Chubushnik (Philadelphus) is popularly called garden jasmine. The shrub is one of the representatives of the genus of deciduous plants that belong to the Hortensia family. Due to the pleasant and sweetish scent of flowers, as well as the similarity of the structure of the buds, it is compared to jasmine.
The origin of the name Philadelphus chubushnik is associated with the Egyptian ruler Ptolemy Philadelphus. Previously, from durable wood, plants were made of shafts and mouthpieces, which were used for smoking pipes. In the wild, the shrub grows in North America, Europe and East Asia. In the botanical literature there are about 50-70 varieties of mock-orange.
Description of the chubushnik shrub
The shoots of these shrubs have a strong, tree-type covering with a wide core. The bark of young shrubs looks brown and slightly flakes off. Elongated and oval leaves can grow about 2-7 cm. During flowering, the plant exudes a dizzying aroma, which is spread by terry racemose inflorescences that form at the ends of the shoots. In place of withered flowers, a seed capsule is formed, divided into several parts.
Chubushnik is distinguished by frost resistance, but, in any case, this does not mean that all varieties of the Hortensiev family will behave in the same way. However, thanks to a powerful and developed root system, in the event of the death of the ground part of the plant, it will still be able to recover and start new shoots.
If you plant a chubushnik in the shade, then the flowering will not be so lush. Therefore, an open and illuminated place is chosen as a site for growing shrubs. You can prepare the substrate yourself by taking 1 part of humus, 2 parts of sand and 3 parts of garden soil. To improve the permeability of the soil, a drainage layer is added. The best time for planting a shrub is the beginning or middle of autumn. If in the fall it was not possible to devote time to these events, then you can plant a mock-orange in the spring before the buds begin to open on the trees.
CHUBUSHNIK - MIRACLE - BUSH. Cultivation, care, planting, watering, reproduction, flowering
How to plant correctly
The depth of the dug holes depends on the size of the plant. To grow a hedge, it is worth placing the seedlings in such a way that the distance between them is at least 50 cm. A layer of sand is poured at the bottom of the holes, which will provide a drainage effect. After that, they are filled with soil mixture, but this must be done several weeks before planting so that it can properly tamp.
The root should be at ground level. The soil is spread around the seedling and pressed firmly. After planting, the area must be thoroughly watered. It will be enough to add 2 buckets of water under each bush. Once the surface is dry, sprinkle it with a little dry earth to retain moisture. If the root collar is very deep, then it will probably quickly begin to rot. After a few days, the soil must be mulched with peat or sawdust.
Caring for a chubushnik is quite simple and does not present any difficulties. When a plant needs extra moisture, it sends a signal through its leaves. They become lethargic as they lose turgor pressure. If the summer is dry enough, the chubushnik may die without water. It is best to follow a regular watering regime and water the shrub once a week. As soon as the flowering period of the plant begins, the volume of moisture is almost doubled. Wet soil must be loosened and weeds removed. However, if it is mulched, then this will save you unnecessary trouble.
Chubushnik accepts feeding with organic fertilizers well. This top dressing is added in the spring once a season for each adult shrub. Faded bushes are also treated with wood ash. It is scattered before watering along the near-stem circle of the plant. Chubushnik, which has reached the age of four, is allowed to be fed with solutions of complex mineral fertilizers. To feed 2 bushes, it is enough to dilute 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of urea and 15 g of potassium sulfate in a bucket of water. If potassium is not at hand, it can be replaced with wood ash. Top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers is carried out exclusively in the spring.
To observe the long and bright flowering of the mock-orange from year to year, it is required to periodically prune. Lush inflorescences are formed only on large shoots, while thin and fragile branches are capable of producing rare flowers. For this reason, chubushnik bushes often look unkempt. To maintain the shape and visual appeal, after the end of flowering, it is necessary to prune the faded branches, which has a positive effect on the state of young growths. They receive more strength and nutrients and will delight you with beautiful flowering next season.
Autumn pruning at the same time allows you to free the crown of shrubs from unnecessary shoots that interfere with growth, and get rid of diseased and dry branches. Old shoots must be removed every three years. Spring pruning is carried out for the purpose of rejuvenation. The strongest trunks are shortened to 30 cm, and the rest are cut at the root. Places of cuts are smeared with garden pitch, and the area where the mock-orange is grown is mulched with peat. With the arrival of autumn, dormant buds will begin to form strong young shoots.
