How to plant potatoes correctly to get a good harvest
Almost every person has a summer residence. And it doesn't matter whose it is - grandmothers, grandfathers, parents or her own. And every year at the same time everyone rushes to grow the harvest of vegetables and berries. One of these crops is potatoes, the cultivation of which should be known to everyone. We will tell you how to plant potatoes correctly below.
The optimal time for planting potatoes in the ground is late April or early May... Before this period, such an action cannot be done, because the culture can simply disappear in the cold earth. If the climate in your area is cool, then you should wait until the ground warms up at least up to 10 degrees.
How to plant in spring - step by step process
To plant potatoes correctly, you should follow the step-by-step instructions:
- Several weeks before disembarkation, keep the tubers warm, then cover the boxes with some translucent material and leave in a cool, bright place. When they release green shoots in the spring, it's time to plant them in the ground.
- Disinfection with boric acid or manure solution.
- Preparing the soil for planting.
- Planting potatoes.
- Creation of an optimal growth regime.
Planting potatoes in May
You need to plant potatoes according to the indications of the lunar calendar. In May, such dates can be chosen 9, 11 and 13 numbers.
Until what date can you plant potatoes
When determining this date, it should be borne in mind that the vegetative period for this root crop is 90 days.
That is, if you plan to plant on July 1, then at the end of September you can fully harvest the crop.
What days is it forbidden
Folk omens say that potatoes can not be planted in the ground on the following days:
- On Wednesdays.
- On Saturdays.
- During Palm week.
If you neglect these rules, then the tubers will deteriorate and not give further growth.
Is it possible to plant potatoes in cold ground
It is impossible to plant potatoes in cold soil, because it can simply freeze in such weather and you will lose the entire crop, it is worthwhile to wait.
If you hurry up and still take such a step, then you need pay special attention to heating and providing good conditions for its living in order to get a harvest.
Which one to use - large or small
Small tubers are commonly referred to as weight samples up to 30 grams, average - 30-80 gr, and large - more than 80 gr.
Very often, many gardeners use medium-sized potatoes, believing that this may be the best choice. But these are the specimens that usually grow from weakened plants.
There are only 2 best landing methods:
- Plant small tubers, but immediately throw into the planting hole several pieces.
- Plant cut from large tubers... But such objects must have at least three eyes.
Is it possible to plant fresh tubers
If someone thinks that this method is unacceptable, then he is greatly mistaken. Applying fresh potatoes when replanting allows you to improve the yield several times and save the owners from problems with storing seed until the spring.
This method is best used for those countries in which the period without the onset of frost is 180 days. This is observed in Odessa, Kherson, Poltava and other cities. This method will not work for Irkutsk.
A distinctive feature of this type of disembarkation is that the new crop will emerge slowly.
What kind of weather
Potatoes should be planted only when the frost has passed and the air temperature rises up to 14-16 degrees... The earth should warm up at this time up to 10 degrees.
There is a popular sign according to which the root crop should be planted after the leaves on the birch become the size of a coin.
How often to plant potatoes
Potatoes can be planted several times a year with a full growing period of 90 days.
How to properly plant in granulated feed
Granulated compound feed finds its application when digging areas before winter... It is then that it is introduced into the soil to improve the characteristics of the soil used.
Landing with manure
If you want to significantly increase the yield, then it is better to use manure for fertilization.
It can be applied in 2 ways:
- Fertilizing the land before the winter period. Submitted in the amount of 10 kg per 1 square meter.
- Fertilizer in the hole. When planting occurs, after laying the tuber, sprinkle it with manure.
Motoblock or shovel
You can plant potatoes in 2 ways:
- Manually using a shovel... Among the advantages of this technology, one can single out simplicity: one person simply digs a deep hole, and the second throws in the tubers and fertilizer. When the second finishes sowing, the first fills the finished hole. After the process is completed, the ground is leveled with a rake, which allows the water to remain in the ground.
- Using a walk-behind tractor... The advantage of this method is the speed and low cost of manual effort. The process begins with cutting furrows, after which germinated seeds are thrown there. The holes can then be dug in manually or using a cultivator.
