Interesting

Possible health problems in rabbits, how to prevent and how to treat?

 Possible health problems in rabbits, how to prevent and how to treat?


No matter how hard you try to feed your rabbits and provide them with the best possible care, it is unlikely that you will be able to avoid the various non-communicable diseases that may require urgent treatment of rabbits. So, for digestive problems in eared animals, it is enough for grass with dew, frozen or spoiled food to get into the feed. An unnoticed draft can lead to rhinitis and pneumonia in rabbits. And from the uncomfortable lattice on the floor of the cage, the likelihood of inflammation of the soles of your pets is high.

Proper feeding of rabbits is the key to their health

If it is practically useless to fight against such dangerous infectious diseases as myxomatosis, VGBK, eimeriosis of rabbits (coccidiosis), then you can completely cure non-infectious diseases by paying attention to alarming symptoms in time. In most cases, it will be easier to prevent possible diseases than to take care of how to treat the rabbits, taking the time to care for sick animals.

Poisoning can also be caused by an increased content of common salt in the diet of rabbits.

The health of rabbits depends a lot on what and how you feed them. With proper feeding, the diet of rabbits should have a lot of plant feed - from a lack of roughage, various digestive problems can arise. Just do not forget to carefully check that no poisonous plants that can lead to food poisoning get into the rabbits' feeder along with grass and hay. The cause of poisoning can also be an increased content of common salt in the diet of rabbits. And as a result of malnutrition, young animals often develop rickets.

Video about diseases in rabbits

Many novice rabbit breeders are worried that the rabbit has red urine. A saturated orange-red hue of urine is normal for rabbits, due to the presence of needles, spinach, carrots or beets in the diet of rabbits. But if you notice drops of blood in the urine of rabbits, immediately contact your veterinarian, as the presence of blood in the urine of rabbits may indicate diseases of the genitourinary system of animals. In addition, the swelling in the rabbit may also be accompanied by the release of urine with blood.

Diarrhea and constipation

Poor quality food in most cases becomes the main cause of constipation and diarrhea in rabbits. Although the worms that appear when sanitary and hygienic standards are not observed in rabbits can also lead to digestive upset in animals. To identify the true cause of diarrhea or constipation, you should immediately show the sick animal to the veterinarian.

If it was possible to determine that the rabbit has diarrhea of ​​non-infectious origin, the animal is allowed to eat only hay and breadcrumbs, drinking 5 ml of yogurt daily for a week. For constipation, rabbits dissolve Carlsbad salt (laxative) in water: 5 g per day for adults and 3 g for young animals.

Poor quality feed in most cases becomes the main cause of constipation and diarrhea in rabbits.

Bloating in rabbits

In rabbits that eat cabbage or legumes, frozen or overheated grass, poorly washed vegetables and fruits, flatulence may occur. The fodder masses, lingering in the stomach (tympania) or in the intestines (flatulence), begin to ferment and release harmful gases. As a result, the abdomen of rabbits swells, the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose acquire a bluish tint. If such symptoms occur, sick rabbits are given a warm enema, gently massaging the abdomen, and drink 5 ml of lactic acid (3-5% solution).

It should also be remembered that bloating in rabbits occurs most often if the animals do not move enough. Therefore, at the first sign of bloating, drive the rabbits out of their cages and force them to move for at least half an hour.

What rabbits are sick with: non-communicable diseases

In the acute course of the disease, pasteurellosis of rabbits in two or three days leads to the death of the animal

Hypothermia is very harmful for rabbits: from drafts and dampness, animals develop various respiratory diseases: from bronchitis and rhinitis to pneumonia. However, in some cases, watery nasal discharge in rabbits may indicate a defeat by an extremely dangerous infectious disease - pasteurellosis. In the acute course of the disease, pasteurellosis of rabbits in two or three days leads to the death of the animal, but if at the first sign you turn to the veterinarian, there is a chance to cure the rabbit with antibiotics and save the rest of the pets. Therefore, be careful when determining the symptoms of the disease in rabbits, do not confuse common rhinitis with dangerous pasteurellosis!

Rhinitis

As a rule, infectious rhinitis in rabbits is accompanied by purulent and mucopurulent discharge from the nose, and with ordinary non-infectious rhinitis, the discharge is serous-purulent or serous in nature. Having identified non-infectious rhinitis, treat the rabbit by instilling 3-5 drops of furacilin or penicillin solution into each nostril. In this case, the animal should be relocated for a while to a warm, dry place, where there are no drafts and dampness.