Chubushnik can tolerate a transplant without any problems. Only a transplanted plant will be able to please with flowering next year. Having chosen a new site, it is necessary to prepare the holes for planting. Chubushnik bushes are pre-watered, their old shoots are cut off. After that, the excavated specimens can be transferred to another location. The plant is transplanted in mid-autumn or with the onset of spring before the buds open on the shoots.
Cultivation of chubushnik in Siberia and the Moscow region
This plant is considered quite unpretentious to care for and is frost-resistant. In this regard, it is suitable for cultivation both in the southern regions of the country and in the near Moscow region. In Siberia, the most common is the crown mock-orange, which, thanks to its strong root system, is able to withstand very low temperatures in winter and does without shelter.
Reproduction of chubushnik
Reproduction of a chubushnik will not be difficult, so even novice gardeners can do this. The main methods are seed and vegetative cultivation of shrubs. The first of them may seem simpler, but in practice, a more vegetative way of reproduction of the mock-orange is used. The reason is that the seedlings are not able to fully preserve the hereditary traits.
Propagation by cuttings
Cuttings make it possible to get guaranteed rooting, therefore, when breeding a chubushnik, they are used first of all. Planting material is cut from the healthiest and strongest branches. You should not use growth shoots that have a deep core and large gaps from one bud to another. As a result, decay processes can develop in these hollow cores. For reproduction of a mock-orange, it is better to take green cuttings with a heel, which are called annual shoots, which retain part of last year's shoots. The cut sites must be treated with a root-forming agent. Then the cuttings are placed in containers containing a nutritious soil mixture with the addition of sand. Containers with seedlings are covered with polyethylene or glass to create the effect of a small greenhouse. Then they are left under diffused light. In the process of rooting, it is important to spray the cuttings with plenty of water.
Reproduction by layering
Their rooting rate is also quite high. Breeding with layering is necessary after anti-aging pruning. Using a soft wire, it is necessary to pull the young shoot near the base of the lower bud. After that, put it in a shallow dug trench and sprinkle it with a little earth. The next year, the layers are separated from the main shrub.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
The division of the shrub is carried out in early spring or autumn, when the plant will drop foliage. To do this, the bush is carefully dug up and divided into parts, each of which is promptly planted in another area.
Diseases and pests
Most often, spider mites, green weevils and bean aphids affect the leaves of the mock-orange. Treating the shrub with chemicals such as Rogor or Karbofos will help to get rid of aphids, and Keltan and Fostamid are used in the fight against spider mites. A week break must be observed between treatment sessions. To protect the leaves from being eaten by weevil larvae and beetles, they are sprayed with Chlorophos solution.
Types and varieties of chubushnik with a photo
Among the cultural representatives of the chubushnik, the following types are most often found:
Common chubushnik (Philadelphus coronarius)
A shrub that grows mainly in southwestern Europe and the Caucasus. The length of its shoots is sometimes about 3 m. The leaves are oblong-oval. The flowers are white with a cream shade, they are collected in several pieces in racemose inflorescences. This variety also includes: Virginal, Belle Etoile and Bicolor.
Crown mock-orange (Philadelphus coronarius)
It is considered a southern European plant species. Found in Asia Minor and southern Europe, it is distinguished by yellow or reddish-brown shoots and lush foliage. Duration of flowering is about 3 weeks. Some of the most popular varieties are: Aureus, Variegatus and Innosens.
Chubushnik Lemoine (Philadelphus x lemoinei)
Crossed species of small-leaved and common mock-orange, which grows in European and North American countries. This species is characterized by large white inflorescences and long, spreading shoots. Hybrid varieties include: Ermine Mantle, Charm, Snowstorm and Glacier.
Chubushnik - gardening
Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.
Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.
Deciduous species are easier to transplant than conifers and evergreen deciduous trees.
The growth, development and productivity of fruit trees largely depend on the degree of their resistance to frost.
The aerial part with flowers is used. Action - diuretic, laxative and diaphoretic, emollient and anti-inflammatory.
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When choosing a place for a chubushnik, keep in mind that your handsome man will bloom profusely and for a long time only in an open sunny area. The soil is preferable fertile, loose, water and air permeable. The optimal substrate is leafy soil filled with humus and sand (3: 2: 1).