What are siderates and what are they for?
Siderata are plants that are grown to improve the fertile properties of the soil.
What does such a technique give?
- Enrichment of soil with nitrogen, which makes up some part in plant nutrition.
- Loosening the soil and improving the structure.
- Elimination of erosion.
- Land enrichment nutrients and organic matter.
- Reducing weed growth.
- Elimination of pests and diseases.
- Protection of the earth from overheating.
Tuber sprouting and soil preparation
To grow potatoes, sprout tubers 2 weekswhile removing the white shoots. You need to lay out the material for landing in a thin layer on the floor in a bright place. Readiness can be determined by the presence of green shoots on the potatoes, but without additional spots.
If we talk about the detailed preparation of the soil, then it is worth starting with fertilizing it even before the onset of winter. When it is time to board, ensure necessary moisture and loosening of the soil... Digging should be replaced with bayonet using a pitchfork. This allows the earth to be enriched with oxygen.
Features of growing in the country
If you have your own summer cottage, then when growing potatoes, first choose its variety.
After all, someone prefers a root vegetable with yellow crumbly pulp, and someone with white. After that you need decide on the growing method, of which there are many now. But do not forget about soil fertilization.
Hilling potatoes should be done after the plant has risen. 10 cm above the ground... This will allow the root crop to be protected from frost with the help of a bedding. And after the potatoes grow up to 40 cm, you need to fully spud the beds, covering the aisles well with earth.
Very often leaves, twigs or hay - organic materials can be added to the bedding mixture. This will allow you to keep moisture in the ground longer, and also prevent weeds from germinating for a long time.
Watering and care
After the potatoes have started to bloom, the main condition for a good harvest is good watering.
It should be 2-3 times, if the summer is very hot, and if on the contrary, then 1 time is enough. But weeds need to be removed much more often, as well as watch out for Colorado beetles.
Initially, you need to harvest after 60 days after planting potatoes, but the main part should be waited until the tops are completely dry.
You need to remove the finished culture only with a pitchfork, so as not to damage the mounds. You can grow a crop in one place only for 4 years, after which you need to give the land a rest and move the plant to another place.
How to grow in a "two-yield" way
In many southern countries, gardeners use any method to grow as many crops as possible each year. And therefore, a method of growing potatoes has already been developed. Twice a year, given that only early ripening varieties are used.
The features of the method are:
- Good potato samples should be rinsed and cut and then soak in a special solution for an hour and a half.
- Germinate the culture for 10 days in the garden, covering it with a small layer of soil.
- After that, on July 10, you need to plant the finished material in the ground and wait for the harvest.
Growing potatoes is a simple process if you follow a few basic rules:
- Compliance with the process of preparing material for planting and soil.
- Creation of favorable conditions for germination.
- Plant feeding.
If you follow all the above rules, then you can achieve a good result even with a minimum of effort.
When to plant potatoes in 2019
The harvest will bring complete satisfaction if you know when to plant potatoes in 2019 according to the lunar calendar.
Terms, when to plant potatoes in 2019 according to the lunar calendar, are interested in many summer residents who want to get their own harvest. After all, only with timely landing can you expect a good result.
The culture is considered unpretentious, but it reacts noticeably to climate change. When planted early in cold ground, the tubers freeze and do not sprout for a long period. In excessively moist soil, they can die from fungal diseases.
The quality of future tubers depends not only on the agricultural technology used and weather conditions. They are strongly influenced by the correct choice of a favorable landing date. After all, the basis of the calendar of lunar cycles is their alternation.
- Planting dates depending on varietal and regional characteristics
- Suitable days according to the lunar calendar
- Potato care after planting
Planting dates depending on varietal and regional characteristics
Vegetable growers and gardeners adhere to the changes of the lunar phases, but the choice of a variety is of no small importance in this matter, where each one differs in its growing season and ripening rate:
- The early variety is usually planted from the second half of April. At this time, the earth warms up well, the air temperature rises to plus fifteen degrees. Such tubers fully ripen, they can already be selected after two months.
