Types and cultivation of philodendrons indoors

Types and cultivation of philodendrons indoors

Phylodendron in your apartment

According to the horoscope, the zodiac sign Virgo (August 24-September 23), according to flower astrologers, includes the following plants: Japanese fatsia, heptapleurum woody, monstera deliciosa, cross, syngonium, cissus, dracaena bent, roicissus ("birch"), Japanese aucuba , scindapsus - "devil's ivy", philodendron

Philodendron (Phylodendron) is a member of the Araliaceae family, which also includes monstera, dieffenbachia and scindapsus, and has about 120 species, and many indoor hybrids have already been obtained.

In its natural form, this beautiful, very large plant is found in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America. For its huge heavy leaves, the philodendron is otherwise called "leaf tree". But the very name philodendron comes from two Greek words: "phileo" - "to love" and "dendron" - "tree".

Philodendrons are gaining more and more popularity in indoor floriculture due to their large green leaves and their easy maintenance. The presence of a large philodendron gives the room a certain exotic flavor. Typically, philodendrons are divided into two groups: tree forms and vines.

It is believed that philodendrons - lianas are more suitable for keeping in indoor conditions due to their unpretentiousness, but they need an obligatory support (in the form of a bamboo or ordinary stick or driftwood wrapped in sphagnum moss). In the absence of support, the stems will hang ugly from the container. Tree-like forms with large leaves and forming a crown up to 3 m in diameter are preferable for large rooms - spacious halls and foyers, wide staircases and conservatories.

There is a wide variety of philodendrons in indoor culture. There are types of small size, convenient for placement in any apartment in size, there are also giants.

Climbing (vines) are more numerous than bushy ones, and are interesting for amateur flower growers. Climbing or clinging philodendron (P.scandens) (homeland - Puerto Rico, Cuba) is most popular among amateurs - flower growers, since it is a small and very hardy plant (resistant to unfavorable conditions and is not very demanding), therefore it takes root well in any apartment.

On a winding stem with abundant aerial roots in the nodes, there are matte pale green (slightly reddening on the underside) leaves (8-14 cm long, 5-9 cm wide), heart-shaped, long-pointed at the top. The leaves turn dark green with age. This species almost does not bloom in indoor conditions.

Philodendron blushing or reddish (P. eulescens) (originally from Colombia) is very interesting due to its high decorativeness. This vine has a greenish-red stem at a young age, later acquires a greenish-gray color. It has ovoid leaves; at a young age they are reddish-brown, but in adults (15-25 cm long and 12-18 cm wide) they are dark green, only at the edges retaining a reddish tint.

Both of these species, the most interesting for indoor floriculture, are considered the most shade-tolerant among vines. Climbing - grows better even in partial shade. In winter, the temperature is required at least 15 ° C.

Philodendron warty (P. verrucosum) interesting with bright purple petioles covered with hairs. It has a pleasant velvety green color with a bronze tint of leaves, along the veins of which there are light stripes.

Philodendron graceful (P.elegant) (originally from the tropics of South America) - with a thick stem (up to 10 cm in diameter) and deeply pinnately dissected large (40-80 cm long and 30-50 cm wide) oblong leaves, a bit reminiscent of palm leaves. For a better development of this beautiful (but slowly growing) species, it is worth choosing a bright room. In addition, it requires a considerable amount of space to grow.

Philodendron black-gold (P. melanochrysum) similar to the climbing philodendron, but it is characterized by greenish-black leaves. Although the leaves of a slowly growing plant of the P.insemanii species, quite worthy of any collection, are similar to those of a climbing plant, they are variegated in color. The species P.callinofollium and P.wendlandii are less known: the first is more compact in size, with bright green leaves and "swollen" petioles, the second has simple, lanceolate leaves, 35 cm long, growing almost in a circle from the center of the plant.

Aerial roots are formed from the sinuses of philodendrons - lianas, which is their characteristic feature. They cannot be cut off, but should be directed into the ground of the same pot: when they reach the soil, they begin to additionally supply the plant with nutrients. Sometimes these aerial roots are collected in a bunch and planted in a separate container with fertile soil.