Landing is carried out as follows:
- Dig a hole 0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6 m in size and fill it halfway with a fertile soil mixture, after placing a thick (10-15 cm) layer of rubble or broken bricks on the bottom for drainage.
- Leave the hole in this form for a week and a half so that the soil settles and settles.
- After the expiration of time, the seedling is immersed in the hole and added dropwise, holding it by the stem so that the root collar is flush with the soil surface.
- Upon completion of the work, the soil under the chubushniks is compacted and watered abundantly, and after 1–2 days the trunks are mulched with sawdust, peat or dry soil.
The planting pattern for several bushes depends on your design idea. In a loose group, chubushniks are placed at a distance of 1–1.5 m from each other (depending on the variety), and when decorating a hedge between adjacent specimens, they maintain a distance of 0.5–0.7 m.
Description of the plant
Chubushnik is a deciduous (semi-leafy), woody shrub with a voluminous, spreading crown reaching a height of four meters. The branches of an adult plant are covered with a thin, gray skin. Young shoots are framed by brown skin, which tends to flake off easily. The leaves are located on short petioles, have an ovoid, oval shape. The leaf grows up to 7 centimeters long, whole-edged. The underside of the leaf is covered with fine, barely visible hairs. Flowers are collected in cluster-like inflorescences. Depending on the variety of the shrub, the flowers are simple, double, semi-double. They often have a pleasant, sweet aroma.
Due to external similarity, a similar aroma, the culture is often confused with the well-known jasmine. People call it "garden jasmine".
Varieties of chubushnik
The most common in our climatic zone are the following types of mock-orange:
- Common (Philadelphus coronarius) is a shrub that reaches four meters in height. The vertically growing branches are light brown in color. The flowers are simple, snow-white, cream in color, have a sweetish smell. The foliage is light green, oval in shape. Flowering period May-June.
- Small-leaved (Philadelphus microphyllus) is a relatively low variety, reaching one and a half meters in height. Sprawling branches are framed with brown-red shoots. The snow-white flowers have a pleasant delicate strawberry aroma.
- Lemoine (Philadelphus lemoinei) is a hybrid variety, bred by crossing an ordinary and small-leaved mock orange. An adult plant reaches two meters in height. Branches are widely spread. The pure white flowers are large, up to three centimeters in diameter, have an intense, sweet smell. Flowering time is July.
- Fluffy (Philadelphus pubescens) is a two-meter crop, which got its name from the light edge on the inside of the foliage. Blooms profusely, white, fragrant flowers. Blooms in mid-July, pleasing to the eye for about twenty days. Frost-resistant, however, young first-year bushes should be covered for the winter.After good rooting, rhizome development, the creation of a winter-hardy shelter is optional.
- Large-flowered (Philadelphus grandiflorus) is a fast-growing shrub with large drooping branches. It has the longest flowering period, reaching almost a month. The flowers are large, snow-white with a shimmering tint, practically odorless. The foliage is dull green, oval in shape, with slightly pointed ends. A frost-resistant look that does not require special care.
A sun-loving plant that prefers open space. It tolerates shaded areas well. Develops poorly in dense shade:
- the branches of the chubushnik stretch towards the sun, deforming the crown
- flowers become small
- bloom is not numerous.
Depending on the species, there are both thermophilic and winter-hardy varieties. For intensive development, fertile, well-drained, breathable soil is preferable. Moderate watering is required. Excessive soil moisture has a bad effect on the development of the root system of the chubushnik, and can lead to its death.
Planting and leaving
Propagated by cuttings, dividing the mother bush. For cuttings, well-developed young shoots with active buds are used. They are planted separately and wait for the appearance of the root system. Cuttings are planted in the ground in spring (autumn). Spring planting is done before abundant foliage appears. Otherwise, the cutting may die. The culture of the first year must be covered for the winter.
Chubushnik can also be propagated by seeds, but such a bush will begin to bloom no earlier than in 4-5 years.
Be sure to water the plant moderately, in the spring (autumn) fertilize with mineral, organic fertilizing. You should also regularly carry out health-improving, decorative pruning of branches. Be sure to remove old, diseased branches, allowing young shoots to grow.
