5 rules for caring for tomatoes after planting in a greenhouse for a large crop
Indoor tomatoes are exposed to a number of adverse effects: high humidity, low light, and lack of natural air movement. Get your plants through the growing season and get the most out of your tomato bushes in five simple steps in the first weeks after planting.
With each ton of tomato, 4.5 kg of potassium, 3.3 kg of nitrogen and 1.3 kg of phosphorus are removed from the soil. In addition, plants consume the required amount of other macro- and microelements. It is interesting that in different periods of their development, the requirements for one or another substance change. So, during the period of intensive growth and a set of vegetative mass, nitrogen and iron are needed, at the stage of budding there is usually not enough potassium, during flowering and fruit setting - nutrition is mainly phosphorus with the participation of boron.
To get a large harvest of tomatoes, it is important to feed the seedlings with potash fertilizer in the first week after planting. Potassium will fill the stems with strength, improve the metabolism in the leaf plate, strengthen the immunity of plants, provide the fruits with nutrition, making them larger and sugary.
Wood ash contains a whole range of nutrients and is rich in potassium. To prepare the ash solution, you will need 1 tbsp. l. wood ash per 1 liter of water. It is better to cook the mixture immediately in large volume and let it brew for several days. So potassium will go into a more accessible form and will be quickly absorbed by tomatoes. Under one root of the seedlings, you need to pour 0.5 liters of ash fertilizing.In the same period, you can carry out foliar feeding with microelements - iodine, manganese and boron. To do this, add simple ingredients to a liter of milk or whey (used as an adhesive and a source of lactic acid flora):
- 1 g of potassium permanganate;
- 5 g boric acid;
- 60 drops of iodine.
The finished mother liquor is poured into 10 liters of settled tap water or, even better, rainwater, and spraying is carried out on a leaf on a cloudy day.
The main problem with greenhouses is high humidity. The relative humidity in the greenhouse can reach 90% and higher, which leads to a number of problems:
- the development of fungal and viral diseases;
- softening of plant tissues;
- decrease in transpiration (respiration) and slowing down of metabolism;
- decreased intake of nutrients;
- clumping of pollen and the formation of barren flowers;
- a sharp drop in productivity.
The optimum humidity for tomatoes is 60-65%. This is a rather narrow corridor, and it is difficult to maintain the water vapor pressure in the given parameters at random. Therefore, an ordinary thermo-hygrometer is a good investment for the future harvest. To reduce the relative humidity, ventilate the greenhouse more often. In early spring, you can raise the heating temperature and temporarily reduce watering. For tomatoes, a little drying of the soil is even beneficial, and excess moisture can destroy almost the entire crop. At the same time, the greenhouse is devoid of atmospheric precipitation, and irregular watering can lead to critically low levels of soil and air moisture, which is also detrimental to plants. Refreshing watering over the leaf will help to quickly raise the air humidity to 60%.
According to the intensity of growth and height of the stem, tomato varieties are divided into three categories:
- undersized (determinant);
- tall (indeterminate).
When the seedlings reach 30-40 cm in height, they need to be tied up. Low and medium-sized varieties can be tied to pegs, while tall and professional varieties with unlimited growth (can reach 50 m) are tied only to strings. The lower end of the string is attached under the lower leaf with a free knot, the stem is wrapped under each internode, and the upper end of the thread is tied to the greenhouse ceilings without tension. and the yield is declining.
Tomatoes are prone to strong branching of the stem. In the bosom of each leaf, an offshoot will certainly appear - a stepson. If they are not removed in a timely manner, the plant builds up a large vegetative mass with a small number of fruits.
In pinching tomatoes, it is important to adhere to a simple principle: in undersized ones, all stepchildren are removed up to the first brush, and then we leave the bush to branch. Medium-sized ones can be grown in two, three stems, removing the rest of the branches, and tall ones are completely stepson, that is, they are carried out in one stem with the removal of 100% of the stepsons.
