Choosing potato varieties. Part 1
Our favorite second bread
On October 12, 1492, warships led by Christopher Columbus reached an unknown land, the discovery of which marked the beginning of the development of not only new relationships between the countries of the world, but also gave farmers many new plants.
The most unusual way to our table was with potatoes, which have now rightfully become in many countries, including Russia, “the second bread”.
Potatoes Is a perennial, widely cultivated plant of the Solanum family of the genus Solanum, section Tuberazium. It began to be cultivated about 5 thousand years ago by the inhabitants of Peru. Today there are more than 150 known wild species native to South and Central America. The most common cultivated type of potato is the tuberous nightshade (Solanum tuberozum), which is cultivated in almost all countries of the world.
The highest and consistently high potato yield is obtained in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Switzerland - up to 500 c / ha. In Russia, the potato yield reaches only 90-110 c / ha.
The world assortment of potatoes numbers more than three thousand varieties, including 230 varieties in Russia. Domestic potato varieties compare favorably with foreign analogues, especially in terms of their adaptability to diseases, the content of dry matter and starch, which determine the stable indicators of the taste of tubers. One of the outstanding achievements of domestic breeding is the creation of potato varieties that combine a high level of resistance to late blight with an early and medium-early ripening period.
The technological basis for potato production in Russia is the correct selection of varieties, taking into account the production goals, natural and climatic characteristics of the region, phytosanitary conditions and economic opportunities of farms and each specific owner.
According to the ripening period of potatoes, the following groups of varieties are distinguished:
Early (early maturing) - 60-70 days of growing season. At the same time, the wilting of the tops begins 70-90 days after germination. The sum of active temperatures (days with a temperature of 10 ° C or more) during the growing season is 1000-1200 ° C.
Medium early varieties ripen with the formation of a dense rind on the tubers in 70-80 days, and the tops wither 100-115 days after germination. The sum of active temperatures for these varieties is 1200-1400 ° C.
Mid-season varieties ripen in 80-100 days, tops wither on 115-125 days. The sum of active temperatures is 1400-1600 ° C.
Mid-late varieties ripen in 100-110 days, tops wither in 125-130 days. It is necessary for their growth to be 1800 ° C.
Late varieties ripen at 110-140 days, tops wither at 125-150 days. The sum of active temperatures for potato growth reaches 1800-2200 ° C.
In the North-West of the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia, the average long-term sum of active temperatures ranges from 1400 ° C to 1800 ° C. Only this most important weather indicator determines the choice of varieties with an early and medium growing season.
The most favorable values of the average daily air temperature during the growing season of potatoes are in the range of 15 ... 22 ° С with the amount of precipitation not less than 300 mm during the period of tuberization.
Taking into account these features, potato growers should give preference to early, mid-early and mid-season varieties, which corresponds to the agro-climatic conditions of most regions of the country.
Late varieties of potatoes usually do not have time to ripen in our country, as a result, the tubers are severely damaged during harvesting and, as a rule, are poorly stored. Especially large losses occur during storage of unripe tubers with mechanical damage.
For example, in the conditions of the Leningrad region, this was observed with the Belarusian variety Temp. With a long daylight hours, a sufficient amount of heat and moisture, it blooms with pleasure even in September, and with a decrease in positive temperatures, nutrients from the leaves and stems do not have time to enter the tubers. As a result, small tubers are formed under the bush, which gardeners call "peas".
The chemical composition of tubers differs in different varieties of early maturity of potatoes.
Early and mid-early varieties are characterized by a low starch content (7-15%), while mid-season and mid-late varieties are characterized by a higher content (15-25%). Their taste is usually higher; they have a more crumbly softness when cooked.
In addition to domestic varieties, Dutch, Polish, German and Finnish varieties have been widely grown in the North-West over the past 20 years. In 1985, the Agrotekhnika state farm in the Tosnensky District of the Leningrad Region for the first time in Russia began to grow potato varieties from Holland and Germany. These are now widely known varieties of Fresco, Adretta, Romano, Sante. Moreover, the amount of starch in their tubers, even in early maturing varieties, exceeds 20%.
