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About growing apple trees Idared

About growing apple trees Idared


A fairly successful winter variety, obtained in America back in 1935, is widespread in Europe. It is industrial, but also interesting for cultivation in private gardens due to its good taste, keeping quality and transportability of the fruit. It's easy to grow Idared - we'll tell you how to do it.

Description of the variety

Late winter variety from the USA. On state variety testing since 1973, in the State Register since 1986 in the North Caucasus, Lower Volga and North-West regions. It is grown everywhere in Ukraine. The industrial cultivation zone in Russia is the Kuban. Idared has a medium height - up to 3.5 m - a tree with a wide pyramidal, medium thickened (sometimes sparse) crown. The tree can grow up to six meters if the seedling has been grafted onto a vigorous pome rootstock. The trunk and skeletal branches are powerful, large, and straight. A variety of mixed type of fruiting, observed along the entire length of the branches without exposure. Usually, two or three apples remain on the ringlets for pick-up. Dense garlands of fruits are formed on two - three-year-old branches in good years. A high-yielding variety with regular fruiting. In the Krasnodar Territory, annual productivity is observed at the level of 300-400 c / ha, which sometimes reaches 500 c / ha. One tree of six to seven years of age usually yields up to 30 kilograms of apples. After reaching the age of 10-13 years, this figure rises to 90-100 kilograms. It begins to bear fruit on medium-sized rootstocks in the 5-6th year. The variety is self-fertile. In the Kuban, the apple varieties Red Delicious, Wagner and Kuban spur are pollinators. In southern conditions, it has good winter hardiness and drought resistance. It has immunity to brown spot, is moderately affected by powdery mildew and also scab. Early flowering dates - late April — early May. Sometimes this becomes the reason for the death of flowers from recurrent frosts.

The trunk and skeletal branches of the Idared apple tree are powerful, large, straight

The fruits have an average weight of 140 grams, the maximum weight is 170 grams. The shape is rounded, flattened, the surface is smooth, covered with a wax coating. The skin is thin, light green with a bright carmine or raspberry blush. The pulp has a creamy color, juicy and firm when taken, by the end of the shelf life it becomes fine-grained and loosens. The taste is very good, sweet and sour, the aroma is weak. Tasting taste score for the history of the variety has dropped from 4.5 to 4.0 points.

Apples stick well to the branches without crumbling. The fruits are usually harvested at the end of September and stored in refrigerated chambers until the next harvest. They tolerate transportation well, the output of marketable products is 88-92%. The purpose is universal, but mostly dessert.

Planting an apple-tree variety Idared

For planting on the Idared apple tree site, you need to know the basic rules of this process.

How to choose a landing site

If the place for planting the apple tree is chosen incorrectly, then all further growing efforts may be useless. The gardener should know that for the productive life of the apple tree, it is necessary to plant it in a well-lit, ventilated place, protected from cold northern winds, with loose, drained, non-flooded and non-waterlogged soil. Only in this case can one expect (with proper care) high yields of high-quality fruits. The variety is unpretentious to soil fertility.

How, when to acquire and plant a seedling

The second prerequisite for the successful cultivation of an apple tree is the acquisition of high-quality planting material. You can only be sure in accordance with the indicated varietal characteristics if you purchase a seedling in a specialized nursery or from a trustworthy seller. In the fall, when nurseries carry out mass digging of seedlings for sale, there is a wide selection of quality plants. You should know that one and two-year-old apple trees take root better. Older adults tolerate transplantation worse. And also you need to pay attention to the condition of the root system - it should have well-developed roots without thickenings, cones, growths. The bark of the tree should be smooth, without cracks or damage.

The root system of the seedling must be well developed

It is generally known that the best time to plant any fruit plants is early spring. When planting, the seedlings should be at rest - they will wake up in a new place. They are stored until planting buried in the ground or in the basement at a temperature of + 1-5 ° C. In both cases, the roots are pre-dipped in a liquid mash made of clay and mullein to prevent drying out.