"Pearl" was purchased by the very first in my collection of mock-mushrooms in 2009 and turned out to be the best purchase of ornamental shrubs.
This variety of chubushnik is not very high, up to 1.5 meters, for me it does not exceed one meter, due to the not very successful landing site, but it suits me.
It blooms with the very first of my chubushniks in mid-June, blooms for three weeks, without crumbling for a long time. The flowers are large, double, snow-white with a pearlescent sheen, it is not for nothing that it is called "Pearl".
The leaves are bright dark green, the contrast with the flowers is amazing. And the most amazing thing is an unusually strong aroma, which is not usually found in varieties with strongly double flowers.
For such beauty, it is unpretentious and hibernates normally.
"Gnome" is my second mock-orange after "Pearl". When I bought it in 2009, the seller did not warn that the variety was not flowering, he simply said that the bush was compact. I prefer shrubs that are not tall for easier maintenance.
Without waiting for flowering, I started looking for information and then I found out that this variety was specially bred as a border by the originator N.K. Vekhov.
This dwarf mock-orange does not require pruning, it forms its lush spherical crown in the form of a hummock. Its height does not exceed 50 cm, and its diameter is 70 cm. The leaves are narrow, not very large, serrated, abundant. If desired, by pruning, you can give it the desired shape, since it branches well and grows quickly.
"Gnome" winters well and reproduces quite easily, always looks neat on the lawn. I like.
Planting materialfrom our partners
Formation and care rules
So one of the most beloved garden shrubs, the symbols of the Russian garden, has bloomed - chubushnik. And it is at this time that an important moment comes in preparing it for flowering next year. In order for this shrub to please us with a large number of white fragrant flowers from year to year, you should take care of it in early July.
Most often, our gardeners, called garden jasmine, grow a shrub - crown mock-orange, which came to ornamental gardening from Western Europe. This plant is highly appreciated by the gardeners of our region, as many of its varieties winter well without any shelter.
Blossoming of the mock-orange occurs after the spring riot of ornamental plants - Hungarian lilac, buldenezh viburnum, hawthorn. Perhaps it is thanks to this that the mock-orange so easily became the symbol of the Russian garden - for a long time it simply had no competitors. Chubushnik flowers are very fragrant, mostly white, sometimes creamy, located singly or in racemose groups. Often they completely cover the branches of the bush. The scent fills the entire garden, spreading for many meters around. Thanks to breeding work, there are currently varieties Belle Etoile and Unusual with the presence of a pink flower in the corolla.
Variety Belle Etoile (Belle etoile). Originator Lemoine, 1930 Shrub height - 1.5 m Blossoming - July. The climatic zone is 5, so it often freezes over in our area. The flowers are simple white with a purple eye. The aroma is sweet but weak. Grows well in sun and light shade.
Belle Etoile variety in the garden of the collector A. Shchenev.
Variety Unusual... Originator N.K. Vekhov, 1961 year... The height of the shrub is 1.5 m. The flowers are dull white with a purple center, 2.5-3 cm in size with a strawberry aroma.
The classic wild mock-orange is quite easy to grow, but it is much more difficult to succeed in cultivating varieties. Many of them have thinner branches, they are inferior to wild shrubs in growth, and are more demanding on agricultural technology and wintering conditions. Unfortunately, some of the most beautiful foreign varieties are completely unsuitable for our climatic zone.
Site selection. Chubushnik grows very quickly. This light-loving plant practically does not bloom in the shade. And here are the chubushniki Golden and Innosensplanted in the shade will not yet show their dignity to the full. So, their brightly colored foliage in the shade will remain green. And here is the variety of chubushnik Variegataon the contrary, it does not feel very comfortable in the open sun, as its variegated leaves burn under strong rays. This variety is best grown in partial shade.
Variety Golden (common chubushnik, golden form). A dense, slow-growing shrub, reaching 1.5 meters in diameter. Often more in width than in height. When grown in a sunny place until mid-summer, its foliage is colored lemon green or yellow, after flowering it turns light green, and turns yellow again in the fall.
Variety Innocence in the garden of the collector A. Shchenev.
Variety Innosens ( Innocence )... Originator Lemoine. Shrub height - 2.5 m. Flowering - end of June. Climatic zone - 4, relatively hardy. Shrub with a spreading crown. Flowers are white, semi-double with aroma. The leaves are green with cream and yellow touches.
