Stachys (Stachys), or stachis - a shrub, an annual or perennial herb from the Yasnotkov family. The plant is called stachis because its inflorescences are similar to spikelets, this is how the second name of the chiseta is translated - "spike". There are more than 300 different species of this plant. It grows in nature in Europe and Asia. This flower is popular among gardeners not only for its decorative effect, but also for its medicinal properties.
Description of the plant Chistets
The ground part of the plant is covered with a fairly dense fluff. Grows up to 1 m in height. Leaves are opposite, can be serrated or whole. The flowers are lilac, purple, pink, yellow or white, collected in false whorls. Inflorescences are spike-shaped. The fruit of the plant has three faces, oblong or ovoid.
Growing a purse from seeds
The purse can propagate by seed and vegetatively - by dividing the bush, tubers and cuttings. Stachis seeds germinate very well. It is necessary to plant seeds for seedlings in late winter or early March. Planting substrate can be purchased at a specialist store, ordinary seedling soil is suitable. After planting, the soil must be carefully watered and covered with plastic wrap. Place containers with planted seeds in a warm place. The seeds germinate in about a month. When shoots appear, the plastic film must be removed from the containers. And when two real leaves appear, the seedlings need to be transplanted into separate pots.
Planting a chisel in open ground
It is necessary to plant the seeds of the Chisel in open ground in May, at which time the soil will warm up enough, and the night frosts will definitely not return. The most suitable place for planting is the sunny part of the garden or partial shade. As for the soil, the plant is quite unpretentious in this regard. It can grow on sandy and rocky soil. The main thing is that the soil has a high moisture capacity. The holes for planting must be prepared in advance, the distance between them must be at least 15 cm. A drainage layer must be laid at the bottom of each hole. Expanded clay, pebbles or broken brick can be used as drainage. Drainage must be sprinkled with a mixture of humus and soil. Then the seedlings, without removing the earthen lump, move into the holes and sprinkle well with soil. After planting, abundant watering is imperative.
Caring for the cleaner in the garden
Flower care is quite simple and does not require a lot of effort and time. For normal growth and abundant flowering of the plant, regular watering, loosening of the soil and removal of weeds, as well as obligatory hilling after planting, are necessary. It is necessary to water the plant only in dry weather, since the purse does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil and stagnation of moisture. Over-watering can cause the plant to shed its leaves and rot the roots.
Top dressing and fertilizers
Fertilizers need only be applied once a season. Rotted compost is an excellent organic fertilizer.
To prevent the purifier from turning into a prefabricated grass and not spreading throughout the garden, it is necessary to regularly prune excess shoots. If we allow the growth of the cleanser, then it will be very difficult to get rid of it later. In order for the plant not to lose its decorative effect and reproduce by self-sowing, it is necessary to cut off those flowers that have already finished their flowering, but this must be done before the seeds ripen, otherwise uncontrolled growth cannot be avoided.
The plant does not need frequent transplantation, but over time, an empty space forms in the middle of the purse, and in order to fill it, young tubers need to be planted there every 3-4 years.
Purée after flowering
The chisel is sufficiently resistant to frost. He needs shelter only in a harsh and snowless winter. To protect it from severe frosts, it is enough to cover the plant with pine spruce branches.
Most often, the purse dies not because of frost, but because of an excess of moisture in the soil in the spring. Long exposure to the roots in water leads to decay. Therefore, when planting, you need to take this fact into account and plant the plant on a small hill.
Diseases and pests
Chisel is quite resistant to various diseases and attacks of harmful insects. With proper care, no pests and diseases appear.
Types and varieties of chisel
Woolly chisel (Stachys lanata) - the plant grows 20-60 cm in height. Stems are weak-leaved, erect and tetrahedral. Leaves are thick, spatulate or oblong-linear, narrowed at the base. The flowers are collected in spike-shaped inflorescences of pink-purple or lilac color. The most popular variety of this species is Silver Carpet.
One-year old purse (Stachys annua) - grows from fifteen to thirty-five centimeters. Stems are simple or branched. The leaves in the lower part of the plant are of a spongy or wedge-shaped shape. The upper leaves are sessile, lanceolate and with a serrated edge. The flowers are collected in spike-shaped inflorescences, have a pale yellow tint. This species is a honey plant.
Forest chase (Stachys sylvatica) - grows 30-120 cm in height. Stems ascending, straight, covered with soft hairs. The leaves are petiolar, with a crenate-serrate edge, ovoid-heart-shaped. The upper leaves are sessile, oblong in shape, the edges are solid, light green above and gray-green below. One inflorescence has 6-8 flowers.