It is best to remove stepchildren weekly, when they are no more than 3 cm in length, while leaving a small stump. Breaking the shoot completely leaves an open gate for infections, and a new branch will appear in this place very soon.
The first time after planting seedlings, soil moisture is especially important in order to build up the root mass. When disembarking, about 4 liters of water are poured into each hole. The next watering is combined with ash feeding, it is better to do this after a week after planting. Further care consists in regular watering every 10-14 days, depending on weather conditions. During flowering, the need for moisture increases, and towards the end of fruiting, on the contrary, decreases.
The water temperature should be at least 20 degrees, cold water causes shock to plants, nutrients dissolve worse in it.
Irrigation technique can be different - drip irrigation, spot irrigation from a watering can or a hose, but certainly at the root and in the morning. Steps for caring for tomatoes are simple but effective. Their complex application is important - miss one of the points, and the effectiveness of the rest will decrease significantly.
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How to care for tomatoes in a greenhouse
The first watering should be done 7-10 days after planting, when the tomatoes take root. Watering is carried out with warm water + 20-22 degrees and only at the root. Before flowering, tomatoes are watered every 4-5 days, water consumption is at least 5 liters per 1 sq. M. As soon as the tomatoes bloom, watering should be increased to 10-12 liters per 1 sq. M. It is recommended to water the plants in the morning before 11 o'clock to avoid condensation and getting it on the tomatoes. The condition of the tomatoes should be monitored. Lack of water, like excess moisture, negatively affects plants and leads to disease.
If necessary, stepchildren should be removed. These are lateral shoots that take up nutrients and inhibit the growth of fruits. It is better to make pinching in the morning and remove the lower stepsons, to form a plant of 1-2 stems. Stepsons can also be removed during fruit picking.
An important condition for obtaining a harvest is compliance with the optimal temperature and humidity conditions. It is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse by any means: roll up the film, open the vents and doors. Airing is especially necessary two hours after watering and during flowering. Tomatoes love sunlight and are not afraid of drafts. The optimum temperature in the greenhouse during the day is + 20-26 degrees, at night it is not lower than + 15-16 degrees.
The first feeding is done 12-14 days after planting. Top dressing should be done after watering, using mullein infusion, potassium sulfate, superphosphate. It is recommended to feed every two weeks. After feeding, loosen with hilling, to improve root nutrition and accelerate the ripening of tomatoes. For the second feeding use the natural fertilizer "Fertility" 1 tbsp and 1 tsp. potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water.
5-7 days after planting, the plants need to be tied up so that the tomatoes do not break under the weight of their weight or fruits. Tying also makes it easier to care for plants and helps to avoid late blight infection. For a garter, you can use wooden pegs, metal rods, a strong mesh made of metal or plastic. The dressing material should be thick and tight enough not to injure the stems of the plant. Thick ropes, strips of fabric 2-3 cm wide or old nylon tights will do.
- Remember to self-pollinate the tomatoes by gently shaking the flowers.
- Shoot the tomatoes brown so that the next brushes will pour.
- Be sure to remove fruits with signs of late blight.
- The last fruits must be removed before the onset of frost.
Favorable days, conditions and rules for planting tomato seedlings
The whole process of growing tomato seedlings is laborious and time-consuming. But it is also important to know when and how to properly plant the seedlings in the greenhouse. The duration of ripening and the quality of future fruits largely depend on the correctness of this procedure.
Timing, regional differences for planting tomato seedlings greenhouse in 2020
The presence of a greenhouse in a backyard or summer cottage makes it possible for the gardener to harvest tomatoes much earlier than in the open field. In addition, this allows you to adjust the conditions for keeping plants and protect them from the negative effects of the external environment.
Important! There are no exact dates for planting in a greenhouse, since it depends on the climatic conditions of the region, so each gardener must carry out procedures based on his own observations and the weather of the current season.
It is also necessary to plant tomato seedlings in a greenhouse, taking into account technical characteristics existing greenhouse structure.
