Action - species, care and reproduction
Deutzia is a wonderful garden shrub
Among the most beautiful perennial garden shrubs, it stands out for its finely toothed leaves and abundant flowering. Planted in a semi-shady part of the garden, sheltered from the winds, it will delight you for a long time with unusually delicate, graceful flowers.
No wonder the famous researcher of the flora of China E.G. Wilson put action on a par with roses, lilac and hydrangea... About 50 species of this plant are known, which live in the mountainous regions of East Asia, the Himalayas and Mexico.
Deytsia is a relative of hydrangeas and mockers, it belongs to the hydrangea family. The botanist Thunberg saw her for the first time in Japan, at the end of the 8th century, and decided to name her after the Dutch merchant, the mayor of Amsterdam, Johann van Deutz, who for a long time and very successfully led floristic research.
Deytsia is a flowering deciduous shrub of a spreading or erect form, reaching a height of four meters. Its leaves are opposite, perfectly combined with very abundant, snow-white or pink flowers. Alas, they have no smell, but they stun the eye with racemose inflorescences in which they are collected. Flowering occurs on the shoots of the last year. Deytsii thrive on any type of soil and are generally extremely unpretentious in culture.
The only drawback of most species of this wonderful plant is the almost annual freezing of the tips of annual growths, on which, in fact, flowers are formed. Already at a temperature of -25oС, some branches freeze, and at -30oС and below they completely freeze over the level of the snow cover. However, actions have an amazing property: even after severe frosting to the snow cover, the shoots grow back again, and so quickly that they can bloom in the same year.
Types of action
The greatest winter hardiness is characterized by deytsiya amurskaya, or small-flowered, which naturally grows in the Primorsky Territory, China and North Korea.
It is a densely branched shrub up to two meters high with spreading gray shoots, has elliptical leaves up to six centimeters long with serrated edges, pointed at the top and pubescent on both sides. Flowering is plentiful and begins in mid-June, when white flowers appear, reaching 1.5 centimeters in diameter.
They are collected in corymbose inflorescences that attract many bees. This is perhaps the most common cultivated species, which has been cultivated since 1862. Having shown imagination, you can create quite original compositions from weigels, forsythia and Amur action, placing shrubs next to conifers with yellowish or silvery-blue shades of the crown.
The next species that attracts no less attention and grows in the mountainous regions of Japan is action graceful... It is a short shrub, rarely exceeding a meter in height, with a rounded crown and white flowers, collected in paniculate inflorescences reaching a length of ten centimeters. Leaves are oblong-lanceolate with a long pointed and serrated edge, densely covering all shoots. Deytia graceful blooms much earlier than other species, but, like most of them, can freeze to the level of snow. On the basis of this species, by selection from seedlings, a form with golden yellow leaves was obtained, which contrasts very well with various types of action, forsythia and weigela.
Action Lemoine - another interesting species, which was obtained by crossing the Amur deity and the graceful deytion. It has been known in culture since 1891 and is a low shrub reaching a meter in height. It is interesting for its arched shoots and beautiful gray-green leaves. In June, abundant flowering is noted: large flowers reach a diameter of 2.5 centimeters and are collected in pyramidal inflorescences. Deytsiya Lemoine in severe winters can freeze, but grows quickly in spring. Its leaves are remarkable, they are quite graceful, do not fall off for a very long time and are colored in autumn in yellow and pinkish-red tones.
Another view is of interest - rough action, which can be easily distinguished by the specific rough surface of the leaves. This species grows in the nature of Japan and China. It blooms with snow-white flowers, collected in narrow panicles, sometimes reaching a length of 12 centimeters and located on thin golden shoots, fancifully looming against the background of wide dark green leaves with a pointed tip and a crenate edge.
The rough action blooms at the end of July for two, and sometimes for three weeks. This species is good for everyone, with the exception of low winter hardiness. Therefore, her plants must be covered for the winter. The rough action has been grown in culture since 1822 and already has several forms, differing in white, pink and even purple flowers, sometimes double or collected in crowded inflorescences.