I had a chance to try in my garden in 1986 the ultra-early-ripening variety of the Amazon of the Dutch selection. On the 45th day after germination, by July 1, 5-7 identical tubers were formed under the bush. The stolons (underground shoots) of this variety were very short, and the tubers were compactly distributed in the soil, which is very convenient for digging. There is three times more starch in this variety than in early domestic varieties (23%). Of course, this is the success of the breeders.
However, when growing foreign varieties, it must be remembered that they require special agricultural technology and the introduction of large amounts of fertilizers, and the fight against late blight.
Domestic potato varieties are more reliable when cultivated in our area, because better adapted to local soil and climatic conditions.
In mid-April, potato tubers are necessary put on vernalization - preferably for 40-50 days. In this case, the first 15-20 days, potatoes should be at a temperature of up to 20 ° C, and in the following days - up to 12 ... 14 ° C.
Such conditions will promote the formation of strong and short shoots. And, of course, there is no need to rush to planting, but to calculate the planting time in such a way in order to avoid damage to seedlings by frost. The last frosts in the Leningrad region are observed on June 12th. So the end third decade of May - the optimal planting time. Vernalized tubers sprout 10-14 days. But this is only possible in warm soil.
In the last snowless and warm winters with early spring, I planted various varieties in the largest areas on April 1, April 18 and 25, and on any day in May. If there are dry beds, garden aisles, early planting can be carried out, but it is necessary to monitor the coming frosts. Therefore, we received the harvest of fresh tubers of the Nevsky variety on June 16-20.
Therefore, any gardener can get a stable harvest if he chooses the right variety. It is necessary to purchase clean, healthy tubers of higher reproductions. Such planting material can be purchased in specialized stores and farms of the region.
Read the next part: Choosing potato varieties. Part 2 →
Associate Professor of the Department of Plant Industry, St. Petersburg Agrarian University,
candidate of agricultural sciences
Can I plant before winter?
In spring, you can often see seedlings from under the ground, which stretch from the nightshade or tomato fruits that have overwintered in the soil. Potatoes also belong to the nightshade family, so they can be planted in autumn and bear fruit in spring. This is also evidenced by the fact that potatoes remaining in the ground at great depths break through to the surface in spring, although they form small tubers.
More skilful gardeners, on the contrary, specially plant potatoes before winter, so as not to waste time in the spring. The yield of winter potatoes is no less than that planted in spring. This requires a really snowy winter. No matter how strange it may seem, the sub-winter planting of tubers does not justify itself in the southern and southeastern regions, where snow falls poorly, and in the middle of winter there are often prolonged thaws.
Under conditions of sudden heat, the tubers germinate, and with the onset of severe frosts after they die.
When planting potatoes in winter, it is worth considering the approximate time of formation of the snow cover and its thickness. It protects the soil from deep freezing, so the tubers will not freeze either. As a rule, this cover is formed only in December. In the southwestern territories, its height at the beginning of winter ranges from 2 to 3 cm, and at the end it reaches 6-7 cm. In the central and south-eastern regions, the height of the cover ranges from 5-10 cm to 20-23 cm.
Potato varieties for Siberia - choosing the most persistent
Adding an article to a new collection
More than 400 varieties of potatoes are grown in Russia, and only a small part of them bear fruit well in the Siberian climate. We offer you 5 excellent varieties of potatoes for Siberia, planting which, you will definitely not be left without a crop.
Late spring and early autumn frosts, unbearable heat in the middle of summer and lingering rains at the end make Siberia a zone of risky farming. However, even in these rather harsh climatic conditions, potatoes can be grown and harvested. The main thing is to choose a resistant and productive variety.
The varieties we offer are ideal for growing in Siberia.
Residents of Siberia, who are crazy about fries, should plant an early-ripening variety of potatoes on their plots. Alyona... Due to the fact that the crop has a high yield, it is enough to plant a small bed with it in order to provide your family with root crops for the whole winter.