So the approximate dates for planting seedlings in a greenhouse in the Middle Lane (Moscow region) are as follows:
- to a heated greenhouse - in the second half - the last days of April
- to a polycarbonate greenhouse or with an additional film cover - from late April to early May
- in a film greenhouse - from 2-3 decades of May.
Another important condition that the gardener should be guided by is age seedlings. Tomato seedlings by the time of planting in the greenhouse should have a well-developed root system and a sufficient number of true leaves. It must also be prepared - hardened.
The lunar calendar of 2020 shows us the following favorable days for planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse:
- June: 1-4, 12, 22-23, 28-30.
Unfavorable days according to the lunar calendar of 2020 on which you should not plant are:
- June - 5, 20, 21, 22.
What should be the seedlings of tomatoes for planting
The readiness of tomato seedlings for transplanting into a greenhouse is evidenced by the following indicators:
- stem thickness - not less than 7 mm
- height - 20-30 cm
- the number of true leaves - from 6 to 10 pieces
- age - 50-70 days.
Thus, when the appearance and age of the seedlings reach the above values, and the appropriate temperature is established (which we will talk about later), you can plant tomato seedlings in a permanent place in the greenhouse.
Optimal temperature and features of planting seedlings in different regions
The main guideline for planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse is soil and air temperature... In the first case, it should be - + 8-10, or even better, +12 degrees, and in the second, not lower than +15 degrees.
It is also very important to pay attention to the night temperature. As soon as the sun can warm up the greenhouse in a day to such an extent that at night the temperature does not drop below + 8-10 degrees, then the right time has come for planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse.
Of course, every gardener wants to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse as early as possible, mistakenly believing that this will significantly accelerate the formation of fruits and their ripening. But this is far from the case. Planting seedlings in a greenhouse at low air and soil temperatures leads to a slowdown in plant growth processes and a long recovery of seedlings. In this case, you cannot count on an early harvest.
Dates of planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse in the regions
Depending on the region of the country, the timing of planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse is significantly different:
- in the suburbs - from late April to mid-May
- in the Leningrad region - from mid-May
- in the Urals and Siberia - from the second half of May.
Basic rules, tips and tricks for planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse
Before you plant tomatoes in the greenhouse, you need to carry out a number of preparatory work. It is recommended to do this in advance, so that in the future the seedlings can fully grow and develop in a permanent place.
Greenhouse selection and preparation
Basically, greenhouses on personal plots are used in two main types, depending on the outer coating: film and polycarbonate.
In the first case (film) a film is stretched onto the greenhouse frame in two layers with an obligatory air cushion between them, which makes it possible to improve the thermal insulation of the structure and thereby optimize the conditions for growing tomato seedlings.
In addition, it is necessary to independently think over the ventilation system of the greenhouse, since low humidity is required for the successful cultivation of tomatoes. The main disadvantage of this coating is that the film has the ability to wear out quickly and in the next season, most likely, you will have to purchase a new one.
Polycarbonate greenhouses are currently a more practical option, although they are much more expensive. This coating is able to withstand heavy loads and the negative impact of the external environment. In addition, polycarbonate is frost-resistant and, in the event of late frosts returning, will reliably protect tomato seedlings. The ventilation system in this case is already built into the structure, and no additional installation is required.
Of course, every spring you will need to prepare your greenhouse for the new season.
Note! The site already has material on preparing the greenhouse for planting seedlings.
Read also: Disinfection of greenhouses and soil
Soil and bed preparation
Important! It is not recommended to plant tomatoes in one place for several years in a row, as this threatens the infection of young seedlings with fungal diseases, which ultimately leads to loss of yield.
But even with regular changes of crops grown in the greenhouse, there is a possibility that pathogens will remain in the soil. To avoid damage to seedlings, it is necessary to prepare the soil in advance and disinfect it.