The leaves of some types of philodendrons differ in the same property as that of the monstera - to predict the onset of bad weather. Before cloudy or rainy weather in autumn, and in winter before a thaw, large drops of water appear at the ends of the leaves, which then roll down. In connection with this property, these philodendrons, as well as monstera, are called "crybaby".

Erect (bushy) philodendrons are considered unpretentious plants, but they are multi-volume. They pay less attention to unfavorable conditions and improper care, at the same time they are diverse and very decorative.

P.bipinnatifum is a beautiful low-growing plant (native to Brazil), its name comes from the Latin word for "feather", which is associated with the shape of its leaves. Have narrow-cut philodendron (P.angustisectum) the edges of the leaves are dissected into narrow, long lobes; each leaf resembles a rounded green feather. Although the leaves (up to 90 cm long and up to 70 cm wide) have philodendron Sello or Zelo (P.selloum), reaching a height of up to 2 m, are as strongly dissected as in the narrowly dissected one, its leaf lobes are wider and with wavy fistone edges.

Philodendron double-dissected (P. bippinatifidum) grows up to 1-1.5 m in height and is characterized by very large (up to 60 cm long) arrow-shaped greenish leaves with a grayish tint. Philodendron Martius (R. martianum) has a very short trunk, or it is almost absent at all; its leaves are large, heart-shaped, erect on a thick petiole.

These are warm and moisture-loving plants that prefer bright rooms, at the same time they are shade-tolerant, they do not tolerate direct sunlight. In summer, they are abundantly watered and sprayed with settled soft water, preventing oversaturation of the soil with moisture, since stagnant water in the sump adversely affects the state of the root system of the philodendron: after the water is absorbed into the soil substrate, its excess is drained from the sump.

Philodendron responds favorably to feeding (every two weeks) with a solution of complex mineral or organic fertilizers and high humidity. It is not recommended to take it out in the summer to fresh air. The leaves are wiped with a soft sponge or damp cloth. During the winter maintenance of the philodendron, they lower the temperature, reduce watering and stop feeding.

Since this plant is not too demanding for lighting, in winter it can even be placed away from the window. Philodendron is transplanted depending on the strength of its growth. If it grows too fast and gives a lot of roots, then it must be replanted annually.

There are several ways of reproduction of the philodendron. Most often it is propagated by apical shoots (each segment should have a leaf and a bud), cutting into pieces of 10 cm in size.The cuttings are placed in wet sand (temperature 24 ... 26 ° C), and so that the humidity approaches 100%, they are covered glass jar or plastic bag. When the cuttings form a root system, the plants are planted in pots (9-10 cm in size) in a soil substrate consisting of turf, humus, peat and sand (in a ratio of 1: 2: 1: 0.5).

When propagating by dividing the lignified trunk, the segments are placed in a prepared box with a light substrate (sand and peat in a 1: 1 ratio) so that the bud is directed upwards, and lightly sprinkled with peat, watered, ventilated (2-3 times a week) so that the segments have not rotted. After rooting, these parts are seated.

The method of reproduction by air layers is resorted to, having a large plant. A weak incision is made on the stem under the leaf with the bud, the damaged area is covered with wet moss, and then tightly tied with plastic wrap. After 3-4 weeks, a root system is formed at the site of injury, and the young plant can be separated from the mother plant.

I had a chance to visit the largest farm "Niva" in the Moscow region, engaged in the reproduction and sale of indoor plants. There I saw a lot of philodendron plants, in which on each of the many trunks several air layers were simultaneously arranged in this way.

Many plants - lianas often lose their lower leaves and become ugly. In this case, one or two of the upper aerial roots should be tightly wrapped with wet moss, tied with polyethylene and attached to the trunk. Aerial roots in moss form many roots, then the top with one or two leaves is cut off and planted in a pot of soil so that the roots and cut are covered with soil. Sprinkle the cut with crushed coal. In this way, a new young tree is obtained.