Marsh chase (Stachys palustris), or a prickly tree, or a blackberry, or a grate, or a tenacious plant - a plant grows up to 120 centimeters in height. Chisel of this species is completely covered with rather long pubescence. The lower leaves are oblong, cordate or rounded, the edge is finely toothed. The upper leaves are sessile, ovate-lanceolate, the edges are whole. The inflorescences are spike-shaped, each of them has 6-12 purple-lilac flowers.
Grandiflora (Stachys grandiflora) - reaches a height of only 20-30 cm. Leaves on a long petiole, cordate or rounded. The capitate inflorescences are located on a leafless peduncle. The most popular decorative forms of this type:
- Alba - the flowers of this variety are white.
- Superba - flowers can have shades from pink to purple.
Officinalis (Stachys officinalis) - grows 50-100 cm. Leaves are crenate, oblong, cordate and ovate. The flowers are covered with hairs, can be purple and dark pink.
In addition to the above types, there are many more, but they are less popular among gardeners.
Useful properties of the purifier
There are types of chisel, which have medicinal properties: they are used in folk medicine and the preparation of various medicines. Woolly chisel has a cardiological, spasmodic and hemostatic effect. It is also used to lower blood pressure for colds, eczema, tuberculosis, nervous system disorders, scrofula and various other diseases. Wood scrub is used to stop uterine bleeding. It has anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects. Treat eczema, hemorrhoids, purulent wounds, ulcers, cuts.
Chistets is contraindicated in hepatitis, nephritis, bronchial asthma, hypertension, angina pectoris. Cannot be taken by pregnant and lactating women, children. Reception is not possible with individual intolerance.
If you follow all the rules for planting, growing and caring for a plant in the open field, then you can grow a rather interesting and ornamental plant that will look great in combination with other flowering plants and plants and will create a unique and original garden landscape design. The main thing is to monitor the reproduction of the plant, not to let it lose its decorative effect and turn into a weed that will not bring anything useful, but will only harm the beauty of a flower bed, it will be quite difficult to get rid of such a cleanser, it will take a lot or even time.
Woolly chisel, he is stakhis, he is sheep's ears.
Cleaners in my life and garden
Had I been to study at another school, interest in biology would have probably arose much earlier than this happened. But from the fifth to the eighth the tone in our class was set by Losers and Repeaters, of whom, in the "best years", there were half of the payroll. There were even two third years. These characters inevitably shone with the "school of fools", and they, throwing away decency, showed the class the deepest contempt not only for botany, but for all sciences in bulk. It is justly said - "with whom you will lead, from that you will gain." And so it went. In general, I finished school with a C in biology, a more than fair grade.
On the one hand, you can't get away from fate (synonym - inner inclination). On the other hand, “the road we choose” is never straight and smooth. Anyone who intended to become an architect becomes a rock musician (Andrei Makarevich), and who studied to be a doctor becomes a writer (Anton Chekhov). Here is my path in life, it turned and turned around, and led to the very science by which I was certified as a C grade student.
Meanwhile, the first symptom of an impending illness manifested itself in his youth. It happened three years after leaving school, when we still continued to meet in class, and vow to each other in eternal friendship. At one of these informal meetings, or speaking in a simple collective drinking binge, it happened.
Mishka Kosov, by that time a third-year student of the biology department, was immersed in science. He even dragged himself to our party with a pot-bellied briefcase. There, between the "Sprat in Tomato" and the battery of "Zhigulevsky", he warmed up the very bacillus, from which I caught the botanical infection. And this, as it turned out to be incurable, virus disguised itself under a completely harmless name - "Identifier of Plants."
In graduation 10 "B" Mishka and I were the main speakers. And although some, in their own thoughtlessness, considered me the first fluff, I myself, opening my mouth, listened only to him. From the height of the past years, I understand that the Bear had a hypnotic influence on me. In hypnotic language, this is called report - primary submission to the will of the hypnotist. How Mishka did it, I figured out only later. It seems to me that the whole thing was in me, and also in such an "insignificant" fact that Mishka never lied. But he had a gift for lying. To lie and lie, who understands - two huge differences. To lie is to exaggerate a little. To lie, it means, without changing the facts, to color the plot with rhetorical ornamentation. Mishka mastered this art perfectly.
It should be noted here that Mishki was still a brother, a year older, who had the habit of reciting all the oral lessons out loud. From him Mishka also collected all the rubbish, which from time to time loaded my pliable brains. Yes, he was so bored to hang me noodles that everything he told me about was perceived by me as the revelations of the biblical prophets.