The main stages of soil preparation
This procedure includes several main stages:
- change the top layer to a new one 10-15 cm deep from the soil surface
- evenly spray the soil with a freshly prepared solution of copper sulfate in the ratio: dilute 70 g of the product in 1 liter of boiling water, then bring the volume of water to 10 liters
- 2 weeks before planting, dig up the ground in the greenhouse, remove weeds and apply 3 kg of rotted manure for each square meter of area
- make beds for tomatoes 70-90 cm in size and 30-40 cm high, observing a distance between rows of 60-80 cm.
Experts recommend preparing the soil based on its composition:
- So in the peat soil, half a bucket of sand, turf, humus and sawdust should be introduced for each square meter.
- To improve the air permeability of loam and to improve the porosity of the structure, it is again necessary to add half a bucket of humus and sawdust for each square meter.
- But for every meter of black soil, you need to add half a bucket of sand and peat.
Preparing seedlings for transplanting to a greenhouse
Transplanting to a new place is very stressful for the plant, therefore it is recommended to prepare the seedlings for the upcoming procedure 10-14 days in advance.
Initially carried out hardening seedlings by taking it outside in a warm time of the day. In the early days, the seedlings are recommended to be placed in partial shade or covered from direct sunlight. With each subsequent day, the period when plants are in the fresh air must be gradually increased by 1.5-2 hours and at the same time, sometimes the sun should be given access. At the end of hardening, the seedlings should be constantly outdoors both during the day and at night.
Watering the seedlings before planting
To improve the adaptation of plants, it is also necessary adjust the watering mode... Moreover, it is not worth reducing the volume of water, but it is necessary to increase the periods of time between irrigations. When watering, it is recommended that the earthen lump in the pot gets wet, and the next time it is moistened after it is completely dry.
Cleaning the aboveground part seedlings
Two days before transplanting plants into the greenhouse, it is necessary to carry out cleaning of the aboveground part seedlings from damaged, yellow and cotyledonous leaves, and also remove the two lower ones. But this must be done carefully so as not to damage the main stem, cutting off at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from it. In the future, these remaining stumps will dry out and fall off by themselves. This procedure will help improve the permeability of light and air.
Boric acid spraying
It is recommended that seedlings, which have formed buds and have flowers, should be sprayed with boric acid at the rate of 15 g per 1 liter of hot water 4 days before transplanting into the greenhouse, but wait until the solution cools down.
Rules for planting seedlings in a greenhouse
In order for tomatoes to fully grow and develop in a greenhouse, it is necessary to initially outline a scheme for their placement so that they do not interfere with each other. It depends on the grade, that is, the height of the tomatoes in the future and the growing method (in one or two main shoots).
Important! Failure to comply with the distance between seedlings and between rows leads to thickening of the plantings, which negatively affects the yield in the future.
- Undersized tomatoes with an early ripening period must be planted in two rows in a checkerboard pattern, keeping a distance between plants of 25-30 cm, and a row spacing of 30-40 cm. It is recommended to place such a variety of tomatoes along the edge of the greenhouse, which will accelerate the ripening of fruits.
- Landing determinant varieties of tomatoes average heights with one main stem must also be carried out in a checkerboard pattern, observing the distance between the rows of 40-50 cm, and the seedlings - 40-50 cm.
- Landing scheme indeterminate (tall) tomatoes in the greenhouse: the distance between the rows (in the aisles) is 80-90 cm (up to 100 is possible), and between the plants 45-50 cm (60-80 is possible).
The main thing is not to thicken, otherwise the bushes will simply lack food, including solar (they will shade each other).
Step-by-step instructions for landing
Transplanting seedlings to a permanent place in the greenhouse must be carried out carefully and observing all the rules. Only in this case the seedlings will react minimally to the stress received and will quickly recover.
Important! It is necessary to transplant tomato seedlings in the second half of the day, after watering it a day before the procedure.
- Make holes 15 cm deep for each seedling.
- Spill them well with warm water.
- Carefully remove the seedlings from the seedling containers without damaging the earthen lump.