Step-by-step instructions for planting an apple tree

The planting process does not contain any operations unknown to an experienced gardener. For a beginner, here's a step-by-step instruction:

  1. In the fall, you need to prepare a landing pit. They do it like this:
    1. They dig a hole of sufficient volume. Usually, its diameter should be in the range of 0.8-1.0 m, and a depth of about 0.7 m. When planting on sandy and sandy loam soils poor in humus, the volume of the planting pit is increased to 1-1.5 m3 and more.

      Typically, the diameter of the planting hole should be in the range of 0.8-1.0 m, and the depth of about 0.7 m

    2. A nutrient mixture is prepared for the future plant and the hole is filled to the top with it. For this, black soil, peat, humus and sand are mixed in equal parts. Additionally, 0.5 kg of superphosphate and 1 liter of wood ash are poured.
  2. In the spring, before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked in a solution of a growth stimulator (Heteroauxin, Epin, Kornevin, etc.) for several hours.
  3. In the center of the planting pit, a hole is made with a volume sufficient to accommodate the root system of an apple tree seedling in it. A wooden stake 1-1.3 m high is driven in at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the center.
  4. An earthen mound is formed in the hole, on the top of which the root collar of the seedling is placed, and its roots are spread evenly along the slopes.
  5. They fill the hole with earth, tamping it in layers. In this case, you need to ensure that the root collar of the plant ends up at the soil level.

    The roots are covered with earth, tamping in layers

  6. After that, the seedling is tied to a peg with a soft, elastic material, avoiding crushing the bark.
  7. A trunk circle is formed along the diameter of the landing pit using a hoe or a flat cutter.
  8. Water the soil abundantly, ensuring its adherence to the roots and elimination of air sinuses.

    After planting the seedling, the soil is watered abundantly

  9. The central conductor of the plant is cut to a height of 0.8-1.0 m, and the branches are shortened to 20-30 centimeters.

Features of growing and subtleties of care

It is believed that the Idared variety is unpretentious in care, so it is not difficult to grow it.

How to water and feed an apple tree

Due to the drought tolerance of the varieties, watering will not take much time. Usually four is enough per season. The first time the apple tree is watered before flowering, the second - after flowering, the third - in August. At the end of autumn, traditional pre-winter water-charging irrigation is carried out. This rule applies to an adult tree with a well-developed root system. In the first 5-6 years, you will need to water more often - up to 8-10 times per season. For 3-4 years after planting, the tree will need feeding.

Table: fertilization schedule for apple Idared

To fertilize the apple tree, you can use an infusion of fresh herbs in warm water

Pruning and shaping the crown

It is important to correctly form the crown of the tree in the first years of its life. This operation is carried out in early spring before the onset of sap flow. The tree at this moment should still be at rest, the buds are not swollen. You should choose the shape that the gardener will give the crown. If the tree is on a vigorous rootstock, it is recommended to give it a traditional sparse-tiered shape.

Vigorous trees are often given a sparse-tiered crown shape

In the case of a dwarf rootstock, it is better to choose a bowl-shaped formation that provides good illumination, ventilation of the crown, as well as the convenience of tree care and fruit picking. To achieve this shape, you need to select 3-4 branches on a young plant growing in different directions in the spring of the second year and cut them to a length of 30-40 centimeters. These are future skeletal branches. All other shoots are cut into a ring. And also cut off the central conductor above the base of the upper shoot. After one or two years, 1-2 branches of the second order are formed on the skeletal branches, cutting them off by 20-30 centimeters. All other shoots formed on the skeletal branches are cut out.

A bowl-shaped crown is used for Idared apple trees on dwarf rootstocks

Regulatory pruning is carried out annually in the spring in order to thin out the crown if necessary. This is especially true with a bowl-shaped formation, since it provokes an increased growth of tops. In late autumn, after stopping sap flow, they carry out sanitary pruning of the crown - remove dry, diseased and damaged shoots.