Rhinitis in rabbits is accompanied by purulent and mucopurulent nasal discharge.

Pododermatitis

Remember to regularly change the litter in the cages, as there is a high risk of soles inflammation in animals (pododermatitis) if the litter is changed infrequently. Also, pododermatitis in rabbits can develop due to an uncomfortable net on the floor. You can easily identify the disease by the thickened lower surface of the legs and by the release of liquid pus from them when pressed. Treatment consists in washing the rabbit's paws with a solution of penicillin or furacilin. Small sawdust should be removed from the cage during treatment.

Fleas

Like other animals with wool, rabbits are susceptible to flea attacks. It is enough to spread the fur on the withers of the animal to find out if the rabbit has fleas. The coat will show black particles (flea excrement), light flea eggs and red marks on the skin from the bites of these insects. The rabbits themselves react very painfully to fleas, actively combing the bites to bloody wounds. By taking urgent measures to get rid of fleas from rabbits, you will not only save your pets from torment, but also ensure the safety of rabbit skins.

Video about the treatment of ticks and fleas in rabbits

Lichen

Rabbits can become infected with fungal diseases through litter and poor-quality hay. Thus, lichen is often transmitted in rabbits, which begins with baldness of skin areas on the sides and head of animals. On the hairless bald spots, you can see delicate scales, and under the light of a special Wood lamp, the affected areas of the skin acquire a bright green color. Lichen in rabbits is treated with vaccines, bald areas of the skin are treated with salicylic paste or sulfuric ointment.

Flea drops are considered the most effective remedy (special drops for rabbits are sold, but those intended for kittens can also be used).

[Votes: 1 Average: 1]


Blood in the stool - Wellness

A vegetable product such as beets is far from the last in the culinary world, the only question is how often we use it. The first thing with which beets are associated is, of course, red-burgundy Ukrainian borscht. However, this is not the only dish that can be prepared from this root vegetable.

Remember - herring under a fur coat, beets with horseradish, beets with garlic, beets with prunes and nuts, Korean beets. This list can be continued indefinitely, including the culinary fantasies of all countries of the world, because today beets are grown as a food product almost everywhere.

This plant of the amaranth family in the wild can still be found today in northern Africa, India and southern Europe, and information about it came from ancient times. Approximately 2 thousand years BC, on the shores of the Mediterranean, beets were eaten, but at first it was just foliage. And already in the works of one of the founders of botany, the ancient Greek philosopher Theofast, beets are first remembered as a root crop, and by the beginning of our era it was already cultivated.

However, the spread of beets as a vegetable plant lasted long enough. In the X-XI centuries, it appeared in Kievan Rus, and only in the XIII-XVI centuries did beets take root in the countries of Western Europe. And only in the 19th century, German scientists managed to develop a separate variety of sugar beet and put it on an industrial basis for the purpose of sugar production, because before that the only source of a sweet product was sugar cane.

Several varieties of beets are now known, and some of them are fodder. They are rich in fiber and are grown exclusively for animal feeding, some are the raw material for sugar production, and the rest are grown as excellent vegetable products for cooking.

These varieties differ in the shape and color of the root crop. However, given that we are interested in table beets, in which the root is round or cylindrical, and the color varies from dark red with a purple or burgundy tint to rich red, then we will focus on it.

To date, breeders around the world have developed more than a dozen different varieties of beetroot. And among this variety, there are roots with a traditional color of the fruit, white, golden yellow and also with original rings, white and red, changing each other and creating a beautiful rainbow picture in the section.

Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides, Avicenna, Paracelsus. Among the records that they left to descendants, mentions were found that with the help of beets, various ulcers, diseases of the digestive tract, and anemia can be treated. But folk legends, preserved from the Middle Ages, say that the inhabitants of Eastern Europe were protected from the plague epidemic by beets only because they were constantly included in their diet.

vitamin E (tocopherol) - 0.14 mg, vitamin A (beta-carotene) - 0.01 mg, vitamin B1 (thiamine) - 0.01 mg, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) - 0.04 mg, vitamin B3 or PP (niacin) - 0.2 mg, vitamin B9 (folic acid) - 13 mcg. But the quantitative composition of minerals is a little richer: potassium alone contains 300 mg, in addition, 38 mg of calcium, 21 mg of magnesium, 84 mg of sodium, 44 mg of phosphorus.