- Potatoes of medium and medium late ripeness need three to three and a half months to ripen. These are the most popular varieties that are planted from the second half of May.
- The late variety is intended for livestock feed, and it is planted before winter. It takes four months for the final ripening. For human consumption, these tubers are planted from late May to early June.
Residents of the south, Krasnodar Territory, can get two crops of potatoes after the first planting in March. In the Siberian regions and central Russia, potatoes are planted when the ground warms up enough, the weather stabilizes. In this area, it is better to start such an event in mid-May. For the Moscow region, the suitable dates for planting tubers are from the end of April. Since in the Urals the land begins to warm up well only in June, the preferred time for planting potatoes is from the end of May.
Suitable days according to the lunar calendar
Changes in the phases of the moon affect all vegetation, and thanks to this knowledge, experienced vegetable growers are engaged in sowing and then planting seedlings.
Most favorable days for planting potatoes in 2019:
- In April - 6-9, 15-17, 20, 21, 24-26, 29, 30
- In May - 1-4, 8-10
It is not recommended to plant it in the new and full moon phases on April 5 and 1, on May 5 and 19.
The current May is marked by a large number of weekends and holidays, which is why most people use them for planting work.
If it is not possible to adhere to favorable dates, there are neutral days - April 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, May 5, 6, 12, 19, 26. It is better not to risk planting plants on the May 5 new moon and the full moon falling on May 19.
The day before the new moon and on the new moon, you should harvest root crops - potatoes, radishes, beets, turnips, carrots, etc. It is on such days that the roots concentrate the maximum amount of nutrients.
In vegetable growing, it is also necessary to be guided by the weather conditions. Most gardeners have noticed that May tubers planted in warm soil are hardy, more resistant to pests and diseases. The harvest will keep well, will be tasty and generous.
In addition to the timing of planting crops, experienced gardeners use days with fertile zodiac signs:
- Taurus - April 7, 8, May 4, 5
- Cancer - April 11, 12, May 8-10
- Scorpio - April 20 and 21, May 17, 18
Barren zodiac signs are Leo, Aries, Aquarius, semi-barren Virgo and Gemini, infertile Capricorn, Pisces, Libra.
Each sign is distinguished by its characteristic feature. Under the signs Capricorn, Taurus and Scorpio plant crops that are supposed to be stored for a long time. Fish, Cancer, Scorpio contribute to the absorption of nutrients by plants and maximum moisture from them, so such fruits become watery, it is better to use them immediately for food or processing. It is advisable to plant potatoes, onions, garlic on days under the sign of Sagittarius. Taurus and Aries promote quick germination, plants get sick less.
The optimal planting period for this crop allows for a deviation from favorable dates by no more than ten days.
Potato care after planting
Often newcomers summer residents wonder how to plant potatoes correctly to get a good harvest?
Experienced gardeners share their little tricks:
- It is advisable to use the favorable dates of the lunar calendar and the weather conditions of the local climate
- Potato planting tubers should be firm, eyed, and medium in size. Seed material is harvested in the fall, that is, they pay attention to which varieties give an excellent harvest. If the crop is poor, it is time to replace the sown tubers, for example, the pink variety with a white one. Replacement of planting tubers with purchased, neighboring or from other regions gives good results. It is shortsighted to plant only a single-sorted crop on the site. It is even better to diversify the planting with tubers of different ripeness - for food, an ideal early potato, for storage late
- Use sprouted potatoes for planting. For this purpose, it is kept warm for fourteen days open. Then the containers are covered with glass or other transparent material, transferred to a cooler place. By the time of planting, the tubers grow powerful shoots of rich color
- Before planting, it is advisable to decontaminate. Seed potatoes are kept for thirty minutes in a solution of one percent boric acid. To increase the yield, they should be dipped in a manure solution for two days. You can use a fungicide that will protect the crop from pests and diseases for two months.
- Some gardeners use the method of Bryansk gardeners - the soil between the planting double furrows is diluted with a large amount of old manure
After the emergence of seedlings, the potato bed is periodically moistened, spudded, loosened the aisle, applied top dressing, and protected from pests and diseases.