When buying a philodendron, growers usually prefer specimens without damage with well-colored leaves, with signs of new growth. Undernourished, long and thin plants with yellowed lower leaves should not be taken when buying. If the leaves have a drooping appearance, but the plant seems to be quite healthy, here the reason may lie in a too dry soil substrate. To restore the philodendron, the pot with it is immersed in a bucket of water, then allowing excess moisture to drain off.

If the lower leaves turn yellow and fall off, this indicates a possible waterlogging. It is necessary for the soil to dry out, then let the plant come to its senses, and only then resume watering (but in moderation).

The leaves have turned pale, and in the spring there is no growth - it is possible that the soil is depleted with nutrients. It is necessary to transplant the philodendron into a new fertile soil, regularly do top dressing.

When brown or black rings appear on the leaves or along their edges, pay attention to whether they leaned against a cold window in winter. A burn is also possible if leaves with drops of water (after watering) come into direct sunlight. The appearance of such signs on the leaves is also possible if hot electrical devices are located nearby.

If the plant stops growing, the foliage is sluggish, the reason may be too low a room temperature. To fix things, the plant is rearranged to a warmer place.

Of the harmful insects on the philodendron, you can find mealybugs, scale insects and aphids. The worm is a sedentary oval insect (white or pink in color) 2-3 mm in size, covered with a waxy powder. It is usually localized on leaf petioles, but with a high abundance it can also be found on leaf blades. Experts advise to first wash it off with soapy water, using potassium liquid soap (20 g / l), and then insure by treating it with actellik solution (2 ml / l water).

The scabbard is found on the leaves. Experienced growers remove each individual by hand, and then wipe the leaves with a cotton swab dipped in vodka. If treated with a solution of acaricide (0.2% actellic), then this procedure is repeated no more than three times with an interval of 6-7 days. When working with a philodendron, remember that it is a poisonous plant and can irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose.

A. Lazarev, candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Pushkin


Lush panicles, consisting of small inflorescences, add charm to the trachelium. From a distance, it may seem that fluffy bright pads rise above the bushes. Inflorescences retain their freshness and beauty for a long time even after cutting.

This flower comes from Greece. But over time, it spread throughout the Mediterranean. And today it is cultivated on all continents, and it is very popular with gardeners.

How to properly care for a plant

Carnations bloom beautifully in sunny flower beds. They do not like excess moisture in the soil, so it is better to plant them in elevated places that do not get wet during heavy rains.

The flower grows well on fertile loamy soil with normal acidity. It is undemanding to care, does not need organic feeding. Mineral fertilizers are applied in minimal quantities during budding and flowering.

After flowering, the bushes are cut off. Leaves of silvery or green color retain their decorative effect until frost. Sometimes pruning can cause re-flowering.

Plantain care

Plantain grown in the garden is very easy to care for. So that this herbaceous plant grows and develops normally, it should ensure timely watering, weeding and loosening of the soil surface between the bushes. Particular attention should be paid to weeding the plantain in the first year of its growth, because at this time the bushes are still relatively weak, and the weed can drown them out much faster. The first time to loosen the surface of the site, and you also need to pull out all the weeds after the first seedlings appear. Plantain crops do not need thinning, even if they are excessively thick.

Such a herbaceous plant needs regular feeding. The first time to feed the plantain is necessary at the beginning of the spring period. The second time the bushes are fed after the first collection of leaf plates has been carried out. You can feed plantain with Nitrofoskoy, while the required dosage should be indicated on the packaging of this fertilizer. Also, instead of Nitrofoska, for every one square meter of the plot, you can apply from 15 to 20 grams of any of the nitrogen-containing fertilizers.

Growing a plantain on your site will not be difficult for either an experienced gardener or a beginner. The main thing is to adhere to all the rules of agricultural technology of this culture and take good care of it, and then you will definitely not have problems with this plant.