Of a number of trace elements, iron is in the first place - 1.4 mg. And then: 7 μg iodine, 2 μg cobalt, 0.66 μg manganese, 140 μg copper, 10 μg molybdenum, 20 μg fluorine, 0.42 μg zinc. And also: proteins - 1.6 g, fats - 0.17 g, carbohydrates - 11.7 g, of which 9 g of sugar, dietary fiber or fiber - 2.8 g, glutamic, citric, oxalic, malic acids, pectins - 1 g.

It should be noted that these indicators are averaged, since the chemical composition of beets depends not only on the soil, the amount of moisture and the region of germination, but also on the variety.

Beetroot has its own zest, which makes it a unique and inimitable plant: it contains phytonutrients - betaine, betanin, betalain and others. These substances protect the plant from insects and the harmful effects of the external environment, in addition, it is they who determine its color. And just like the anthocyanins in blue cabbage or red pepper, they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in the human body.

Scientists were able to establish that betaine reduces the amount of homocysteine ​​in the blood, and this directly affects the work of the cardiovascular system. Homocysteine ​​is an amino acid that is synthesized in our body. Throughout life, its amount increases due to physiological processes, as well as age-related changes associated with smoking, drinking large quantities of coffee, lack of B vitamins, in particular folic acid, decreased kidney function and a sedentary lifestyle.

Accumulating in the body, homocysteine ​​attacks the walls of the arteries, provoking the formation of blood clots and atherosclerotic plaques. This factor is dangerous for people of any age group, and for the elderly, the risk of Alzheimer's disease, senile dementia and a number of peripheral vascular diseases increases even more, especially in the presence of a disease such as diabetes mellitus. Therefore, for the prevention of the aforementioned diseases, as well as stroke, heart attack, atherosclerosis, beets must be consumed regularly.

However, the effect of beets on the cardiovascular system of our body is not limited to the presence of betaine, because it contains potassium and magnesium, and these elements, as you know, have a direct effect on the heart muscle, contribute to the normalization of the heart rate, and prevent the formation of blood clots.

In addition, from the point of view of the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, beets are an excellent remedy for anemia. Remember, even Galen and Paracelsus used it to treat anemia, but this unique root vegetable contains easily assimilable iron and vitamin C, which enhance the process of assimilation of this element.

The role of iron in the body is very great - it is the formation of hemoglobin or the so-called red blood cells, which supply all our cells with all the substances necessary for normal life, and primarily oxygen. Even official medicine recommends the use of beets for hypertensive patients, because in addition to everything, it lowers blood pressure.

The presence of potassium and sodium in beets explains its diuretic properties. After all, these two elements are actively involved in the regulation of the intracellular electrolyte balance and the water balance of the body as a whole. Eating beets helps to eliminate excess uric acid and calcium from the body.

By the way, after its use, a change in the color of urine and feces is often observed, which often causes unreasonable anxiety. This does not represent any harm to health. The fact is that betaine, as the main coloring agent in beets, enters the intestine and does not break down, it is simply absorbed by its walls and enters the bloodstream through the capillaries.

Beets have a positive effect on the liver, and betaine plays an important role here. It breaks down proteins and fatty deposits accumulated in the liver caused by alcohol abuse and other factors, and also stimulates the synthesis of choline, or vitamin B4, which also promotes the processing of fats in the liver and increases the vital functions of its cells.

In all cells of our body there is such a chemical compound as carnitine. It is synthesized by the liver and kidneys from amino acids with the participation of vitamin C and B vitamins, and plays a very important role in ensuring the normal functioning of our body. First, carnitine transports fatty acids into the mitochondria of cells, where the process of their cleavage is accompanied by the release of energy (ATP), which is so necessary for the life of cells and the body as a whole.

Fatty acids are used mainly by the heart and skeletal muscles, therefore, their concentration is increased in these parts of the body.And secondly, carnitine removes toxic substances from the body, preventing their accumulation. Lack of carnitine in the body causes fatigue, decreased immunity, weight gain and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease.

Betaine takes an active part in the synthesis of carnitine, so the consumption of beets has a rather powerful detoxifying effect on the body, promotes weight loss and stimulates cells to generate additional energy. Therefore, if you feel tired, it is useful to drink a glass of beet juice or eat a small portion of a salad made from this healing root vegetable.