If the summer is humid, three waterings per season are enough for potatoes. The first after germination, the last during the tying of tubers.
Loosening and hilling are very important for this crop.Row spacing allows the roots to breathe, accumulate, and retain the necessary moisture.
For the entire growing season, three additional dressings are applied. The first time, when the tops are fully developed, the second after the ejection of the buds, the third after the end of flowering.
The main pest of potatoes, the Colorado potato beetle, is disposed of by various available means - Prestige, Tiran, Karate.
Fans of an environmentally friendly product dust the potato green mass with wood ash, spray it with infusion of onion peel.
From the common disease Late blight, they are protected by two treatments using onion infusion.
Experienced gardeners say that if planting potatoes carried out in unfavorable phases of the moon, the best weather conditions cannot guarantee a decent yield. Already more than eighty percent of vegetable growers and gardeners rely on the lunar calendar. You cannot argue with nature, it does not take into account regional areas, humidity, temperature indicators of air and soil. It is the lunar cycles that play the main role in the ideal natural development of vegetation.
Now look at how you can plant potatoes without using a shovel.
Preparing for planting potatoes
Take the seed potatoes out in the sun a little less than a month before planting. Let him lie like this for a couple of days. Then transfer to a cool, dry but sunny place. This will provide the seeds with good sprouting.
Sprouting potatoes before planting accelerates crop growth. It also avoids the possibility of planting bad seed potatoes. Those tubers that lie down and do not sprout are likely to be useless in the soil.
Which potatoes to plant?
Unfortunately, there is no universal answer to this question. Different varieties of potatoes are suitable for different territories, and you need to plant those that give a decent harvest on a particular land. For the first time, you need to take several types of potatoes (you can first consult with neighbors in the area who have already harvested).
For planting, you need to choose at least two, and preferably three or four potato varieties. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the period of potato ripening - for storage "in winter", later ripening varieties are selected, for food - early ones.
Planting an entire field with one potato variety is shortsighted
How to choose material for landing?
You need to take care of picking up potatoes for spring planting in the fall, when harvesting. You need to choose the potatoes that have shown good results on the ground. For planting choose dense, medium-sized potatoes of the correct shape, without "eyes", deformation and other damage.
The planting tubers are kept in the light for several days so that they acquire a green tint, and then they are removed in a separate box in a cool, dark place. At the end of winter, the tubers begin to germinate. Many people plant potatoes by simply throwing the tubers into the furrow - this approach does not guarantee a rich harvest. To improve yield indicators, you need to prepare planting material.
Green sprouts on the "planting" tuber
How to cook potatoes for planting?
Tubers selected in the fall must be transferred to boxes or plastic bags with holes made in them for perforation. It is necessary that the planting material is in a temperature of 12 to 15 degrees, and also receives a lot of sunlight. When the first green seedlings appear on the tubers, I place the potatoes in any volumetric container (boxes, baskets, containers) and sprinkle them with a moist substrate (peat, sawdust, earth).
In this form, the tubers are kept for about 10-14 days so that their germination reaches a maximum, and the seedlings are strong and friendly. As a result, the harvest will be good and early.
Well sprouted tubers
Processing before planting
Another step towards a good harvest is disinfection, stimulation and disinfection of the planting material. Tubers can be soaked in a special solution, or you can simply spray them with a spray bottle. This method stimulates the growth of potatoes, protects them from diseases and pests.
Table 1. Recipes for treatment solutions
|Recipe number 1 Disinfection + food (soaking for 2-3 hours)||For ten liters of water, you need to dilute 0.5 grams of potassium permanganate, 15 grams of boric acid and 5 grams of copper sulfate|
|Recipe number 2 Disinfection + food (soaking for 2-3 hours)||Add 10 grams of boric acid, 5 grams of copper sulfate, grams of potassium permanganate, 60 grams of superphosphate and 40 grams of urea to ten liters of water.|
|Recipe number 3 Disinfection (soaking for 2-3 hours)||Add a kilogram of fresh crushed garlic to 10 liters of water.|
|Recipe No. 4 Disinfection + food (spray treatment)||For ten liters of species, add 15 grams of boric acid, a gram of copper sulfate, 40 grams of carbamide, 0.5 grams of potassium permanganate and 30 grams of potassium sulfate.|
Planting material must be processed in advance
Experts advise: the yield can be increased by 15-19% if, before germinating the planting material, a so-called "stimulating incision" is made on each tuber. This is a slow and dreary business, more suitable for a small number of planting tubers, and, accordingly, a small area for sowing. But the result is worth it!
