant and pinched over the 5-8th leaf. After pinching, lignification of the shoot begins, then one or several apical buds begin to awaken, the cuttings are ready for grafting.
BUDDING was carried out in the traditional way on one or two-year-old wood, but at a much earlier date than for fruit crops - early-mid June. Only in this case, the eyes successfully take root. Another significant difference from the budding of fruit is that in actinidia, early spring pruning of the rootstock above the established eye is not carried out in order to avoid crying. Instead, several turns of wire were wound above the peephole to create an artificial constriction (photo 1), and the final pruning on the awakened bud was carried out after the rootstock flowered.
Despite the positive experience of actinidia budding, this method is not recommended for widespread use, because Unlike the second method of grafting we tested (summer copulation with a cuttings with awakening buds), active growth of the scion begins only the next year after grafting, and in winter there is a risk of freezing, damping out or mechanical damage to the eyes.
SUMMER COPULATION BY CUTTING WITH AWAKENING It was carried out by BUDDY in the early summer period (as soon as the scion was ready - one or several apical buds began to awaken) on woody shoots of the current year, as well as on 1-2-year-old wood using improved copulation technology (with a tongue). For copulation, cuttings with one or two buds were cut, the leaf was removed, and the leaf petiole was shortened by 1/3. PVC insulating tape (with an adhesive layer) was used as a strapping. To reduce the evaporation of water after strapping, the cuttings were coated with garden varnish (photo 2).
Approximately 2-3 weeks after inoculation, the growth of scion shoots begins, 2 months after inoculation, the length of the scion shoots can already reach 20-30 cm, and by the end of the growing season - 50 cm or more (photo 3). The strapping of the cuttings was removed after the start of active growth of the scion shoots.
Shelter of grafted plants for the winter was not used. In the year following the grafting, flowering and fruiting of the scion were observed.
When caring for grafted plants, it is important to break out the shoots that appear on the rootstock in a timely manner, otherwise, after 5-6 years, the grafted part of the plant may die off and be replaced by the shoots of the rootstock. This phenomenon is not a consequence of vaccination, but is natural for actinidia.
The grafted plants are not inferior in quality to the berries of their own rooted plants, the observation of the yield continues.
Microclimatic features of residential premises [edit | edit code]
When selecting species and varieties of indoor plants for growing in residential premises and offices, the specifics of the light regime, temperature, air humidity, as well as the total area and height of the rooms are taken into account. It is often impossible or very difficult to keep large-sized plants in rooms. Often, growers are forced to abandon the further maintenance of tall plants, since plant growth is limited by the height or area of the room. Daylight in the rooms is one-sided - from the side of the windows, and the crown is only partially illuminated .
Potting mixes [edit | edit code]
The use of soil mixtures and certain types of garden lands is dictated by the conditions for the cultivation of decorative floral plants in greenhouses and rooms. Garden lands with practical application include sod, leaf, heather, peat, dung humus, used soil, compost soil, sand, woody soil, fern roots, moss .
Temperature [edit | edit code]
Most indoor plants grow well in warm rooms and rooms with moderate temperatures. In winter, a continuous flow of cold air is felt from the side of the windows, as a result of which the earthy clod cools and the root system suffers. To reduce the negative effect of drafts and low temperature of window sills, use low benches to create air insulation between the surface of the window sill and the lower pot .
Air humidity [edit | edit code]
In the rooms, plants suffer from dry air, first of all, this affects the leaves; they observe a rapid and progressive drying of the tops of the leaves or leaf lobes. To reduce the harmful effect of dry air, it is necessary to systematically wash the leaves and spray with water .
Watering [edit | edit code]
The need for watering indoor plants depends on the environmental requirements of the particular plant species, the time of year, the composition of the land, the conditions of maintenance and the size of the plants. An excessively moist state of an earthen coma leads to diseases of the roots of plants, first of all, this is reflected in the leaves: the color of the plate fades, dark brown spots appear, gradually increasing in size. In plants that have been overdried for a long time, the leaves quickly dry out from the tops and ultimately turn completely yellow. The frequency of watering indoor plants depends on the air temperature in the room, the state of the weather, the size of the plants, its foliage, the development of the root system and the composition of the earth .