Diseases and pests

To avoid possible diseases and pests, the usual preventive and sanitary measures are carried out.

Table: preventive measures in the apple orchard

Insecticides are drugs used to control harmful insects.

Fungicides are drugs used to fight fungal diseases.

Pesticides combine both groups of drugs and also include acaricides (drugs used to combat ticks).

Possible diseases of the variety

Gardeners in the reviews mention the frequent lesions of the Idared apple tree with scab and powdery mildew.

Scab

This fungal disease manifests itself in the spring in conditions of high humidity and cool weather. In a rainy summer, damage can reach 100%. Small spots of brown-olive color are formed on the leaves, then the scab passes to the fruit. Forms putrefactive spots on them, surface cracks. For emergency treatment, Strobi fungicide is used, which not only quickly copes with the symptoms of the disease, but also blocks the spread of the fungus, killing its spores.

Scab on fruits forms putrefactive spots and cracks

Powdery mildew

Fungal spores die in winter when frosts are below -20 ° C. Therefore, powdery mildew often affects plants in the southern regions, where cold winters are rare. First of all, spores germinate on young leaves and shoots, covering them with a sticky coating of off-white color. Over time, the plaque darkens, becomes brown, with dots. In summer, it coarsens, turning into a fruit body of a black fungus. Affected leaves and shoots curl, deform, stop growing and dry out. Prevention and control methods are the same as for scab.

Powdery mildew spores grow on young leaves and shoots, covering them with a dirty white sticky coating

Video: powdery mildew on an apple tree

Moniliosis

There are two forms of manifestation of the disease. The first is a monilial burn. In spring, it affects flowers, young leaves and shoots, which wither and turn brown as a result. The second form of the disease affects apple trees in summer with fruit rot. And also its appearance is possible when storing apples. All affected parts of the plant should be removed and destroyed, the shoots are cut with a part of healthy wood. Modern fungicides successfully deal with the problem.

In summer, moniliosis affects fruits with gray rot.

Probable pests

Pest insects should be dealt with before signs of attack appear.

Apple moth

Wormy apples are the result of the defeat of a tree by a small (1-2 centimeters) brown night butterfly. It flies in April - May. The duration of this period is 1-1.5 months. The butterfly lays its eggs in the crown of an apple tree on the upper side of the leaf. This occurs 7-10 days after flowering. Crawling out of the eggs, the caterpillars penetrate the fruits, gnaw the seeds. Treatment with insecticides immediately after flowering will be effective, while the butterfly has not yet had time to lay eggs. Repeat the treatment two more times with an interval of 1-2 weeks.

Caterpillars of the codling moth feed on the seeds of the fruit

Apple blossom beetle

A small dark-colored weevil beetle. It hibernates in the soil of near-trunk circles, and in early spring rises into the crown. The female lays one egg at a time in a flower bud, the emerging larva eats the inflorescence from the inside, and then sticks it together with its secretions. Effective prevention is the use of trapping belts, shaking off beetles on the litter at low (down to -5 ° C) temperatures, and insecticide treatments.

The larva of the apple blossom beetle gnaws the inflorescence from the inside

Aphid

These small insects are familiar to any gardener and gardener. Usually they get to the tree with the help of ants, which like to feast on the sweet secretions of aphids. A hunting belt and lime whitewash will save you from this scourge. If the aphid still settled on the leaves and shoots of the apple tree, then insecticide treatment will help get rid of it. Twisted into a tube, the leaves must be torn off and destroyed before processing, since the solution will not get there during processing.

Aphids are located on the inside of the leaves

Variety reviews

Apples of the Idared variety must have been bought by everyone at least once. Currently, the variety is losing ground in European markets due to the appearance of many similar ones with improved properties. But, due to unpretentious care, high guaranteed yield and long periods of fruit consumption, it can be recommended for cultivation in summer cottages and household plots.

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Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.

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Description, photo

Foreign variety American descent created by breeders by crossing varieties Jonathan and Wagner back in 1935.