There are two ways to make cuts:
- Ring - along the entire diameter, the tuber is cut about a centimeter in depth.
- Transverse - the tuber is cut almost in half, without cutting to the end of about half a centimeter.
Cross section for stimulation
The incisions are made so that not only those eyes that are on the upper surface of the tuber, but also the lower and middle ones, go into growth. When sprouting, cut potatoes produce strong and vigorous bushes, with a mass of stems.
3 important rules to get a good potato crop
May holidays are perhaps the best time to plant potatoes. However, how to get a large harvest and preserve its taste so that the neighbors on the site are envious? Here are three important rules.
When is the best time to plant?
1) The optimal time for planting potatoes is late April and early May. Previously, there was simply no point: all the forces of culture would go to germinate in the cold earth. In some northern regions, it is advisable to wait until mid-May - when the earth dries up and warms up to 10-12 C.
Which potatoes to plant?
2) Potatoes for planting should be firm, medium in size and with small eyes. You need to take care of the selection of seeds in the fall: pay attention to which potatoes give a good harvest on your land. For example, if pink, then plant the same now. And if the pink is getting worse every year, then this year replace it with another - white, for example.
A good result is given by exchanging planting material with neighbors or buying potatoes from other regions.
Remember, planting only one variety is shortsighted. It is necessary to choose several, with different ripening periods. In one year, the early ripening variety is the most productive, and in the other - the late ripening one. Usually early potatoes are planted "for food", and late varieties are left for the winter - they are better stored.
How to plant correctly?
3) For two weeks before planting, keep the tubers warm (in the light), and then cover the boxes with glass and transfer them to a cool, lit room. They should have small, stocky green shoots before planting.
Before planting, disinfect - place the potatoes for half an hour in a 1% boric acid solution. Or, if you want to increase the yield, soak it for a couple of days in a manure solution.
You can use the excellent technique of Bryansk vegetable growers, who make double beds of potatoes, burying rotted manure between them. The scheme is as follows: 40 cm between rows and 100 - between adjacent ribbons. In a row, tubers are staggered every 30-40 cm, and seedlings - one sprout every 20 cm.
In central Russia, the time of planting potatoes is determined by birch leaves: as soon as they become the size of a five-kopeck coin, then you can get down to business.
Early varieties ripen in 56 days (Luck, Flight, Spring, Vineta, Ukama, Fresco).
Medium early - after 70 days (Sineglazka, Svitanok, Lakomka, Alice, Aspia, Rusalka, Riddle).
Mid-season - within 80 days (Prince, Ogonyok, Agria, Belousovsky, Hermes, Nikulinsky).
Medium late - will delight in 110 days (Eaglet, Sotka, Symbol).
Methods, schemes and rules for planting potatoes in open ground
It is very important to know at what depth to plant potatoes. Planting depth depends on various factors: the type of soil in your area, the size of the planting material
On average, this indicator varies from 8 to 12 centimeters. It is very important to maintain the optimal depth, because if the depth is too shallow, the tubers can appear on the outside and turn green, which means that you will get a poor quality crop.
- For heavy, clayey soil, plant should be shallow - 8 cm.
- With light, sandy - the planting depth should be greater, about 10-12 cm.
- With cultivated loamy soil, the optimal planting depth is 10 cm.
Distance between tubers and rows
It is necessary to observe the distance between the potatoes themselves and the rows. Thanks to this, the tubers will have a normal feeding area, you will be able to get a normal harvest. And it will also help in the future to take good care of the plant. And if you plant too close, without considering the optimal spacing, the plants will compete for nutrients in the soil, which will leave much to be desired.