What is invasion: symptoms and treatment in children and adults

Invasion is a term that translates from Latin as invasion or attack. In Russian, this word has the same meaning, it is used mainly in epidemiology, parasitology. This type of lesion includes a whole set of different pathologies, which are characterized by the manifestation, penetration into the human body of different types of parasites. They provoke the development of diseases with different symptoms, which are often disguised as other diseases.


Parasitic diseases

The causative agents of parasitic or invasive diseases are helminths, insects, arachnids or protozoa. They enter the animal's body along with food or on pasture, during grazing. Some of them do not respond to treatment, so it is important to follow preventive measures to prevent them.

Echinococcosis

This is one of the most common diseases that is caused by cestode larvae (echinococcus). As a rule, these parasites live in the intestines of dogs, as well as foxes and wolves, and go outside with feces.

Echinococcosis in sheep can be transmitted through grass or soil.

Sheep can become infected through soil, grass and water. Once in the body, the larvae primarily infect the lungs of the animal. In the initial stage, it is impossible to recognize the disease, it is asymptomatic.

The first signs of deteriorating health occur only with severe infection. The animal loses appetite, severe diarrhea, exhaustion begins. It is no longer possible to cure a sick sheep. To exclude infection, it is important to timely deworm dogs, arrange pastures in places far from forests and lakes, and monitor the purity and quality of feed.

Melophagoz

The cause of the disease is a sheep's bloodsucker (rune). This is a rather large fly that lives on the skin and hair of an animal, feeding on blood. The peak incidence occurs in the spring.

During the bite, the rune pierces the skin of the sheep, injuring the subcutaneous blood vessels. This can cause dermatitis, the coat turns gray-green, collapses and stops growing. Animals suffer from severe itching, try to bite the hair with their teeth, swallowing parasites that continue to develop inside the body.

The first signs of infection:

  • weight loss
  • temperature rise
  • itching
  • diarrhea
  • loss of appetite.

With melophagosis, sheep experience severe itching, bite out wool.

You can get rid of parasites by cutting and bathing the animal in insecticidal baths. In winter, faxerm can be injected intramuscularly (2.5 mg / kg body weight).

Fascioliasis

This disease can develop over several years. It is caused by the larvae of trematodes, which fully mature in 3-4 months. Trematodes parasitize the biliary tract and liver of sheep. Infection occurs during grazing in pastures and from dirty, stagnant bodies of water.

  • fever, fever
  • hair loss
  • apathy and weakness
  • drastic weight loss
  • diarrhea or constipation
  • loss of appetite
  • anemia
  • severe swelling of the abdomen and eyelids
  • exhaustion.

To avoid the defeat of fascioliasis, it is necessary regularly, twice a year, to carry out planned deworming of sheep. For treatment, antihelminthic drugs with a wide spectrum of action (btionol or hexachloroethane) are used.

A dangerous invasive disease, often leading to the death of an animal. The causative agent of coenurosis is the cestode larvae that affect the brain. Lambs and young sheep suffer from coenurosis. Infection occurs through food and water or from sick dogs and other pets.

Coenurosis or swirling sheep are usually infected from dogs.

  • agitated state
  • convulsions
  • swelling of the mucous membranes
  • throwing back the head
  • lethargy.

In order to prevent the appearance of the disease, it is necessary to reduce the number of dogs on the farm and strictly observe the sanitary standards for keeping animals. For treatment, you can use fenbendazole or thiabendazole, at a dosage of 0.025 g / kg body weight. But in most cases, coenurosis ends with the death of the animal.

Helminthiasis

One of the most common diseases not only in sheep, but also in other animals. Helminths (worms) enter the body with food or water and do not appear for a long time. Sheep keep a good appetite and do great, even though they are already infected. After a while, the first symptoms appear, such as hair loss, loss of appetite, sudden weight loss, diarrhea and anemia.

Helminthiasis is treated quite simply. For this, any antihelminthic drugs that are given to animals before pasture are suitable. To avoid contamination, it is necessary to deworm livestock and all domestic animals (dogs, cats).

The disease is caused by a certain type of tick, and not only sheep or other animals, but also humans can suffer from it.

Tick-borne encephalitis in sheep develops after being bitten by a certain type of tick.

The first signs of the disease may be:

  • a sharp increase in body temperature
  • fever
  • severe weakness.

