Cucumber seeds for growing in greenhouses: selection and preparation
Cucumbers are one of our favorite vegetables. Therefore, it is difficult to find a site where this plant does not grow. Many people plant seeds directly in the greenhouse to speed up the ripening process of the vegetable. In this article, we will look at how to properly grow cucumber seeds for a greenhouse.
Selection of seeds for greenhouses
Any process of growing a particular plant begins with the selection of seeds. The success of the whole business directly depends on how well you made this choice. In our case, it is better to purchase seeds that are suitable specifically for greenhouses.
Typically, the selection of seeds is carried out according to the following criteria:
- species - hybrid or variety;
- by ripening;
- by the method of pollination.
Let's take a closer look at each of these criteria.
Today, the most suitable seed for a greenhouse cucumber are hybrids. They are considered the most productive. Moreover, they do not require special care for themselves, which would include such manipulations as pinching and pruning. There is also a large selection of seeds for the climatic conditions of germination.
Of the hybrid varieties, the best are "Marinda", "Ant", "Murashko", "Buyan", "Twixi", "Halley" and "Bidretta". Of the shade-tolerant long-fruited hybrids, the following varieties are considered the best: "Malachite", "Biryusa", "Stella", "Lada". All these plants are capable of producing crops without insect pollination (this is a self-pollinating subspecies), which is of great importance in growing them in a greenhouse where this is not possible. Otherwise, you will have to use a self-pollinator to get the ovary and, in the future, harvest.
According to their characteristics and indicators, hybrids are significantly superior to ordinary varieties in terms of yield, therefore it is more preferable to select them for planting in a greenhouse.
All cucumbers, according to the ripening criterion, are divided into very early (early ripening), mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties. Moreover, the sowing time for all varieties remains the same, but only the ripening period of the fruits differs.
In terms of ripening, the choice of the type of plant is best done in terms of the use of cucumbers. In the case of cultivation for further conservation, it is best to opt for late-maturing species. It will be possible to start harvesting in the second half of the summer. Such greenhouse cucumbers are ideal for pickling, since it is at this time that the vegetable will accumulate the maximum amount of nutrients. For salting I will approach the following types: "Gypsy F1", "Mamen's favorite F1", "Barrel pickling F1", "Stash F1". The Dutch varieties Angelina F1, Hector F1, Dolomite F1 and Bettina F1 will grow well.
If you grow cucumbers in order to eat them fresh, then you need to use early maturing varieties for planting in a greenhouse. But remember that such plants have low yields. If you plan to use cucumbers only for cutting into salads, then it is better to plant mid-season varieties.
The best option would be to plant several different plant species at once in order to get a continuous harvest throughout the entire growing season.
By the way of pollination
This has already been discussed a little above. On any pack of seeds there will be an inscription about which variety it is - self-pollinated (parthenocarpic) or insect-pollinated. In the case of growing plants in a greenhouse, it is best to give preference to self-pollinated species, i.e. those plants that form an ovary without additional pollination. Remember that if you decide to plant both parthenocarpic and insect pollinated species in a greenhouse, then mixing them is not recommended due to the fact that some self-pollinated varieties tolerate third-party pollination extremely negatively, which can lead to deformation of the fruit.
In addition to these three main criteria for choosing seeds, not the last place is occupied by the resistance of cucumbers to various pests and diseases (oversporosis, powdery mildew, cucumber mosaic virus), as well as their yield. After all, it makes no sense to spend so much energy on growing plants that will give low yields. For all these characteristics, it is hybrids that are more profitable.
Growing and planting seeds for a greenhouse occurs in the following ways:
- on a manure bed ("hot" or "warm" beds);
- on the compost bed.
Growing on a manure bed
This method is most suitable for the cold regions of the country. These beds begin to form in the greenhouse in the spring. This method allows for an earlier planting of cucumbers and an increase in future crop yields.
To create such beds, it is best to use fresh manure (preferably cow manure with a small addition of horse manure), which was collected in early spring. In this technology, manure acts first as "fuel" for the garden bed and plant, and then as additional feeding of plants in the greenhouse.