When planting potatoes in open ground, you must maintain a distance:
- Between small tubers (30-40 grams) - 20-22 centimeters.
- Medium (60-90 grams) - 25-27 cm.
- Large (90 grams or more) - 30-33 centimeters.
Standard landing method ("under the shovel")
Shovel planting technology is the most common and popular among farmers and gardeners in our country.
Scheme of the classic landing under a shovel (in the holes):
- Make holes 8-12 cm deep (their depth depends on the type of soil and the size of the planting material) at a distance of 20-33 cm (depending on the size of the tubers).
- If you have not previously fertilized the soil, then you need to fertilize the hole (the fertilization rules are described above).
- You need to plant the tuber sprouts up.
- Fill the holes with soil.
- Level the area with a rake.
Landing in furrows
Or you can plant potatoes in the furrows. This option is similar to the technology described above, only you don't need to make separate holes. To do this, you need to make grooves (that is, cut grooves) with a depth of about 10 centimeters (it is very convenient to make them with a walk-behind tractor). And plant the tubers at the bottom of the furrows, taking into account the optimal distance (on average 25 cm). After the procedure, you need to carefully fill the rows with a rake so that the surface of the earth under the tubers becomes even.
Dutch Ridge Planting Technology
Unlike the above method, for Dutch potato planting, you do not need to make holes. It is necessary to make furrows to form earthen rowing. Therefore, for this method, you will need a walk-behind tractor or cultivator, the manual method is not feasible.
This method is very fond of many summer residents, because thanks to this technology, you can get a larger harvest. And all due to the fact that the tubers fully receive oxygen, the sun.
Instructions for planting potatoes in the ridges using Dutch technology:
- Make grooves 15 cm deep, the distance between them is 75-80 cm.
- You need to plant potatoes on the ridges with sprouts up, the distance between them is 30 centimeters. Planting depth is 10-15 centimeters from the top of the ridge.
- You need to plant potatoes in different furrows alternately (first one furrow is planted, then another, etc.).
- Sprinkle soil over the tubers.
Picture-diagram of landing using Dutch technology:
Planting potatoes according to the Meatlider method. This method is suitable for growing crops in large quantities, for example, professional farmers or just large potato lovers. You need to plant in the holes in a checkerboard pattern. With proper planting using the Meatlider technology, you can not huddle the beds in the future. But you need to water and fertilize often.
There is also a Gülikh planting technology, which is based on the creation of a multi-tiered potato bush with the help of regular sprinkling of soil. It is optimal to plant in this way in small beds.
General rules and recommendations for planting
In light, sandy soil, plant optimally in the soil without ridges, that is, "under a shovel". For peaty or heavy, clayey soils, it is best to plant in a ridge (Dutch method).
Regardless of the planting method, you cannot plant different varieties of potatoes next to each other, because they have different growth rates, therefore, faster growing bushes will shade the slow representatives of the later varieties.
Preparation of material for planting
Varietal potatoes will degenerate in 5-6 years, noticeably grind, and taste will be lost. At home, you can get elite seed tubers.
To do this, in the spring, the healthiest, smoothest roots are selected and placed in a cool basement for the summer. Spray every 3-4 days with water. By September, the tubers will grow roots with small bulbs, from which select seed potatoes are obtained the next year.
Mini tubers can also be obtained from:
- top cut of the tuber
- from potato sprouts.
Update your planting material periodically
The prepared material for planting must be disinfected. This is done to reduce the risk of fungal and viral diseases. Sprayed with a composition of:
- manganese (1 g)
- copper sulfate (5 g)
- orthoboric acid (12 g)
- carbomide (40 g)
- superphosphate (60 g).
The grams are indicated for 10 liters of water. The mixture will not only dress the seeds, but also provide additional nutrition to the seedlings. The yield will increase by 10-15% the cutting of tubers. To do this, two months before planting, the tubers are cut with a sterile knife along or around the circumference. Thus, the appearance of buds and sprouts from all parts is stimulated.
Sprinkling or drip irrigation will add not only the number of tubers, but also improve the quality indicators.
Potatoes are very responsive to care, simple measures will help to achieve high yields.