Thanks to its productivity, good marketability, long shelf life the variety has become widespread not only in the United States, but also in the central and southern regions of Russia, in Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine.

It is cultivated in private gardens and in specialized enterprises on an industrial scale.

Apple tree Idared refers to vigorous, late winter varieties. Trees develop intensively and begin to bear fruit shortly after planting.

Abundant fruiting, depending on the type of rootstock, begins after 3-4 years. Fruiting of a mixed type, abundant. Apples are even, rather large, slightly conical... Light green color of fruits, which are almost completely covered with raspberry gloss with numerous small shading.

Apples Idared.

The peel of apples is thin, but very firm and elastic, and provides long-term preservation of the pulp. Fruit picking is done at the end of September, and the best consumer maturity occurs in February.

Tree height

Refers to tall varieties. Young apple trees grow very quickly and in at the age of 10 they reach a height of 3 to 4 m.

Crown width

Differs in a spherical or slightly oval shape. The main part of the skeletal branches is located at an angle of 45 degrees to the trunk and rushes upward.

Apple tree Idared.

Yield

Idared variety is different high yield... Young apple trees at the age of 6-7 years they give at least 30 kg. Mature plants over the age of 10 years provide a yield of up to 100 kg of apples each. In industrial gardens average yield is 300-400 c / ha and more. Has regular fruiting.

Tasting assessment

Apples have high commercial qualities (up to 90%), while up to 15% belong to the highest grade, up to 50% - to the first. Taste qualities are estimated from 4 to 4.2 points, which corresponds to the average level. Not aromatic, but contains enough sugars (10.5%.) And 0.6 titratable acids.100 g of dry matter contains 11.5 mg of ascorbic acid.

Idared fruits are of high commercial quality.

Winter hardiness

The root system of the Idared apple tree develops near the soil surface, therefore trees do not tolerate low temperatures, has an average level of frost resistance. Exposure to frost affects both trees and flower buds.

Resistant to scab and other diseases

Variety not highly resistant to scab, powdery mildew, rather, it is average or below average.

Possesses sufficient resistance to brown spot.

In a wet, cool summer, it takes a lot of effort and money to preserve the commercial qualities of the fruit harvest.

Tree lifespan

Tree lifespan depends on the type of planting material. Vigorous trees are capable of bearing fruit for 30 years or more.

Plants on a dwarf rootstock begin to bear fruit earlier (in the second - third year after planting), but also have a much shorter lifespan - only 10-15 years.

Watch a video of what a four-year-old Idared apple tree looks like:


Apple tree "Idared" - description of the variety. Photos and reviews

"Idared" is an American-bred apple variety, bred in 1935, which today is quite widespread in the southern regions of Russia. The variety is referred to as winter or late winter, because the fruits ripen late - in the first half of October and do not crumble until the onset of frost. Since the selection is American, and there commercial use is in the first place, it is quite natural that the variety is extremely unpretentious, and the fruits are perfectly stored until April even in a rural cellar.

Apple tree "Idared": description of the variety

The tree of this variety grows up to 6 meters and has a rounded crown. The branches are strong and large, set up at an angle of 45 degrees in relation to the trunk. The bark is smooth, gray-brown. Leaves are dark green, oblong with a pointed apex, densely pubescent below, slightly glossy. "Idared" blooms with pink saucer-shaped flowers, collected in thyroid inflorescences. Flowering begins at the 3rd year of life.

The fruits of "Idared" are large, flat-round with a smooth surface. The skin is thin, smooth, covered with a thin layer of waxy coating. The main color of apples is light green, with a bright raspberry or dark carmine blush with dense stripes and strokes that cover almost the entire fruit.

The pulp is creamy, juicy, sour-sweet, firm when removed. After removal, the pulp acquires a fine-grained structure, and at the end of the shelf life it becomes completely friable.