Manure bed technology:
- manure is placed on a high and elongated bed 1 m wide and of arbitrary length;
- a layer of fertile and loose soil is poured on top of the manure. Its thickness must be at least 25 cm;
- after these manipulations, the garden must be watered abundantly;
- the seeds are soaked and their germination is achieved (this stage can be skipped);
- after that, you can start sowing seeds. They are sown in such a way that four plants are located on each square meter;
- it is allowed to put two seeds in one hole in order to increase the percentage of germination. This is done in the case when the stage of soaking and germinating the seeds was skipped. But when both seeds germinate, the weakest seedling is cut at the root;
- planting seeds is carried out in the same way as planting in the open field;
- try to avoid thickening of the plantings;
- after the seeds have been planted, the bed should be covered with a light material that will be stretched over the previously installed arcs. In this way, you create a greenhouse in your greenhouse, which will serve as additional heating for the plants. The normal temperature regime for such a bed is within + 18-30 degrees.
Diagram of the structure of the manure bed
If you did everything correctly, the temperature on the manure bed will be quite high - you can easily get burned. This temperature will last for about a month, and then it will start to drop. This effect is observed due to the fact that the decomposition process is activated in fresh manure under the ground. Thanks to this process, the first shoots appear within 3 or 5 days after planting the seeds.
It is necessary to constantly maintain the temperature in the garden, because inconsistent weather conditions can have a significant impact on germination. Increasing the temperature in the garden can cause the cucumbers to burn. To avoid this, thermometers are placed in the garden bed. To reduce the temperature in the ground, it is necessary to carry out regular ventilation of the greenhouse during the daytime.
Growing on a compost bed
In the case when it is impossible to get fresh manure, instead of it, you can use last year's foliage, sawdust, tops, vegetable waste from the table, shavings and other organic materials to create manure beds, which are usually thrown into garden compost. It should be borne in mind that the compost heap will create a lower temperature inside the bed. Therefore, this method is used most often in warm regions of the country.
The presence of a large amount of green waste in the beds will help create a warmer microclimate. To achieve this effect, you can use special preparations that speed up the production of compost. As a result of their action, the temperature inside the garden will rise.
Diagram of the structure of the compost bed
On top of the compost, you need to put fertile soil 20 cm thick. In all other respects, the process of planting cucumber seeds in a compost bed is no different from planting in manure. The only difference is that it is allowed to plant seeds directly in peat tablets or glasses.
As you can see, in order to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, you need to take into account quite a few factors: the variety, the method of pollination, as well as the climatic conditions of the place of growth. Compliance with these rules will help you get an excellent and bountiful harvest.
Video "Variety of varieties of cucumbers"
In this video, you can get acquainted in detail with the varieties of cucumbers, the seeds of which are perfect for growing in greenhouses.
The best varieties of cucumbers for growing on a windowsill
Long gone are the days when the townspeople who did not have summer cottages were jealous of those who had them. Today, even a resident of a high-rise can afford to feast on fresh herbs and vegetables, using windows, balconies and loggias to grow them.
Any non-lazy city dweller can please his family with fresh crispy greens by making the right choice of cucumber varieties for growing on the windowsill. The same applies to tomatoes, strawberries and peppers - modern breeders have specially created types of vegetables that can be grown in pots and get decent yields.
Selection of seeds for greenhouse and open field
The type of cucumber will depend on its purpose. Distinguish:
- salted - they contain a lot of sucrose, which is necessary for canning
- salad - have a thick skin
- universal - suitable for salad and pickling.
Read more: self-pollinated bunch cucumbers for greenhouses - how to grow, pros and cons.
How to distinguish a fake?
Unfortunately, counterfeit or simply low-quality seed material is still on sale. Gardeners complain that the purchased seeds did not germinate well or did not germinate at all. Or it didn’t grow at all what was planted.
To avoid unpleasant surprises, it is necessary, firstly, to buy seeds of proven producers at authorized retail outlets (in the manufacturer's stores, in shopping centers, in specialized points of sale).
Secondly, when buying, you need to pay attention to the quality of printing on the package. Faded colors, fuzzy images are signs of forgery.
Thirdly, it is necessary to check whether the packaging contains detailed information about the manufacturing company (details, logo), the expiration date (sale date), which is applied with a special stamp.
When buying, you should also pay attention to when the implementation period ends. It is no more than 3 years old. If a longer period is indicated, or instead of a stamp it is applied in a typographic way, this is most likely a fake.
Germination decreases every year, so the fresher the seeds, the better.
Selection and preparation of cucumber seeds
Although most vegetables have the most viable seeds from the previous season, it is better to take old seeds from a cucumber for sowing - two-year-old and older, they have a higher germination capacity, and the seedlings turn out to be more friendly and strong, and most importantly, more female flowers are laid on them. while annual seeds are better at driving whips and leaves.
The seeds of the cucumber themselves are rather large and relatively thick, therefore, if they are not prepared at all for sowing, some of them will certainly be wasted.