Features of galtonia

The height of the galtonium can vary from 0.5 to 1.5 m. Large cone-shaped bulbs have a concave bottom. Leaf plates are bare, juicy, grooved, belly-shaped. The height of the peduncle is about 100 centimeters, it bears a loose racemose inflorescence, consisting of drooping white flowers that have a non-falling tubular-funnel-shaped perianth. Flowering is observed in August and September. The fruit is a slightly ribbed three-nested cylindrical box. Inside the capsule there is a large number of seeds of irregular triangular shape and black color.

Growing secrets

  • Lilies feel just fine if their upper part is warmed up in the sun, and the "legs" are in the shade, that is, the bulbs do not overheat. Plant low or medium-sized plants near them, for example, daylilies, hosts, bells, flax. Thanks to this joint planting, you will shade the lower part of the lilies, which means that the soil will not overheat and dry out.
  • When planting oriental lilies, try to prevent the bulbs from drying out.
  • Remember that Asiatic lilies do not like adding lime to the soil and quite often require replanting - once every two years.

Lilies are quite unpretentious in their care. During the flowering period, they need moderate watering. In hot dry weather, when there is almost no moisture in the ground, they must be watered abundantly.After flowering, watering can be stopped altogether.

Lilies are quite unpretentious in care

When cutting lilies, be sure to leave a large enough portion of the leafy stem. This will help further the development of the bulb. And try to cut the cut obliquely so that rainwater can easily roll off without getting inside (excess moisture can cause rotting).

In autumn, it is better to cut the stems of lilies at a height of 8-18 cm from the ground. And just before wintering, it is useful to mulch the planting of lilies with peat.

For a successful wintering of lilies, they must be covered in time. Film, sawdust, dry leaves or spruce branches are the best for this. When covering plantings, make sure that the ground is completely dry. In spring, the shelter must be removed in time - preferably before the first sprouts appear.

The homeland of lilies is the mountainous regions of Asia, and in total there are over a hundred species of this plant in nature.

Asian hybrids:

  • deep yellow with red - 'Grand Cru'
  • coffee, with scarlet tips - 'Lollypop'
  • pink and white - 'Marlene', 'Ventoux', 'Marseille', 'Vermeer', 'Kentucky'

Terry Asian Lily 'Cocktail Twins'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko

  • yellow - 'Kansas'
  • yellow with red - 'Gitana'.

Oriental hybrids:
  • raspberry white - 'Barbados'
  • white with yellow - 'Time Out'

Oriental Lily 'Pink Mist'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko

  • white with pink and yellow - 'Star Class'
  • white with pink - 'Set Point'
  • tricolor - 'Arena'.

LA hybrids:
  • apricot - 'Bestseller'
  • lemon - 'Aerobic'
  • pink coffee - 'Royal Club'

LA hybrid 'Golden Tycoon'. Photo by Sergey Kovalenko

  • red - 'Royal Parade'
  • apricot - 'Swing'.

More than 300 new varieties appear on the country's markets every year, the beauty of which can amaze anyone. The novelties are different not only in color of the flower, but also in shape and, of course, in name: bluish 'Blue Eyes', golden orange 'Ariosto', cherry 'Stargazer' - who can they leave indifferent?

Whom can they leave indifferent?

If we talk about hybrids in more detail, then they differ significantly from each other. For example, Dutch hybrids with a dense texture of inflorescences and petals are strong enough to be easily transported over any distance. “Asians” of Russian selection are very fragile and airy, as evidenced by their romantic names: 'Night', 'Pink Haze', 'Virineya'.

You can talk about lilies endlessly. Every year the ranks of their admirers are replenished with new gardeners. For them, we have made a selection of interesting and useful materials about lilies:

  • What do the mysterious ciphers in the names of lilies mean? Features of growing different hybrids
  • In the kingdom of lilies: features of Asian, oriental and tubular hybrids
  • 5 ways to breed lilies

Today, everyone can afford to plant lilies in their garden, even people with allergies. True, it is better for them to purchase odorless varieties: as a rule, there is a corresponding marking on the packaging of plants. And thanks to the unpretentiousness of the plants, growing lilies will not take much of your time.