Variegata variety in the garden of the collector A. Shchenev.
Variety Variegata (common mock-orange, variegated form). Originator Lemoine. A very decorative shrub with exquisite, very variegated foliage and flat, rounded, fragrant white flowers. Shade-tolerant and frost-resistant.
Due to the annual pruning and strong growth, the mock orange requires a fairly large amount of nutrients. Therefore, it is useful to feed him. Time for this is best set aside in the spring at the beginning of leaf formation. Chubushniki respond very favorably to the introduction of both organic and complex mineral fertilizers. In the spring, several buckets of rotted manure or compost can be added under the chubushnik bush, and after flowering, nitroammophoska, superphosphate or ash can be sprinkled to stimulate shoot growth.
It is better to mulch the soil under the bush with any organic material - cut grass, leaf litter, peat, humus, rotted sawdust, wood chips or pine bark.
Winter hardiness. When choosing a chubushnik, be sure to be interested in its winter hardiness. Most of them are quite winter-hardy, withstand frosts down to -25 ° C. However, some modern varieties of chubushnik still freeze out. Most varietal chubushniki are not cold-resistant enough - some freeze slightly in severe winters with little snow (White Bouquet, Charm, Belle Etoile), others are afraid of late spring frosts. In severe winters in our region, they can freeze out to the snow cover, although then they quickly recover. For example, the variety Avalanche (Avalanche), it is also called Strawberry, freezes already at minus 15 ° C. But an adapted variety snow avalanche resistant to the climate of the middle zone. The beautiful terry variety Virginal often freezes over..
Chubushnik Strawberry in my garden
Of particular interest are the winter-hardy varieties of chubushniks, bred by a dendrologist breeder Nikolay Kuzmich Vekhov (1887-1956), who for 30 years headed the Lipetsk experimental selection station. These include: Chamomile, Junnat, Ballet of Moths, Snowballs, Pearls, Arctic Moonlight, Academician Komarov, Kazbek, Airborne Assault, Obelisk, Snowstorm, Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, Pompom, deserving wider distribution in ornamental gardening.
Pearl variety in the garden of the collector A. Shchenev.
Variety Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya in the garden of the collector A. Shchenev.
Pruning. In order for the flowering of the chubushnik to be abundant every year, it needs regular pruning. The fact is that good flowering is observed only on strong shoots of the last year. On thin and weak old shoots, flowers will appear as well, but they will be small and there will be few of them. Many old shoots don't bloom at all and make the bush look messy. Therefore, after flowering, it is necessary to remove the faded branches to the strong shoots located below this year. After a while, you will notice that the young growths left behind this year have become powerful. They should bloom profusely next year.
All branches older than two to three years are removed, as well as weak, damaged and frozen ones. Young branches that are too long can be shortened by pruning thin tops.
After rejuvenation, the bush needs to be spud and fed, and in a dry summer, water abundantly.
Reproduction. Chubushnik can be propagated by dividing the bush, but this procedure is often associated with transplanting a huge bush, which is highly undesirable and inconvenient. It is much easier to get planting material from your favorite variety in the form of a layering or rooted cutting.
For layering, you can use fairly large branches, which are bent to the ground and sprinkled with soil. After a while, they will have their own roots, after which they can be cut off from the mother plant and allowed to develop on their own.
If you need to get a large amount of planting material, for example, for a hedge, then the most convenient way of propagation is green cuttings. The most favorable period for this is the time after flowering, when young growths appear. It is they who are used for rooting. To do this, they are broken out with a heel and put in water for several days. After that, they are planted in a special rooting bed.
In 2011, the Russian Society of Chubushnik was created, which aims to promote this culture in Russia.
Transfer. Chubushniki tolerate transplantation quite easily and recover very quickly. In order to painlessly transfer the old large bush of the chubushnik, you will have to sacrifice part of the crown and, therefore, lose a year of flowering. You can transplant both in the period from early to mid-September and in early spring. Before digging up the shrub, it must be watered abundantly and left for a day so that it gains moisture. After that, half of the old shoots should be removed at the very root, and the remaining ones should be shortened. Then you can already dig up and move the chubushnik to a new place, not forgetting to water again abundantly and compact the soil after planting.