That "meeting without ties" is not in vain mentioned here. By the way, we all came to her with ties - that was the custom. Having considerably diluted the young blood of "Stolichnaya", they sang their cool anthem "guys from the seventieth latitude." Then the "debate" began, during which they shared their life with each other. I had nothing to report about, and I kept my mouth shut. But Mishka was on fire. He told me this, why my labile "roof" moved. It turns out that the herbs growing under our feet, and which we trample in passing, all have names. More precisely, every blade of grass and every tree has something like a name and patronymic: bird highlander, stinging nettle, hanging birch ..., by which they are identified.
Of course, everything that Mishka "sang" to me, I have already heard from our nerd. But then it somehow didn't bother me. Now, this essentially ordinary fact seemed to me to be intimate knowledge. The bear saw the sparkle in my eyes, understood everything, and began to finish me off.
- Do you want me to show you how easy it is?
- Still not wanting, all my life I dream!
- Give me some porcelain! - commanded Mishka, flaunting, the wrong emphasis on "o", and ceremoniously brought out the aforementioned proclamation.
We left the community roaring for a while and went out into the street. There Mishka, without thinking twice, grabbed the "first available" grass from the wild thicket, and leafing through the book back and forth, gave out:
All people want miracles. But some blindly believe in them, while others want to know the truth. The first (just no offense!) Let's call fools, the second reasonable. To each his own. Fools do not want to know the real truth, it disappoints them. Therefore, they prefer various lies to truth - fortune telling along the lines of fate, miraculous healings, sacred fire, incorruptible relics and resurrection from the dead. Reasoned people worship microcircuits, hydraulics and chain hoists. There is, however, a hybrid version - "ours and yours."
As far as I can remember, I was listed in the raison d'être. In the imperishable relics I saw rotting, but slower than the others. “But the bones of mammoths that died out several thousand years ago then claim to be holy,” I reasoned.
But the detector receiver and the metamorphosis of the dragonfly (it floats in water, then it flies like a bird) - impressed me as a miracle.
The identification of plants was also a miracle. Therefore, a week later I had exactly the same key as Mishka had, which (I confess, I confess, I did not find it in the book) I borrowed from the library. The identification of plants has turned into a new fad. Recognizing the names of the herbs, I felt like a pioneer in the land. By the way, both of these occupations have in common the fact that in both cases the opening is accompanied by a name and a naming convention.
I identified my first two cleansers - marsh and forest - in nature. This was not difficult, because the Chitans have a typical Labiate appearance, which makes it easy to identify the family. Their leaves and stems, as a rule, are densely pubescent, faceted stems, flowers (most often they are purple in color) have a characteristic "lip" structure, and are collected in terminal intermittent spike-shaped inflorescences.
As for the different types of chisel, they, as a rule, have a vivid personality: one leaves "woolen with fleece", the other has an unpleasant odor, the third one has a unique rhizome in shape ... In general, remembering and distinguishing them from each other is not difficult ...
• perennial, less often annual herbaceous plants or shrubs, often densely pubescent, up to 100 cm tall
• leaves are opposite, whole
• flowers are pink, lilac, purple, white or yellow, collected in false whorls, forming spike-shaped inflorescences
• fruit - triangular ovoid or oblong nut
Purist, or stachis (Stachys) - a genus of perennial, less often - annual herbaceous or semi-shrub plants of the Lamiaceae family (Lamiaceae)... The genus is very numerous - there are about 374 species in it, distributed throughout the globe, except for Australia and New Zealand, but mainly in Southeast Asia. The name is given for the shape of the inflorescences, translated from Greek stachylos - ear.
In China and Mongolia tubers stachis related (Stachys affinis) eaten for many centuries, from where it was brought to Europe at the end of the 19th century. In Russia, at the beginning of the 20th century, this stachis (or Chinese artichoke, Khorogi) was also very popular, but over time, as a vegetable crop, it practically lost its significance. Today, we mainly use decorative and medicinal species of this plant.
Of the 9 species of stachis growing on the territory of the European part of Russia, the most important for medicinal use is initial letter medicinal (Betonica officinalis), later attributed to the genus Stachis, its correct botanical name is stachis officinalis, or pharmacy (Stachys officinalis). Small inflorescences of this plant rise on stems up to 1 m tall, attract insects, since the plant is a honey plant. It is widely used in folk medicine. Another common species with medicinal properties is stakhis marsh (Stachys palustris).
For decorative floriculture, one species has the greatest value - stachis, or woolly (Stachys lanata syn. S. byzantina). The woolly stachis is especially attractive due to its fleecy, soft to the touch, whitish-felt leaves, for which it is often called "sheep's ears". Indeed, the leaves have an elongated, oval, slightly pointed shape, and in combination with their "wooliness" are associated with the delicate ears of sheep. Pink, purple, lilac inflorescences have a spike-shaped whorled shape. The fruit is an oblong triangular nut. there are decorative garden varieties of this plant.