After a few days, all these symptoms disappear without a trace. When the encephalitis virus begins to penetrate into the meninges, a repeated rise in temperature and a lack of coordination are possible. It is especially dangerous for young lambs. In most cases, encephalitis is fatal, but self-healing is possible. There are no medications for tick-borne encephalitis.

Pyroplasmosis

The disease occurs in an acute form, and is caused by the parasite pyroplasm, which affects the internal organs and blood plasma of sheep. Caused by the bites of ticks and other blood-sucking insects.

  • heat
  • loss of appetite
  • fear of water
  • rapid breathing
  • yellowing of the mucous membranes
  • red urine
  • diarrhea
  • weakness and apathy.

With piroplasmosis, sheep are injected with Berenil.

For treatment, a single intramuscular injection of a 7% solution of berenil is used, at the rate of 3.5 mg / kg of animal weight. Often, a course of vitamin B12 is prescribed, and sulfocamphocaine is administered to improve heart function and restore blood circulation. The sick animal is shown adherence to a strict diet. In especially severe cases, hemodesis is used intravenously.

Parasitic diseases include:

  • Echinococcosis
  • Melophagoz
  • Fascioliasis
  • Helminthiasis
  • Tick-borne encephalitis

Let's consider some parasitic diseases in more detail:

  1. Sheep dictyocaulosis - the disease is caused by the nematode Dictyocaulus filaria. Which affects the respiratory system of sheep. Nasal discharge is observed in animals. Which form crusts. The animal sneezes, coughs heavily, is exhausted, and edema appears. Fatal manifestations reach 70% with severe infection. Treatment is carried out with iodine solutions. They are injected into the trachea of ​​a sheep. Disease prevention means proper feeding. With enough protein. With normal body resistance, infection does not occur.
  2. Echinococcosis of animals is the causative agent of the echinococcal larva. It is located in the lungs and liver. Animals quickly lose weight, the skin is yellowish, eating disorders, diarrhea, shortness of breath, allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock. For treatment, anthelmintic drugs will be used, to which this nematode is sensitive.
  3. Sheep psoroptosis - otherwise this disease is called scabies. Due to itchy skin and dermal manifestations. Psoroptosis is a chronic ailment. It can be caused by different types of mites. And depending on this, it is divided into the following subspecies:
    • Headache or itchy. Based on the name, we can conclude that the disease is localized in the head region. Under the influence of a tick of the family Acaridae, hair loss, skin damage, itching, anxiety of animals, and poor food intake are observed.
    • Cutaneous - the location of the parasites on the back, sacrum, shoulder blades. In places rich in hair. A tick of the Psoroptes ovis family causes this disease.
    • Foot or dermal - a tick of the same species can also affect the limbs of sheep.

Treatment consists of surface treatment with insecticidal preparations and injection of ivermectin or ivermec. For prophylaxis, the procedure is repeated after 10 days.

Infection with parasites occurs due to non-compliance with sanitary standards and the timing of preventive measures. Which can cause great economic losses.

Tick-borne encephalitis

This is a fairly common disease that is transmitted by ticks. Initially, the disease manifests itself due to increased body temperature, weakness and fever. Symptoms disappear after a few days, after the introduction of the virus into the brain, the temperature rises again. The nervous system can also be impaired.

If death does not occur within the first few days, then self-recovery is possible. Tick-borne encephalitis can affect both adults and children of any breed of sheep. For newborn lambs, the course of the disease is especially unfavorable.

Tick ​​- a carrier of tick-borne encephalitis

Infection occurs by wingless flies, which multiply very quickly and can lay eggs in the wool. That is why infection of the entire herd is dangerous. Children and adult sheep, regardless of breed, may be affected. Manifestations of the disease: tearing of one's own fur, severe exhaustion, decreased milk supply, diarrhea.

Helminthiasis

Worms can parasitize the liver, lungs and other organs of the animal. This happens most often due to poor living conditions for livestock. At first, children and adults of sheep do not show their disease in any way, have a normal appetite and behave quite naturally. However, after a few days the first signs of helminthiasis can be observed:

  • hair loss
  • lack of appetite
  • anemia
  • emaciation
  • diarrhea
  • hemorrhage in the intestine.

To cure, the veterinarian conducts a thorough diagnosis and prescribes the necessary medications. The best prevention is to add anthelmintic drugs to food at regular intervals.