- Place each seedling in the middle of the hole.
- Sprinkle with earth and compact the soil at the base of the plant.
- Tie up as needed.
Caring for tomatoes after planting in a greenhouse
Within 3-5 days after transplanting seedlings to a new place, you should not take any action, since the plants need to recover from stress.
In the future, you can begin to water the seedlings as the topsoil dries out, avoiding overflow, which can cause the development of fungal diseases. Seedlings should be irrigated infrequently, but abundantly.
In 3-5 days after transplanting, it is recommended to loosen the soil, which will improve oxygen access to the roots.
After 2 weeks, you can carry out the first feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse using a complex mineral fertilizer with an equal content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Tying bushes should be started no earlier than 15-20 days after planting in the greenhouse. It is recommended to use soft garden twine or screeds for this.
Pinch Tomatoes should be started at a height of 25-30 cm bushes. This means removing the shoots that form between the real leaf and the main stem. When growing tomatoes in two shoots, the lower stepson is left, and the rest are cut off. This procedure helps to redirect the plant's forces to the development of flower clusters and thus improves yields.
But there are some undersized varieties, mostly ultra-early ones, that do not need pinching.
After transplanting tomato seedlings into a greenhouse in compliance with all the recommendations and rules, you can count on the desired result, since only in this case the plants will receive the necessary conditions for growth and further development.
What fertilizers are important for tomatoes
The plant needs different fertilizers.
Tomatoes in greenhouse conditions need mineral fertilizers, including:
Phosphorus makes plants resistant to an unfavorable environment, the root system is strong, and accelerates the process of assimilation and processing of other nutrients.
The use of nitrogenous fertilizers leads to increased growth and development of the root system.
According to experienced gardeners, tomatoes need about 20 microelements for productive life. The most valuable are:
- boron - is responsible for nutrition with vitamins and sugars
- zinc - causes intensive plant growth, forms large healthy fruits
- manganese - helps to increase the resistance of tomatoes to diseases such as brown spot
- magnesium - important at the time when fruits begin to develop.
- 3 glasses of ash
- 0.5 liters of water.
Ashes are boiled for half an hour. After the broth has cooled, it is filtered and water is added to make 10 liters in the end. Plants are sprayed with the prepared composition.
Regardless of the conditions in which the pepper is grown, whether it is open or protected ground, it is necessary to form plants during the growing season. This will allow the plant to grow a large number of lateral fruiting branches and, as a result, increase productivity.
The principle of plant formation depends on its height:
- On tall varieties of peppers, side shoots should be partially removed and the top of the plants should be pinched
- On peppers of medium-sized varieties, the lower and sterile lateral shoots are removed. This thinning allows the air to circulate better. This is especially important when growing peppers in greenhouses, where the plantings are quite dense, and there is no natural air movement. Such conditions can contribute to the development of diseases, and pruning of plants prevents this problem.
- Low-growing peppers do not need to be pruned at all.
When forming plants, the following rules should be remembered:
- flowers that form in the place of branching of pepper must be removed for the further normal development of the plant
- a properly formed pepper bush has only 2-3 main, strong, fruiting shoots
- shoots that do not form fruit must be removed, they uselessly consume the energy of the plant
- it is possible to accelerate the ripening of fruits with the approach of autumn by pinching the main fruiting shoots.
A properly formed plant will not take up much space, but at the same time it will provide high yields. Do not spare useless shoots, because they consume nutrients that must be used up for the formation of fruits.
Planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse
How to determine if tomato seedlings are ready for planting in a permanent place (in our case, we are talking about a greenhouse)? By this important point, young plants should have a healthy appearance, a strong root system and strong shoots. Typically, such a seedling reaches a height of 20-35 cm and boasts 6-10 true leaves. The growth of tomato seedlings can vary slightly depending on growing conditions, so it is better to focus on the overall appearance of the plants.