Top dressing for indoor plants [edit | edit code]
At the moment, there are many specialized fertilizers for indoor plants, both universal (suitable for a large group of unpretentious species) and narrow (a certain genus, family or life form, for example, succulents). In addition to industrial means of plant nutrition, folk are used, including: yeast, sugar, coffee grounds, citrus and banana peels, wood and stove ash, onion husks, water from an aquarium or after defrosting meat 
About plant grafting in questions and answers
What is plant grafting?
Vaccinations - one of the methods of vegetative reproduction. By means of grafting, parts of one plant (cuttings, buds) are artificially spliced with the shoot of another plant. The plant that is grafted (transplanted) is called graft, and the one to which they are grafted - stock... The graft does not form its own roots, but receives water and inorganic salts from the rootstock roots. Grafts are used mainly for those plants that hardly give adventitious roots and cannot propagate by cuttings and layering. With seed propagation, such varieties split and do not reproduce the varieties of the parent plant.
Graft, perhaps one of the most interesting and mysterious technological techniques in gardening. After all, grafting allows you to grow your favorite plant in a short time from a small cutting (copulation) or even one bud (budding), and in the presence of a stock.
Most fruit tree varieties are propagated by grafting
Can an untrained person successfully vaccinate a plant?
Plant grafting is a rather complicated technological method, therefore, on the one hand, it cannot be approached lightly, and on the other hand, it cannot be argued that plant grafting is the lot of the elite.
To successfully carry out this process, it is necessary to study the basics of biology and classification of plants, prepare the necessary tools and materials, master the techniques of grafting, persistently practice on the branches (for example, those left after pruning the garden). It is highly desirable to carry out the first vaccinations under the guidance of an experienced specialist. And, if these simple requirements are met, then there is hope for successful results of plant grafting.
What should be considered when preparing cuttings for grafting plants by copulation?
It is very important that no matter what lines the grafting, stalk (scion) must have buds that have not begun to develop, that is, they must be in a "dormant" state. To do this, they should be harvested in November - March and stored in a refrigerator or basement before vaccination at a temperature not higher than + 2-4 degrees.
Stone fruit cuttings harvested in the fall, given their predisposition to germination when temperatures fluctuate, as in many basements, are best stored outside. To do this, from the north side of any building, when frost occurs, wet sawdust is poured onto a piece of film, cuttings are laid (you can wrap them with a rag), then they are covered with a layer of 20-30 centimeters with wet frozen sawdust, and a layer of dry sawdust is poured on top. Indeed, even in a thaw, heat does not penetrate under the sawdust for a very long time.
Well-ripened annual shoots without flower buds are suitable for cuttings, except for "tops" and "wen". It is advisable to take shoots from the south side of the crown. Shoots of the same variety, tied in bundles, must necessarily have a label with the name of the variety. In well-preserved shoots, the bark should be smooth, the cut wood is light in color, and the buds should be healthy (not darkened).
How to properly prepare cuttings for cutting eyes for budding?
Cuttings are best cut on the day of budding. Early in the morning, in the cool of the morning, cut as many shoots from the mother plants as you can use that day. Ripe annual shoots are best taken from lateral branches in the middle of the crown.
It is better not to touch the extensions of the main branches and the central conductor, because this can spoil the crown, and it will still have to serve you for a long time. It is not recommended to take tops. They grow strongly, and the kidneys are not as well developed as they should.
Leaves and stipules must be removed immediately, leaving leaf petioles about 1 cm long.
So it will be more convenient to work, and later to control the survival rate. To prevent confusion in varieties, immediately tie labels to the cuttings. Prepared cuttings are placed in a bucket with a small amount of water and covered with wet burlap on top.
If the cuttings were prepared, but for some reason the budding had to be postponed, and the remaining cuttings should be wrapped in a damp cloth and put in a cool place (basement, refrigerator). For several days (it is advisable to keep no more than 5 days) they will not lose their qualities.
"What" on "what" can you vaccinate?
Basically, cultivars or decorative forms are grafted onto "wild", natural corresponding species, or species close in biological characteristics, namely:
a) pome fruits:
- cultivars apple trees - for species apple trees (forest apple tree) or vegetative (clonal) rootstocks - medium-sized, semi-dwarf, dwarf (M3, M4, MM106 - medium-sized M7, M26 - semi-dwarf M8, M9, M27, Budagovsky's paradise (PB-9) - dwarf). When grafting mature trees, you can graft cuttings of varietal apple trees onto adult varietal apple trees that, for whatever reason, do not suit you.