Large oval tubers are covered with a pink smooth skin, they tolerate transportation well, and are moderately boiled.
The variety is resistant to scab, rhizoctonia and potato cancer, but susceptible to late blight and Alternaria. Growth cracks sometimes form on the tubers. Potato varieties Alyona perfectly tolerates drought and, subject to the basic rules, is well stored until the new harvest (keeping quality is 95%).
One of the earliest ripening varieties of potatoes, which is why the people call it "forty days". Covered with a white smooth skin, rounded-oval fruits are well stored and do not darken during cooking.
The variety is resistant to potato cancer and grows well in various types of soil. Its only drawback is that this variety has average resistance to scab, late blight and viruses.
However, as a rule, tubers have time to grow before these diseases begin to massively affect plants.
This variety fully and completely justifies its name: it is not afraid of diseases or pests, it perfectly tolerates drought and prolonged rains, it is well stored. And it is very simple to care for plants, you just need to loosen the soil in a timely manner and remove weeds.
Another important advantage of this variety is that young potatoes can be tasted already on the 45th day after the first shoots appear, and a full harvest can be harvested after 2 months.
Large, round-oval tubers, covered with a thin skin, have good taste and are excellent for frying and mashed potatoes.
One of the most "tenacious" varieties of potatoes: it is not afraid of either a sharp change in weather or disease. And pests do not show special interest in plants of this variety. Potatoes planted in early spring ripen in late June - early July. There is no point in keeping the grown crop in the ground longer: the tubers may begin to rot.
The variety is very popular with housewives, as it is suitable for almost any processing. Oval-oblong tubers Adrettas are equally tasty when boiled, fried and baked.
Perhaps the most serious drawback of this potato variety is that during winter storage, the tubers begin to germinate very quickly.
Early ripening, unpretentious in care, resistant to rhizoctonia and scab - this is how potatoes can be characterized Zhukovsky early.
Another feature of this variety is the attractive appearance of tubers: they grow to impressive sizes, covered with a smooth light pink skin, the flesh under which is perfectly white.
Potatoes do not boil soft and are suitable for frying. When stored properly in winter, the tubers retain their taste until the next harvest.
Although Zhukovsky early quite easily tolerates natural disasters (drought, cold) and has good taste, the variety is often invaded by Colorado beetles and bear. Do not lose sight of this fact when deciding to plant potatoes of this variety on your site.
Of course, farming in Siberia is always associated with a certain risk. The only way to harvest good potato crops each year is to plant not one, but several persistent early, mid-early, or mid-range potatoes. But it is not worth cultivating late varieties: during the short Siberian summer, their tubers will not only ripen, they will not even have time to grow.
The greatest danger to Labadia is posed by such pests:
- Colorado beetle,
- click beetle larvae (wireworms),
- potato scoop,
- potato moth,
- potato nematode,
In addition to the infections carried on themselves, insects harm the culture by eating leaves, stems, fruit, and the root system. The damaged plant experiences an acute deficiency of nutrients and moisture, which leads to growth arrest or even death.
In the early stages of the invasion of pests, it is recommended to carry out manual collection, with a more extensive lesion - treating the plant with folk remedies and insecticides.
Such different potatoes!
There are more than 4000 varieties of potatoes in the world! However, breeders do not stop there, and every year they offer new species to gardeners. They differ in taste, ripening time, resistance to diseases, exactingness to care, purpose (table, feed, universal and technical - used for the manufacture of starch, alcohol).
The agricultural market offers a wide selection of seeds from domestic and foreign breeders. When buying, it is important to remember that most varieties are adapted for a particular area, therefore it is preferable to choose seeds from your climatic zone. In addition, unlike early varieties, mid-season and late varieties give better yields. For example, in the second or third year from one bush, you can collect 8-10 potatoes, 120-400 grams each, and sometimes more!