The timing of planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse can also vary depending on the region.
|Culture||South and North Caucasian Federal District||Belarus, Volga Federal District||Central and Northwestern Federal District||Ural Federal District||Siberian and Far Eastern Federal District||Time from sowing to germination (days)|
|Greenhouse tomato||3rd decade of January||1st decade of March||2nd decade of March||3rd decade of March||3rd decade of March||7-8|
To calculate the time for planting tomato seedlings, you can also be guided by what kind of tomato variety was chosen before germinating seeds:
- early ripening varieties - seedlings are ready for planting in 40-50 days after the start of seed germination
- mid-season varieties - after 55-60 days
- late-ripening varieties - after about 70 days.
It is also important to take care of the future place of residence of young tomatoes - in order to avoid the transfer of diseases, they should not be planted in the place in the greenhouse where any nightshades grew last season (potatoes, peppers, eggplant and the tomatoes themselves). The best precursors for our seedlings are cucumbers, cabbage, carrots, onions and legumes.
If you are re-creating the greenhouse beds, then you can prepare your own soil mixture for the tomatoes from garden soil, peat, sawdust and humus (in a ratio of 2: 1: 1: 1). When digging the beds, a complex mineral fertilizer should be applied. And before planting seedlings, the soil must be shed with a solution of potassium permanganate.
During planting, a certain distance between the plants must be observed, in order to avoid possible diseases (for example, root rot) in the future due to thickening of the plantings. Remember that one plant needs at least 0.3 square meters of soil.
It is better to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse without the scorching direct sun - in the late afternoon or in cloudy weather. The main condition is the warming up of the soil for seedlings to at least 10-15 ° C at the depth of the roots.
1-1.5 hours before planting, the seedlings need to be shed properly so that the earthy ball does not crumble during transplantation and the roots of young plants are not damaged.
Seedling bushes, one at a time, are carefully taken out of the container where they grew, together with an earthen lump and vertically lowered into the prepared holes. Then, until the cotyledonous leaves, the plants are covered with fertile soil, lightly tamped and watered abundantly (4-5 liters of water in one hole). If the seedlings "lived" in peat tablets, they are lowered into the holes right with them.
If the seedlings are overgrown, they are planted "lying" or buried deeper than usual.
Necessary micro and macro elements
In order for tomatoes to bear fruit well, they must be fed with various macro- and microelements. The most important here are nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. With a lack of the first, the development of the vegetative system slows down or stops altogether, the yield decreases, the leaves turn yellow and the roots weaken.
If the plant does not have enough phosphorus fertilizers, then it does not tolerate cold well and does not resist various pests. This is especially noticeable during the period of growing seedlings.
Potassium deficiency also plays an important role, which occurs mainly during fruiting. Tomatoes need this element much less than others. It is necessary to improve the palatability, strengthen the root system and stems, and accelerate the formation of ovaries and leaves. Magnesium and zinc regulate photosynthesis, the formation of chlorophyll, and molybdenum and calcium determine whether the leaves will curl and wrinkle.
Potassium deficiency in tomatoes is clearly visible on the leaves
You also need to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse with preparations with sulfur, iron and manganese, with insufficient supply of which the stems become thin and fragile, the leaves become stiff, begin to wither and dry. Very often you can find bright yellow streaks on the tops, which are somewhat reminiscent of a viral mosaic.
In greenhouses, the demand for chlorine and calcium in tomatoes doubles. These micro- and macroelements are intensively absorbed by the plant in low light and high humidity. In the case of their deficiency, the leaves are characterized by a mosaic yellow-green color and the top of the plant bends unnaturally, which may indicate the development of late blight.
Table of sources of micro- and macroelements
|Potassium||Potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium salt|
|Phosphorus||Double superphosphate, superphosphate|
|Nitrogen||Ammonia water, ammonium sulfate, urea, ammonium nitrate|
|Calcium, zinc, sulfur, magnesium||Dolomite flour, oven ash, eggshells, zinc sulfate|
All offered fertilizers can be used both individually and in combination with each other. For convenience, ready-made inorganic compositions are sold - "Master", "Nitroammofoska", "Ammophos", "Tseovit", "Valagro Benefit", "Kelik Potassium" and many others. dr.