I think that the most charming action of Vilmorein... Its beautiful white inflorescences appear in June and look amazingly harmonious against the background of pointed, finely serrated leaves, densely covered with hairs. This species originates from China, and in our climate it does not tolerate winters, freezing to the level of snow.
As a result of crossing the Vilmorin action and the rough action, a shape was obtained that reaches a height of two meters and is distinguished by a spreading bush, which from mid-June to the first ten days of July is decorated with numerous brushes of pure white double flowers. However, due to low winter hardiness, flowering mainly occurs on shoots below the level of snow cover, and after a harsh winter the bush does not bloom at all. This action in the conditions of central Russia was not widespread precisely because it is quite thermophilic.
Perhaps the largest and prettiest flowers have long-leaved action... White, reaching 2.5 centimeters in diameter, they are pleasing to the eye for twenty days. This type of action comes from Western China and got its name from the elongated leaves with a finely toothed edge, pubescent on the underside. In addition to the leaves, the annual shoots of the shrub are also pubescent, reaching a height of two meters. This species also has varieties with lilac and pale pink flowers.
Planting and care requirements
Action, as already mentioned, is thermophilic and especially demanding on the choice of a landing site, conditions of maintenance and care. Slightly shady places under the crowns of large trees are most favorable for it, where air humidity and diffused light are preserved. The action, placed in a secluded place during flowering, looks interesting, it surprises everyone with its extraordinary intensity.
Besides light, action prefers fresh rich soil, especially loamy, but can put up with the rather poor. If you want to see a lush flowering, you need to plant the plant in nutrient soil and provide it with moderate moisture, since it does not tolerate waterlogging and salinization of the substrate. If there is a close standing of groundwater, drainage is required.
The optimal time for planting plants in open ground is the period after the soil thaws and before bud break, when there is enough moisture in the soil and the air temperature is sufficient for plant growth. After planting, it is important to provide the action with balanced nutrients. The optimal feeding area for an adult action bush should be at least 1.5 m2.
When planting plants in a permanent place, they dig holes 35-40 centimeters deep, then fill them with fertile soil with the addition of mineral fertilizers. The approximate rate of fertilization in each hole is 1.5-2 buckets of compost and 100-125 g of nitrophoska. Plants are planted at a distance of 1.5-2 meters from each other, or, at the request of the gardener, there can be various types of formations.
It should be noted that under optimal growing conditions, the action plant can live and please your eye for several decades. Of the work on caring for it, it is necessary to highlight the shelter of the bushes for the winter and sanitary pruning frozen shoots. In the case of a fairly strong freezing, for example, in winters with little snow, you can cut the shrub "on a stump" after which the plant quickly recovers, giving good growth.
Reproduction of action
As for reproduction, you can easily get by with traditional methods: sowing seeds, green cuttings and dividing the bush. With seed reproduction, there are nuances: small seeds are sown superficially, lightly sprinkled with sand and pressed tightly with glass.
During the period of seed germination, the soil is regularly (2-3 times a day) watered using a fine spray, and the seeds are constantly under glass. The first shoots appear within 1.5 months. When the leaves develop on the seedlings, they can be dived into the open ground.
Propagation by cuttings... Good cuttings are obtained only from well-developed, leafy semi-lignified shoots (usually in June). When cutting cuttings, leaf blades are halved with pruning shears or scissors. The lower cut of the cutting is made obliquely, directly under the internode, and the upper one is made above the leaf node.
Thus, cuttings 12-15 centimeters long are cut, then they are planted in coarse river sand, covered with a layer of 3-5 centimeters on the nutrient soil of the greenhouse. After planting and for the entire period of root formation, the plants must be watered: in hot weather - at least 6-7 times a day, in cool and rainy weather 3-4 times are enough.