Seeds of mid-season potatoes are sown in pots in March-April, transplanted into open ground in May-June. The ripening period of mid-season varieties is 80-120 days. Digging begins in mid-August.
Potato varieties - we choose the most productive and disease-resistant
To date, more than 280 of this vegetable species have been registered, intended for cultivation in a climatic temperate zone. They are specially acclimatized and registered in the listed vegetable crops, recommended for industrial cultivation for export and storage. Consider the most famous varieties that allow you to harvest large yields.
- Potatoes Idaho. Everyone knows the dish of the same name, which is cooked in almost every little, but who knows that there is a special kind of vegetable from which it is made. It is large and has the correct shape, due to which it can be cut into 8 identical slices and spices to bake. Among other things, it has a high and even yield - up to 550 c / ha, and this is a real indicator for home cultivation, not selective on only the site. Excellent resistance to many as well, and early maturity diseases, make it one of the best territories in Russia.Contains a lot of starch and account for which carbohydrates are very nutritious and healthy.
These were varieties that have a potential higher yield than average. But remember that they do not guarantee you 500-800 c / ha, and, moreover, they are not obliged to give so much. To get record harvests, it is necessary to provide excellent conditions for only growing, then the vegetable will delight you with harvesting in the fall!
For many gardeners, yield is a secondary indicator, since the main thing is excellent taste. The vegetable should be well boiled, be soft, not form lumps during the cooking process... Let's consider the most delicious varieties in more detail.
- Potatoes Picasso. It is not worth waiting for a long yield - up to 240 centners / ha, more he does not give selection on even plots. But this disadvantage is easily compensated by the quality of the vegetable. It has a very thin, therefore, the peel is often not even peeled, but just before being washed. In 15-20 minutes after thermal treatment, it boils down and disintegrates, has an excellent score, for the taste of which it is so popular among summer residents. The only negative is that tubers are already poorly stored by mid-spring and can wither, turn black and just rot - dry rot is the main problem of this vegetable. Picasso variety potatoes requires careful treatment with pesticides, as even at the earliest stages of its development, insects, fungi, mold are attacked and even powdery mildew is formed, especially if the summer is humid. Half of the problems are eliminated with copper sulphate treatment.
The quality of the peel of vegetables depends not only on the variety you choose, but also on other factors, moisture, for example. If the plant has a constant lack of water, then the skin of the tubers will be much thicker than usually, and the pulp itself will be much average.
In the harder strip, soils are often found that have some excellent characteristics, do not contain a large amount of nutrients, and sometimes are even unsuitable for cultivation for many plants. What to do in such cases, do not plant anything at all? Of course, nothing can be collected on clean sand and stones - this is a fact. But there are some varieties of potatoes that can give up to 50-100 kg from 1 hundred square meters on clay and sandy soils. Of course, this is not 700-900 kg with better, but hundreds of something than nothing at all. Now Consider the most persistent representatives.
- Adretta... that despite the fact that, despite the fact that the homeland of the vegetable is Germany, and not very much, it is Russia that has taken root well in our territory. high It is resistant to droughts and requires a minimum amount of fertilizer, due to which it is grown in many regions throughout the territory of the Russian Federation. The stems are low, 45-60 centimeters in total, have wide leaves, due to which photosynthesis occurs better, and are formed faster. tubers with constant watering, it can give up to even 250 c / ha on clay soil, but the average indicator is a little c / ha. 125, but without fertilizers and any chemicals either. It grows well on sandy soils, one tuber weight averages 130 Elizabeth.
- gram. Medium early, extremely resistant to droughts, practically grows without additional watering in middle latitudes, susceptible to late blight, as well as to infectious diseases. argillaceous for yield and sandy soils is up to 250 c / ha, if there is no fertilizer at all and the loam is hard, then the indicator will fall to 80-90 c / ha. With foliar feeding, the number may triple, since the plant is very responsive to them. It is recommended to water the flowering 2-3 weeks before flowering to promote the formation of large tubers as much as possible.