When to Use - Fertilizing Procedure
It is necessary to divide the work into 4 stages:
- Before planting in the soil, it is abundantly watered and fertilized with a mixture of ash and manure. Then, when the earth dries up, it is well dug up. A week later, the first feeding of tomatoes is carried out after planting in the greenhouse under the roots. At this time, urea and ammonium nitrate can be used. Dissolve 2 tsp in a bucket of water. each component.
Ammonium nitrate is an indispensable component of foliar and root dressings
- Fertilizers are applied for the second time 2 weeks after the first feeding. Potassium sulfate diluted in 10 liters of water will be useful here. After another 5 days, the following composition should be poured under the roots:
- 15 liters of cooled boiling water
- 2 tbsp. l. superphosphate
- 2 tbsp. l. wood ash.
- After the beginning of flowering, it is recommended to spray the bushes with such a solution:
- 10 l of water
- 2 tsp sodium humate powder
- 2 tbsp. l. nitrophosphate.
For 1 sq. m you will need about 5 liters of the composition. Then a break is taken until the time when the first fruits appear. At this point, you should use "green" organic matter - herbal infusion. For its preparation, wandering comfrey, buttercup, dandelion or any other plants with a total weight of 1 kg, pour boiling water and let them stand for 2-3 days. Stir the mixture every day, and when it ferments, strain it and pour the solution over the wells.
Herbal dressing for tomatoes - green organic
- After the beginning of fruiting, the application of mineral fertilizers under the roots remains relevant. You can see what exactly fits here in the table just above. To strengthen the plant and increase its resistance to diseases 2-3 times a month, it is useful to use iodine (40 drops) in combination with 1 liter of serum and 1 tsp. hydrogen peroxide. The bushes are sprayed with this composition.
How to feed
For watering the soil during the growing season, ready-made preparations help well. One of these is "Fitosporin-M", intended for soil disinfection. Such feeding of tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate and other materials prevents the development of powdery mildew, root rot, black leg and other diseases. For this purpose, 3 tsp are diluted in 10 liters of water. powder, the resulting volume is enough to process an area of 50 sq. m.
In case of boron deficiency at any stage, spray the bushes with water (10 liters), in which 2 g of boric acid is diluted. With the same composition, you can wipe the leaves and water the soil, before that it is heated in the sun. For additional nutrition and protection against late blight, iodine is suitable, 10 drops of which are added to 10 liters of water.
Iodine is an excellent remedy for protecting tomatoes from late blight
Iodine can also be used in the following way - hanging bubbles with it over the plants - the vapors of this drug destroy microbes in the greenhouse. In order not to suffer ourselves, you cannot stay in this room for more than an hour at a time.
During flowering, it is useful to spray the bushes with an infusion of wood ash, it (250 g) is poured with hot water (3 l) and left for a day. The next day, the precipitate is filtered off, and the resulting solution is diluted with water (1: 1). Enough 1-2 such procedures before the start of fruiting.
For leaf feeding, a solution of:
- boric acid (5 g),
- zinc sulfate (3 g),
- copper sulfate (2 g).
It is used to wipe the leaves with a cotton pad. It is quite possible to spray the bushes with the same composition. The number of such procedures should not exceed 1 time per month.
For the active development of shoots and leaves, it is necessary to feed the tomatoes in the greenhouse with urea, but it is possible only at the flowering stage. The bushes are treated with a 0.5% solution (50 g of fertilizer per 10 l of water). This volume is enough for spraying 100 sq. m of plantings of tomatoes.
With a lack of calcium, calcium nitrate is useful, 7 g of which is diluted in 10 liters of water. The finished fertilizer can be used to wipe the leaves or sprinkle the tops until fruit appears, about 1 liter is required per bush. Usually 2-3 treatments are sufficient during the flowering period.