In the garden, stachis is used to decorate flower beds, rocky areas, it is often grown in mixborders. If you allocate a separate area for him, then after a while he completely covers the ground with a silvery fluffy rug, displacing and completely destroying any weeds on his territory.
This plant is unpretentious and very viable, grows well in partial shade and in the sun, is not afraid of drought and frost, winters well. Not picky about soils, prefers loose and not too fertile. Woolly stachis has an interesting property: the poorer the land and the more sunlight, the smaller, more numerous and silvery leaves are formed.
To obtain a greater decorative effect, the emerging flowers are cut off at the very initial stage of flowering, so that the plant does not stretch in height, and the bush does not disintegrate, forming bald patches.
Stachis is propagated by dividing the bush and seeds. In the first case, the bush is not dug out, but simply cut off with a shovel the desired part, sprinkling the resulting hole with earth. Delenki take root very quickly, so the procedure can be carried out from spring to autumn.
Cut plants can be dried and used as dried flowers. To get straight stems, they are dried in small bunches, hanging upside down. Curved silvery "fountains" in vases can be obtained by drying the stems on a log that gives the stems the desired shape.
Vegetable species of stachis are grown as annuals. This plant is propagated exclusively by tubers, which are formed on stolons, like in ordinary potatoes. Tubers are small, up to 5 g in weight and up to 7 cm long, oblong, with bulges and constrictions, pearlescent white. One plant can form from 20 to 150 tubers.
Before planting, the tubers are soaked for 20 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then kept in the sun during the day. They are planted in fertile loosened soil 4-5 cm deep, keeping a distance between future bushes up to 60 cm.Looking and hilling, moderate watering is recommended, and in early August, the soil is mulched with organic matter with a layer of 3-5 cm.
Tubers are dug up in late autumn, at the end of October. They are poorly stored, it is possible to store tubers in the refrigerator for six months, but more often they are frozen for later consumption.
It is an attractive herb that growers appreciate for its variety of varieties and ease of care. The compact bushes, covered with leathery, oval leaves and small flowers, look very beautiful.
In order for new shoots to appear on the plants with the onset of heat, it should be properly prepared for winter. It is advisable to remove dry inflorescences and prune old and long stems to give the crown a compact shape.
In order for the plant to look well-groomed, it needs constant grooming and a shaping haircut that is carried out throughout the season. With the onset of autumn, dead young shoots are cut off near ivy, so that the length of the cuttings does not exceed 15 - 20 cm from the soil level, keeping 3 - 4 buds.
In order for the plant to form a lush bush in the spring, it is necessary to regularly pinch the growing shoots during the summer. This promotes the formation of young shoots that quickly twine around hedges or supports.
Cutting of dried and old stems is carried out at the beginning of June, when the plant has finished its spring sap flow.
Gryzhnik nakedHernia is naked. Photo: Hagen Graebner
It grows in open places: in fields, in gardens, on roads as a weed, especially on poor sandy soils. It is a perennial herb from the carnation family with a yellow-green, branched recumbent stem long, with elliptical small opposite leaves, with small nondescript greenish flowers in the leaf axils. Blooms in June and August.
For medicinal purposes, the herb harvested during flowering is used. Shelf life is 2 years. The herb contains coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, phenol carboxylic acids, triterpene saponins, essential oil, carotene, vitamin C, carbohydrates, rutin.
Hernia herbal preparations exhibit a strong diuretic, antispasmodic, astringent, wound healing, antibacterial, weak choleretic effect. They are used for:
- normalization of disorders of mineral metabolism in the body
- with heart failure associated with cardiac decompensation
- with acute and chronic catarrh of the bladder, pyelitis
- involuntary urination, nephrolithiasis, pyelonephritis, persistent albuminuria
- rheumatism, gout, arthritis, gonorrheal inflammation of the urinary tract
- jaundice, respiratory catarrh, and muscle pain
- after hard physical work.
Outwardly, the herb infusion is used for diathesis, skin diseases and for wound healing.
It is believed that fresh raw materials are more effective than dry ones. Infusion of herbs (20 g of raw materials pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist until cooling) take 1 tbsp. spoon once a day, fresh juice - 2 tbsp. spoons once a day.
Fresh grass gruel is applied for skin rashes, difficult healing wounds, dry skin, recurrent lichen.
Attention! In acute nephritis, the hernia is contraindicated.