- Aspia. unusual Slightly about the taste - has a light fruity aftertaste, which is pleasant to many, boils well. It is extremely resistant to droughts, it can survive temperatures of +35 degrees for several weeks, which is an excellent indicator. The bushes are large, up to 85 at, but they will be much less centimeters grown on clay soils. You can expect up to 150 centners / ha as a standard when leaving on poor soil. If the soil is fertile, then you can easily collect 500-450 kg from one hundred square meters.
- Tandem. I recently entered the domestic market and has proven itself as resistant to high temperatures. Due to the fact that the fruits are small in size, it requires a minimum of fertilizers and moisture. If tubers suit you weighing 60-80 grams - this is ideal for poor soils!
Remember that the types listed above do not guarantee you a large harvest in any weather conditions and soils, they simply have increased resistance to adverse factors. They also react less to heat, which is destructive for many plants and significantly reduces their productivity. Use foliar fertilization, root fertilizers are necessary, as well as watering. The tonnage that you collect from your area depends on this.
poor on soils Often planted a variety of potatoes Titanium, Bellarosa, Pushkin, Karelia and others, known to all gardeners, but, in this case, you need to carefully look at them. If left to their own devices, their development can simply atrophy tubers.
What does Scarlett look like?
The site has already met letters about methods of rejuvenating and healing potatoes by seeds, rooting tops and shoots from the sinuses, as well as using small potato nodules growing in test tubes. And I will tell you about how I once tried to solve this issue in my own way.
Took 10 tubers Kubanka and Forty days, put it in a box with earth, covered it with a film and put it in the pantry in the country. Soon shoots appeared and started to grow. I planted them in the garden in mid-May, and when I separated the shoots, there were already small nodules on the roots (photo 1). I also planted them on the site, and despite the fact that I did it late in the day, they still gave the crop.
But back to the sprouts. They all started. I watered them, loosened them, huddled them up. What happened in the end? 6-7 large tubers ripened under each bush, there were practically no trifles (photo 2).
I left all this harvest for seeds. Dug up, of course, not half a ton, but rejuvenated its varieties.
In general, every year I test new products in the garden, hoping that each of them will give a positive result. Sometimes incidents happen. For example, in 2014 I bought potatoes with good sprouts (unknown variety). I planted it in a bucket and dug out nine tubers. Everything large, tasty. I took them for landing and put them in a box. She kept them and germinated, like all planting material. But not one sprouted, and the reason remained unknown to me.
Or last year I also bought potatoes of an unknown variety, looking very good. I ask the hostess: "Why don't you know her name?" "Who cares? - answers - The main thing is that it is large, but gives two harvests per season. " Okay, let's try.
I planted it, and when I came to huddle, I was surprised - more than half did not rise. I dug up a garden bed where there were no shoots, and gasped: a whole planting tuber lay in the ground, and around it, like piglets, young potatoes were attached. I had to dig them up. So at the beginning of May I tried young potatoes (I saved some of the tubers for planting this year). I regret that I did not leave several holes intact then to see what would happen next.
And that potato that sprouted, the tops grew strong and, despite the heat and drought, stood green, as if nothing had happened. The harvest pleased: under each bush there are many large tubers of a rounded flat shape. True, they did not taste very good.
Thanks to a neighbor, I met Scarlett. Last year, I finally found this variety (its tubers are round, white), but through my own fault it flew by with the harvest. And then in the store I saw Scarlett, but oval, with dark skin and yellow flesh. Whom to believe? People, tell me, how does this variety really look?
More about experiments. Last season I tried to grow tomatoes with my stepsons, which I read about in a magazine. True, she advised, after removal, to put them in containers with water to form roots. I did it differently: I immediately planted the cut stepsons in the holes, watered them, sprinkled them with dry earth. Everything began, large luxurious bushes grew, which began to bear fruit at the end of August. I find this method very useful: firstly, the amount of planting material increases, and secondly, the ripening period of the fruits is extended. I will continue to test all the advice of summer residents.
© Author: E.I. REAR. Ochakov, Mykolaiv region