After planting the seedlings, it is advisable to spray it with ammonium nitrate diluted with water at the rate of 40 g per 10 liters. In the flowering phase, the concentration increases by 0.2%, and in the fruiting period it is already 0.9%. In total, 3 such procedures are required at the specified time, it is recommended to combine them with the introduction of chicken manure into the wells.
VIDEO: Simple and inexpensive recipes for feeding tomatoes
For this, both ready-made preparations and mineral fertilizers are suitable.
It is produced in dry form and is relevant only in the first month after planting the seedlings. The application rate is 25 g per sq. m in the greenhouse. The granules are placed around the hole, sprinkled with earth and watered with water.
The drug (20 g) is dissolved in 10 l of water. For him to help, it is enough to water the soil with them once a week. You cannot combine this method with organic!
It contains all existing micro and macro elements. For their assimilation by the plant, you need to water it with a solution of 20 g of the product + 15 liters of water. The frequency of the procedure is no more than 1 time per week.
Consumption rates - 25 g per medium-sized bucket of water. This volume is enough to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse for 20 square meters. m landing area. It is carried out throughout the growing season with an interval of 10 days.
It is used in its pure form for spraying and watering the soil. The composition contains boron, iron, molybdenum, manganese and other macro- and microelements, due to which the growth of the plant is actively stimulated. Do not process it more than once a month.
The first watering is carried out with a 0.05% solution 15 days after planting the seedlings, and the next, two more, with an interval of 3 weeks. Here the concentration should be doubled.
Of the mineral fertilizers, once a month, it is recommended to use a mullein, which (1 l) is diluted in water (10 l), mixed and poured under the roots of the bush. After that, you can water the ground the very next day. Dry manure also helps well, it is evenly distributed over the beds and left to decompose.
To strengthen the root part, accelerate photosynthesis and improve the taste of the fruit, you can combine several different fertilizers. Here are the best recipes:
- Add nitrophoska (20 g) to the mullein infusion (1 l).
- Combine 8 g of potassium sulfate, 15 g of superphosphate and 0.3 l of chicken manure infusion.
- Mix 200 g of wood ash, 0.7 l of liquid mullein and 20 g of superphosphate.
- In 1 liter of infusion of any herbs, add 5 g of copper sulfate and 250 ml of ash.
The prepared compositions are poured directly under the roots of the plant using a ladle in the morning or evening. It is extremely important that when the tomatoes are fed in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or other material, the day is not very sunny, but there is no rain. The number of procedures is no more than 2 per month.
The number of root top dressing applications can be increased up to 5 times in 2 months if the bush is affected by aphids and other pests.
Special attention should be paid to feeding tomatoes with yeast, which can be carried out no earlier than 10 days after transplanting seedlings into the ground. To do this, follow this recipe - combine dry yeast (10 g), chicken manure (0.3 L), water (8 L) and sugar - 25 g. Since this composition cannot be used in its pure form, dilute it 1 to 10 with water and using a watering can with a strainer, pour the fertilizer in a circle. It is an excellent growth stimulant! Repeat the procedure after 2 weeks if necessary. Double the amount of chicken manure this time.
A supplement of yeast and sugar for tomatoes can be even more useful if you add ascorbic acid to the mixture - only 2 grams per solution
Read with this article: Yeast plant food - recipe for its preparation
And the last option is to drop dolomite flour near the bush. For 1 hundred square meters with acidity less than 4.5%, 20 kg is quite enough. Fertilizer is distributed around the plant and immersed to a depth of about 5 cm. Note that the more acidic the soil, the more it is needed.
Now you also know how the correct feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse should be carried out, what is needed for it and how to combine it all correctly. Such a procedure should definitely be included in the care of greenhouse tomatoes, because, growing them in conditions of insufficient light, high humidity, lower temperatures, they need much more of your attention and care. This is the only way to please yourself with a really good and tasty harvest!