Capturing foreign territories
Some garden plants quickly take over foreign territories. A classic example is raspberries. The same behavior is characteristic of all types of mint, silver wormwood of Louis, garden tansy with corrugated leaves, canufer (canuper), red meadowsweet, forest lilies of the valley, canadian goldenrod, most perennial asters, spotted loosestrife and very many other crops. It is worth leaving the rose hips, hops or Sakhalin buckwheat (Sakhalin mountaineer) unattended for several years, and there will be much less free space on the site. You have to keep them constantly. Even some seemingly weak plants in favorable conditions turn into garden "impudent". A real disaster may be the active growth of the decorative tenacious "Variegata" with white-green leaves, variegated ivy budra with rooting shoots, variegated dream and creeping buttercup with double flowers. I have a tenacious creeping with bronze-violet leaves in recent years dashingly mastering the neighboring space occupied by ... irises. Our decorative pool also has its own aggressors: hornwort and vodokras (frog). Duckweed is also a classic aquatic weed.
I have to contain many plants by planting them in buried containers with no bottom or large drainage holes. Sometimes, especially for the "aggressors", I construct partially dug fences, from which it is difficult for the rhizome to get out.
Agricultural technology of the Chinese artichoke: how to grow stachis
Stakhis, although a rare plant, is by no means pampered - unpretentious, frost-resistant, grows on any soil, except for acidic ones. The agricultural technique of the Chinese artichoke is similar to the agricultural technique of Jerusalem artichoke (earthen pear) - if you can grow Jerusalem artichoke, then growing stakhis is a piece of cake for you.
Stachis tubers are at a decent distance from the bush. Photo: Grower Jim
Place for stachis should be even, well-lit by the sun, with light fertile soil. Avoid planting Chinese artichokes in waterlogged areas and places where water stagnates in spring and autumn. It is desirable that there is no wireworm in the soil. Wireworm is the main pest of stachis.
The scoop also causes great damage to stachis, so it is not recommended to plant the Chinese artichoke after all types of cabbage, as well as after potatoes. The best predecessors of stachis are tomatoes, onions, cucumbers, bell peppers and eggplants.
It is customary to grow Stachis like a potato - like an annual plant. The site for the Chinese artichoke must be prepared in the fall: digging the earth with a shovel bayonet or more, applying fertilizers (1 tbsp. A spoonful of superphosphate, 1 tsp. Potassium sulfate, half a bucket of mature compost per 1m 2 beds). In the spring, the soil must be loosened and added 1 teaspoon of ammonium nitrate for each square meter.
main feature growing stachis is that it is recommended to plant it in the fall (at least in early spring) due to the fact that the seed tubers of the Chinese artichoke are difficult to preserve without a good cellar with about zero temperature. You can plant tubers without fear of frost.
Therefore, immediately after harvesting the tubers of the Chinese artichoke, it is recommended to sort and plant the largest ones in the grooves. depth keeping the distance 30 cm between tubers and 50 cm between rows... After planting, the soil must be leveled with a rake.
In the spring, the entrances of the Chinese artichoke appear after this time, the plot has time to be covered with weeds, therefore, immediately after the emergence of shoots, the stachis must be weeded. When the tops grow, it is necessary to feed the Chinese artichoke with mineral fertilizers and be sure to loosen the aisles with a hoe to a depth
As the stachis bushes grow, especially in August, you only need to weed by hand - you can damage the tubers with a hoe. Remember that stachis tubers are formed far from the stem. In August, tubers are intensively formed, which means that the risk of damage to tubers is maximum.
In July-August, if the weather is dry, the Chinese artichoke watering is necessary, only in this case a large crop of tubers is guaranteed.
Harvesting of Chinese artichoke tubers begins in October. Early harvest does not give the maximum number of marketable tubers - tubers grow more intensively in September. It is necessary to dig the tubers with a pitchfork or a shovel, carefully lifting the stachis bushes and shaking off the tubers to the surface of the ground. The optimal yield is tubers from a bush.
In winter, the tubers of the Chinese artichoke are stored in a cellar at temperatures from 0 to + 2 ° C and a humidity of about 90%. Stachis tubers are well stored in boxes and covered with soil, like the root crops of carrots and beets. If it is not possible to store stachis tubers at a low temperature, you can dig up part of it in the fall, and leave the other part in the ground until spring, and then dig it up.
If the need for spring digging has disappeared, then after the emergence of seedlings, the plants can be transplanted to a new place like seedlings. In general, among lazy gardeners and truck farmers, stachis can go into the category of weeds, which are difficult to get rid of, which once again proves the unpretentiousness of the culture.
I wish you to grow a decent harvest of stachis and defeat diabetes!