You need to dig out the cuttings no earlier. mid-September... After digging, the rooted cuttings are buried in a vegetable garden or in a garden plot, and in the spring they are planted in open ground. Already in the fall, you can start selling seedlings.
Reproduction by dividing the bush is perhaps the easiest way of vegetative propagation. It consists in digging up the entire plant and carefully dividing it with a sharpened pruner into two or more parts, and then planting them in a permanent place.
Using action in landscape design
Low-growing species of action are used as curbs, and the rest - in the form of small groups near paths, mainly for single plantings and tamping of tree groups. Due to the fact that the actions are resistant to the conditions of the city, they are used with pleasure to decorate parks and squares, there the action looks great both in a single planting against the background of a lawn, and in compositional groups with badan, saxifrage, mountain woman and even host.
Nikolay Khromov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina, member of the R&D Academy
Description and photo of the shrub
The genus Deytsia includes more than 70 species, many varieties and decorative forms of evergreen or deciduous (shedding foliage in autumn) perennial shrubs with a life expectancy of more than 20 years. The bushes differ in the shape and color of the flowers from pale white to purple-purple. Small simple or double flowers are collected in racemose or corymbose inflorescences and are completely odorless. Leaves of an oblong-oval format with a pointed end have an opposite arrangement. With age, the bark can acquire a layered structure and flake off. After flowering, which usually begins in late May or early June and lasts about a month, a fruit is formed - a box with seeds. Their germination capacity lasts for several years.
The shrub can be spreading or erect, and varying in height, which ranges from 50 cm to 4 m. Low-growing species are often planted along garden paths or along the perimeter of the plot, and taller bushes are used for single plantings or as part of groups of other perennial woody plants ... Actions look beautiful in hedges. Some species and varieties are highly resistant to gaseous and finely dispersed pollution, therefore they take root well in urban conditions, and are excellent for decorating parks and adjoining territories.
The homeland of the graceful plant is East Asia, Mexico and the Himalayas. In the XIX century. the first actions appeared in the gardens of Europe thanks to the Dutch merchants. The French botanist Maurice Vilmorin played an important role in the spread of the amazing plant, for whom missionaries in the mountains of China specially collected seeds. His nursery made it possible for European botanists to study action and contribute to its selection.
The shrub was named after one of the mayors of Amsterdam, who sponsored the expedition to the East.
Conditions for planting and growing ornamental shrubs
Deytsia is a very light-loving plant, therefore, for planting, it is necessary to choose a place that is most illuminated by the sun's rays, sufficiently protected from through winds.
The main characteristics of the most plant-friendly soil:
- Good drainage
- Neutral reaction
When planting a plant in acidic soil, it is necessary to additionally add slaked lime (300 grams) or wood ash (one glass) to the prepared depression.
The most acceptable soil composition for shrubs:
- Compost soil - 2 parts
- Humus - part 1
- Sand - part 1
You should not plant this ornamental plant in waterlogged soil or a place with a high level of groundwater.
Planting should be carried out in the spring, and the purchase of a shrub should be done just before that. The depth of the recess prepared for planting should be at least 50 cm. As a drainage layer, you can use ordinary sand or well-crushed brick. The layer thickness must be at least 10 cm.
It is worth a little to prepare the soil with which the depression will be covered. For this, 120 grams of nitrophoska is added to it.
When placing a plant in a recess, it is necessary to monitor the root collar - it should be at ground level. An equally significant role is played by the interval between the planted plants. The optimum distance should be about 1.5 m.
After Deytsia is planted, you should immediately perform abundant watering. Then carefully compact the soil around the plant and mulch. For this, peat is used. The thickness of this layer should be about 6 cm.
For Deytsia splendid, the composition of the soil, compliance with all planting rules and the choice of a place for this work, play a very important role.
Deutzia is an evergreen woody plant that belongs to the Hortensia family. In total, about 50 varieties of this flowering shrub are found in the botanical literature. The homeland of its growth is Mexico, East Asia and the mountain ranges of the Himalayas. In our area, the action began to grow relatively recently.