The apple tree begins to bear fruit from the 5th or 6th year of life. "Idared" has a regular crop, the fruits are evenly distributed along the entire length of the branch.

The advantages of the variety include unpretentiousness, high yield, excellent keeping quality and transportability of fruits. For industrial use and for beginners, as they say, there is no better apple tree. In addition, "Idared" is an excellent pollinator for other apple trees, and if you plant it on the site, the yield of other varieties will increase by 10-20%.

The disadvantage is low frost resistance. It is not recommended to grow "Idared" in areas where winter temperatures drop below minus 20 degrees. Basically, this variety does well in the North Caucasus and Lower Volga regions. In addition, the variety is prone to scab and powdery mildew. Another disadvantage is the obligatory planting of an apple-pollinator next to Idared. The best pollinators are varieties such as Red Delicious or Wagner.

Apple tree "Idared": planting and care

The best period for planting a seedling is the end of September. Can be planted in spring, but no later than mid-May. The planting hole is dug to a depth of 60-80 cm and up to 120 cm in diameter. The planting mixture is made from peat, sand, turf and manure. The pit is prepared 2 months before planting.

During planting, a hole is made in the planting mixture and the seedling is planted so that the root collar is 3 cm above the level of the edge of the hole. After planting, the tree is watered with 2 buckets of water.

In the first year after planting, fertilizers are not used and are watered regularly. From the second year, in the fall and spring, mineral fertilizers are applied and sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate to prevent fungal diseases. In the fall, the apple tree must be fed with the fertilizer that contains potassium.

Young apple trees need to be watered, especially during dry periods in summer. In addition, regardless of regular watering, apple trees are watered with three buckets of water during the flowering period, during the ovary period and during the period when the fruits reach medium size.

Every spring, a crown is formed at the apple tree, cutting off the branches. The Idared variety needs the most minimal pruning.


Follow-up care of the apple tree

The drought resistance of the Idared variety is average, but the apple tree does not like excess moisture either. Under normal weather conditions, an adult tree is watered 4 times per season:

  • with the beginning of bud formation
  • after flowering
  • in August
  • in the fall after harvest.

A young apple tree Idared up to the age of six is ​​watered more often, at least 10 times during the entire season.

The first three years after planting, the tree is not fed. Yablona has enough fertilizers applied at the initial stage. From the fourth year of life, Idared begin to feed. Fertilizers, dosage and frequency of their introduction are shown in the photo in the table.

For the winter, the root system of the apple tree is insulated with mulch, an earthen mound. You can tie spruce branches to the trunk. In addition to insulation, thorny branches will protect against rodents.

Idared apple pruning

The formation of the crown of an apple tree is performed from 1 to 5 years of age. The pruning scheme depends on the stock on which Idared is grafted. The procedure is performed in early spring before the buds awaken. If the apple tree grows on its native trunk, then the crown is formed according to a sparse-tiered system.

If the stock is dwarf, a bowl-shaped crown is formed at the apple tree. In a biennial tree, 4 powerful lateral branches are left, cut to a length of 40 cm. This will be the skeleton of an apple tree. The branches should grow from the center conductor in different directions. The trunk is shortened over the base of the upper shoot. After a year, shoots will grow on the skeletal branches. They are left in 2 pieces, shortened to a length of up to 30 cm. All other shoots are cut without leaving hemp.

An adult Idared apple tree is pruned every spring for crown thinning. Sanitary pruning can be done in the fall. Remove all diseased and damaged branches over the summer.

Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention

Idared variety is not able to resist scab. To grow pure, beautiful fruits, the apple tree is sprayed annually with preventive drugs. In rainy summers, another threat arises - powdery mildew. The affected areas of the apple tree are removed, and the whole tree is sprayed with fungicides.

Of the pests, the foliage of the apple tree is harmed by aphids. The honey moth still manages to penetrate the buds of the tree as larvae, and the apple moth destroys the fruits. Insecticides are used to control pests.

The video shows the result of powdery mildew appearing on an apple tree:


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