- pear - for species pears (forest pear, loach-leaved pear). In addition, to obtain undersized trees of cultivated varieties of pears, common quince and its clones are used as a stock.
b) stone fruits:
- plum, cherry plum - on wild species of plums and cherry plums. That is, the plum can be grafted both on the plum and on the cherry plum and vice versa. The same applies to the below listed species of cherry and sweet cherry.
- cherry, sweet cherry - for wild species cherries, cherries and antipka.
- peach - for wild species of peach, apricot and bitter almonds.
- apricot - on wild species apricots (poles).
- dogwood - on a wild species male dogwood.
For all of the above species, also when grafting adult trees, it is possible to graft on cultivars of the corresponding species.
c) ornamental trees and shrubs
weeping, pyramidal, spherical and other forms for the corresponding types of natural (wild) flora. So, weeping forms of mulberry, elm, ash, beech, mountain ash can be grafted on, respectively, black mulberry, elm (elm), ordinary or green ash, forest beech, mountain ash.
What tools and materials are needed for the vaccination?
Before starting the vaccination, you must prepare the following tools materials, taking into account the method and technology of inoculation:
- copulating (budding) knife
- garden saw
- polyethylene (PVC) film, or insulating tape
- bar for sharpening and dressing the copulating knife
- garden var
- transparent bags made of dense polyethylene
- a spatula or plank for shoveling and leveling the soil around the rootstocks during budding
- pieces of cloth for wiping the rootstock stem and scion cuttings from moisture
- a bucket with a little water at the bottom, for temporary storage of cuttings
- labels on threads or thin wires.
It is especially necessary to pay attention to the preparation of the grafting knife - its blade must be very sharp and clean. The knife blade must be sharpened to such an extent that, with light pressure, without effort, it cuts 3-4 sheets of paper.
Why are plants grafted?
Plant grafting allows you to solve numerous tasks in gardening, ornamental nursery, as well as on a personal plot, namely:
- Through grafting, almost all varieties of fruit trees and berry shrubs reproduce, which cannot be cultivated by cuttings and layering, and when propagated by seeds do not reproduce the varietal qualities of the mother plant.
- Propagate decorative forms of plants that differ from the original species in an interesting crown shape, color and shape of leaves, flowers, etc., as well as various varieties of ornamental plants
- You can increase the variety of varieties in a small area by grafting different varieties on the same tree
- Helps to quickly replace unpopular varieties with new ones
- By grafting on various rootstocks, especially dwarf ones, it is possible to facilitate harvesting and plant maintenance.
When grafted into the crown, new shoots reach significant sizes in the first year
What are the main ways of grafting plants?
Most often, two methods are used - grafting with a cuttings, or copulation and a kidney vaccine, or budding.
There are many ways of grafting with a cuttings (copulation), but the most common and fairly simple to perform are the following:
- butt (simple copulation)
- improved copulation (with "tongue")
- under the bark
Figure 1. Methods of inoculation: a) simple copulation b) improved copulation
Figure 2. Methods of grafting: a) for the bark b) splitting
The first three methods are used when the diameter of the rootstock and the scion are the same. When the diameter of the branch of the plant on which the graft is grafted (stock) is greater than the diameter of the grafted cuttings (stock), then the grafting "under the bark" or "into the split" is used (see diagrams). Other methods - lateral incision grafting, lateral inoculation in the butt, saddle grafting, etc. require some skill to carry them out.
In detail, the technology of grafting with a handle using the above methods is described on the portal in the article Vaccination is difficult, but quite possible
Budding - a method of grafting fruit and ornamental plants with a single bud (eye) taken from a cuttings of a cultivar. Budding the easiest way vaccinations on the technique of execution. In addition, during budding, a stronger fusion of the scion with the stock occurs and 3-4 times less grafting (cuttings) material is required.
Among the many methods of budding in practice, the following are most often used:
- Budding in a T-shaped cut.
- Oculusand a flap in the butt (see diagram below).
- Budding a plate of bark.
The technology of budding in the above ways is described in detail on the portal in the article Vaccination is difficult, but quite possible. Part 2. Budding.
How to choose the right place of grafting on the rootstock during budding?
Vaccination site in each case is determined separately. For a rose, for example, this is the root collar, for fruit - 3-5 (8) cm from the root collar. Clonal rootstocks are grafted at a height of 12-15 cm.