The plant looks very attractive due to its long and bright flowering. The appearance in Europe of Japanese and Himalayan varieties of flowers dates back to the early 19th century, when Dutch merchants brought a foreigner to their homeland, and Chinese action gained popularity much later.
Today this flower can be found in various household plots. Breeders have developed a huge variety of varieties and decorative variations of action.
Planting and caring for the action
The Asian beauty is quite capricious.She does not like cold winds, does not tolerate waterlogging and is not very frost-resistant. The action can be killed by a frost at -25 ° C, so it is best planted on gentle southwestern slopes, where there is a thick snow cover in winter.
When landing action one of the main conditions for its successful growth is the right choice of location.
Asian beauty is pretty moody
If you did everything correctly, then a beautiful Asian woman will delight you with abundant flowering.
When landing action one of the main conditions for its successful growth is the right choice of location.
You can choose the varieties of action using our market, where products from different online stores are presented. View a selection of action seedlings.
When caring for the action, you need to remember - oh, how she does not like waterlogging, it is enough for her 1 bucket of water 2-3 times a month... After watering or rain, it is advisable to immediately loosen the ground under the bushes. Starting from mid-August, the action is stopped to water. And in September, during the period of prolonged rains, it is not superfluous to overlay each bush with a waterproof material.
Feed the action you need to monthly: apply 3-4 liters of liquid manure under each plant and add 120-150 g of superphosphate or NPK fertilizer twice a season. All growth-stimulating procedures (feeding, watering, fertilizing) are carried out only during flowering.
As soon as the action fades, its preparation for winter begins - pruning, and then wrapping. A beautiful Asian woman tolerates pruning well and can be given any shape. Branches from 4 to 6 years old are cut off, leaving a small stump 10-12 cm in size with lateral shoots. Young branches are pruned, giving the bush a more neat, rounded shape. As a rejuvenating method, pruning of a bush "on a stump" is used. You can read about how to correctly perform it in the article Measure seven times, or the ABC of pruning.
After pruning, the action is prepared for wintering: the foot of the bush is thoroughly covered with a thick layer of fallen leaves and / or coniferous spruce branches, and when the snow is firmly covered, you can bend the flexible branches of the bush to the ground to insure against freezing and cover them with snow.
Protection from pests and diseases
Parasitic insects rarely attack shrubs. Sometimes flower growers are faced with the settlement of the bumblebee proboscis and aphids. Fitoverm, Karbofos, Aktara and other insecticides are used to destroy pests. Before spraying the bush, be sure to wear gloves, a respirator, trousers, a shirt, a cap, closed shoes, and plastic glasses. Contact with chemical particles must not be allowed: intoxication often develops.
Plants rarely get sick. With excessive watering, rotting, the development of fungal flora is possible. The main methods of treating the bush: to normalize watering, to loosen the soil more often, to take into account the air temperature when choosing the frequency and volume of liquid when moistening the substrate. The soil and plants are treated with modern fungicides.
The multiplication of action
The easiest and most common breeding method is cuttings... To obtain cuttings, you need to cut off large healthy shoots from an adult bush in July. Then, in pots filled with a nutrient mixture, plant the shoots at a slight angle, having previously powdered with Kornevin, for better rooting. Pour some sand on top of the ground, water, cover the pot with plastic and put it in the greenhouse.
When the cuttings take root, they should be planted in open ground. The first year, the bushes will be afraid of hypothermia, so for the winter they need to be well covered, as described above.
When breeding action dividing the bush, an adult shrub is dug up and, carefully dividing the root system into 2-3 parts, is immediately planted in open ground in a place chosen and prepared in advance.
Seed propagation also not a very complicated method. Seeds collected in the fall are planted in the spring in boxes with prepared soil. Cover with glass and watered periodically. After a week and a half, shoots will appear, and when there are three or four true leaves on the shoots, and the shoots are strong enough, they can be transplanted into open ground.