Be sure to soak the seeds before sowing for 12-16 hours at a temperature of about 20 ° C... And to make the seedlings stronger, it is advisable to soak them not in plain water, but in a fertilizer solution. To do this, for 1 liter of water, you need to take 10 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium nitrate, and even better add micronutrient fertilizers there - sulfate salts of manganese, zinc and copper. Very few of them are required - 0.2 g per 1 liter of water.
If you are going to sow seeds obtained from your mother plants-seed plants, and in your or in neighboring gardens the plants were sick or are sick with fungal or other infectious diseases, their must be disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate or trisodium phosphatebecause the causative agents of these diseases are very often spread with seeds. You can use for this and the juice of a houseplant aloe ("doctor"), but then you have to take care of how to increase its disinfecting properties. This is done very simply - a pot of aloe, from which the leaves will be taken, must be placed in a dark room for 5-6 days.
Etch be sure to also need seeds bought from hands on the market, and even store-bought, but unknown company. Seeds of well-known crop farms do not need this in intact packaging, because they are processed there even before packaging.
By the way, about unverified companies: for some reason, in practice, it is with cucumbers that they very often have a re-grading (and frankly, a scam) - one variety may be indicated on the package, but a completely different, cheaper and less productive one will grow, so save here - more expensive for yourself.
If you use your seeds, do not forget to calibrate them too (select full-weight) and check in advance for germination... To check the fullness of the seeds, you can pour salt water (30-40 g of salt per 1 liter of water), mix, let stand and see which ones float up - seeds that are too light are usually of poor quality. The floating seeds should be thrown away, the rest should be washed with fresh water and dried, if it is still far from sowing, or put in a damp cloth for germination.
But even high-quality seeds of proven farms are sometimes worth a little "to bring to mind" (not counting soaking). So, for example, if the seeds should be properly warmed before sowing, cucumbers will have a decrease in the number of barren flowers, due to which the yield will slightly increase and the beginning of fruiting will accelerate. To do this, the seeds of the last year must be kept for 2-3 hours at a temperature of + 60 ° C near a battery, stove or in another warm place. Biennial seeds need to be warmed up on average for about a month, placing a bag with them on the battery or near it.
In areas with an unfavorable climate for growing cucumbers it is also advisable to harden the seeds... To do this, they are, as it were, accustomed to temperature extremes, placing them in warmer and colder places during the fall - early winter.
Greenhouse cultivation of cucumbers in winter is always associated with certain difficulties, which do not exist in the warm season. The first thing you will have to face in winter is the lack of moisture in the air and soil due to heating. Cucumbers ripen very quickly and, during fruiting, take a lot of nutrients from the soil, which should always be moist.
If you want the grown crop not to disappoint you with its quantity, then you will have to pay attention to watering. This will not only moisten the soil, but also increase the humidity of the air. If irrigation alone is not enough to humidify the air, place containers with water in the greenhouse, water the floor, spray the bushes.
It should be borne in mind that seedlings develop more slowly in winter, therefore, sowing seeds should be done in advance. If you plan to grow cucumbers in December or January, then the seeds for seedlings should be sown at the end of September so that by the beginning of November it can be transplanted into a greenhouse. In this case, it is necessary to provide additional lighting at a distance of 50 cm from the plants. As the cucumbers grow, the lamps must be gradually raised to a height of 1.5 m.
Greenhouse cucumber varieties are designed for stable growing conditions, and the difference between night and day temperatures in winter is often noticeable. Ideally, the temperature in the greenhouse at night should be 15-18 ° C, but if this is not possible, then make sure that the thermometer does not drop below 10 ° C.If it gets colder, the ovaries will stop forming, and it will be difficult to feed the plants through the roots.
Knowing these simple rules, you can easily grow homemade cucumbers for the New Year's table or other winter holidays.
Initially, when cucumbers give only the first fruits, they need to be picked in the morning. In the future, it is necessary to collect a couple of times a day, as they grow very quickly. If the crop is not harvested on time, the overgrown fruits will contribute to a decrease in the overall harvest. It is also necessary to remove ugly and damaged ovaries in a timely manner.
Oddly enough, the regularity of the harvest affects the harvest itself. If the cucumbers are not picked on time, then they grow and develop further. The plant spends nutrients on them. Especially a lot of microelements are spent on the formation of seeds.
Therefore, the greens are collected when they reach a size of 10-15 cm. They are cut off carefully, holding the whip with one hand so as not to damage it.
During the period when plants begin to bear fruit in large quantities, cucumbers are harvested every 1-2 days, depending on the area of the greenhouse.