If you want to leave the stem of the rootstock as a stem, make budding at the appropriate height (for ornamental trees this can be 180-220 cm. In this case, you will have to carefully monitor to remove the emerging shoots of the mother plant in time below the grafting.
The eyes on the rootstocks are best placed on the north side.
When should plants be grafted with a cuttings, and when with an eye?
Grafting with a cuttings (copulation), as a rule, should be started when the sap flow in plants begins. At an earlier date, stone fruits and ornamental plants should be grafted, and then pome fruits. Stone fruits can be grafted before the start of sap flow (end of February - March-April). Pome fruits can be grafted until the end of flowering.
Budding plants (eye grafting) can be carried out twice a year during intensive sap flow: in early spring and in summer. A clear sign that the plant is ready to accept the scion is the bark easily lagging behind the wood. This means that active division of cambium cells began both on the scion and on the rootstock. At this time, they are able to grow together with each other.
In spring, budding of trees is done with a "growing" eye, since after grafting it quickly germinates. In the summer, budding is carried out with a "sleeping" eye, as it will germinate, as a rule, only in the spring of next year.
Summer budding dates are determined by the ripening of the cutting, and, accordingly, by the full development of the kidneys on it. Well-ripened shoots with well-formed buds are cut off.
It is very important that the bark lags well behind during the incisions on the rootstock. To do this, if there has been no rain for a long time, the rootstocks should be watered 7-10 days before budding.
The optimal time for budding in most regions of Ukraine and for most breeds is from July 20 to August 15-20.
Budding it is better to spend in the morning and evening hours with a break in the afternoon from 11 to 16 hours, or in cloudy weather.
It is not recommended to carry out it in dry hot or rainy weather.
Are there any peculiarities of grafting stone fruit crops?
There is no vaccination in the methods. There are peculiarities in the timing of vaccination and in the choice of rootstock.
You can start grafting stone fruit cuttings (copulation) from the beginning of March, during the thaw.
Budding (peephole grafting) should also start a little earlier - in June-July, but not later than the beginning of August, provided that the trees are well watered. It is important that the shield is better overgrown with callus, then it will withstand the winter better.
Unlike apple and pear, which can be grafted at almost any age, if only the tree is healthy, then for stone fruits it is advisable to use plants no older than 5 years as a rootstock, because re-grafting of a tree at a more mature age can lead to its death.
It is important to choose the right stock for each type of stone fruit.
Cherries are best planted in the crowns of vigorous cherries. The cherry is poorly combined with cherries close to the wild steppe cherry, as well as with magalebka (magaleb cherry).
Plum is best planted in the crown of the plum. Plum grafting into the crown of the cherry plum leads to a strong annual growth of the cherry plum shoots below the grafting site of the plum, which suffocate the grafting.
At the same time, cherry plum, grafted into the crown of home plums and other types of plums (Canadian, Ussuri, Chinese), is perfectly combined with them. Cherry plum often succeeds on apricot. Although apricot is best grafted onto apricot only. Peach It goes well with local forms of apricot - the main rootstock for peaches in the southern zone, as well as with plums Vengerka Donetskaya, Hungarian Italiana.
What is the further care of grafted plants?
Further vaccination care is as follows:
- it is important to remove the harness in a timely manner so that it does not crash into the branches. To do this, cut it with an eyepiece knife and remove it. This is usually done when the components of the vaccine grow together. When grafting in spring with a graft, new growths should appear on the scion, when budding the leaf shank easily falls off, and the cut is overgrown with callus (overgrown tissue). Usually, both during copulation and budding, 21-45 days after grafting
- if a plastic bag was used, then it is removed when the first leaves appear on the scion
- it is necessary to promptly remove all shoots that appear below the vaccination site
- when copulating, when there is a significant increase in the scion, as is usually the case with cherry plums, plums, cherries, you can pinch the increments. This operation is carried out in the first half of summer (late June - until mid-July). In this case, the upper non-lignified part of the shoot is removed. After which the shoots branch well, overwinter better and enter the fruiting period earlier.
You can discuss the article and ask additional questions on the forum in the topic "Learning to vaccinate"
All photos for the article were taken by the author on his own site
Rekovets Petr, dendrologist,
Chairman of the Board
Kiev Landscape Club
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