Fascioliasis - a disease of sheep in which flatworms parasitize in their biliary tract

Another disease of sheep, in which flatworms of the Fasciola genus (trematodes or digenetic flukes) parasitize in their biliary tract. Infection occurs when eating grass in the pasture or from standing water sources. The larvae can mature for about 4 months, and the disease itself lasts for years. The signs by which you can recognize fascioliasis are as follows:

  • hair loss
  • diarrhea or constipation
  • increased body temperature
  • weakness
  • lack of appetite
  • emaciation
  • anemia
  • swelling of the eyelids
  • swelling of the abdomen.

In order to cure the animal, it is necessary to use anthelmintics, which will be prescribed by a veterinarian. Also, deworming should be carried out 2 times a year.

Cenurosis (whirligig)

  1. Sheep dictyocaulosis - the disease is caused by the nematode Dictyocaulus filaria. Which affects the respiratory system of sheep. Nasal discharge is observed in animals. Which form crusts. The animal sneezes, coughs heavily, is exhausted, and edema appears. Fatal manifestations reach 70% with severe infection. Treatment is carried out with iodine solutions. They are injected into the trachea of ​​a sheep. Disease prevention means proper feeding. With enough protein. With normal body resistance, infection does not occur.
  2. Echinococcosis of animals is the causative agent of the echinococcal larva. It is located in the lungs and liver. Animals quickly lose weight, the skin is yellowish, eating disorders, diarrhea, shortness of breath, allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock. For treatment, anthelmintic drugs will be used, to which this nematode is sensitive.
  3. Sheep psoroptosis - otherwise this disease is called scabies. Due to itchy skin and dermal manifestations. Psoroptosis is a chronic ailment. It can be caused by different types of mites. And depending on this, it is divided into the following subspecies:
    • Headache or itchy. Based on the name, we can conclude that the disease is localized in the head region. Under the influence of a tick of the family Acaridae, hair loss, skin damage, itching, anxiety of animals, and poor food intake are observed.
    • Cutaneous - the location of the parasites on the back, sacrum, shoulder blades. In places rich in hair. A tick of the Psoroptes ovis family causes this disease.
    • Foot or skin-eating - a tick of the same species can also affect the limbs of sheep.

Echinococcosis

Melophagoz

  • Helminthiasis is a common problem in agriculture. The problem cannot be started, as the worms will not disappear by themselves. Over time, the animal will lose appetite, hair begins to climb, diarrhea, anemia and other problems will appear. But the treatment is simple - adding medications prescribed by a veterinarian to the feed.
  • Melophagoz - infestation by wingless flies. The sheep begins to tear wool, skin, the disease spreads quickly. This is something like fleas, only more harmful. Treatment is needed immediately.
  • Cenurosis or varicella appears as a result of brain damage by cestode larvae. Symptoms of this sheep disease are loss of coordination, fearfulness, convulsions, aggression, lack of reflexes, and the like. It is almost impossible to cure the disease, as a rule, the animal soon dies.
  • Pyroplasmosis is treated with a course of antibiotics, you just need to identify the disease in time. It enters the blood of an animal through insect bites, manifests itself in the form of diarrhea, yellowing of mucous membranes, fatigue, urine with a red tint.
  • Echinococcosis - infection of the internal organs of an animal with echinococcus larvae. There is diarrhea, weakness of the animal, exhaustion, lack of appetite. There is no treatment, it is recommended for prevention to minimize contact between sheep and dogs, which often carry the infection.

Diarrhea in broiler chickens: causes and treatments

If you notice diarrhea in broilers, you need to take immediate action, since the main cause is infection. Pathogens are quickly transmitted from one bird to another, which is fraught with the defeat of all individuals. From this article you will learn how to determine the type of diarrhea, how to treat it and what to do in order to prevent it.

Types of diarrhea in broilers and their features

Diarrhea can be caused by helminths and other bacteria or natural causes, which determines the type of disease:

1 Salmonellosis

When poultry is affected by Salmonella, feces are characterized by a whitish tint and a foam structure. Bacteria are transmitted to chickens from an adult hen or through a common feeder, drinker.

Individuals exhibit increased lethargy, impaired appetite, and impaired coordination of movements. If it is a chicken, it starts to lag behind in growth, if an adult hen, it lays fewer eggs. The bird becomes inhibited and sedentary, breathing is frequent with the presence of snoring.

2 Helminthiasis

This helminthic invasion is the most common cause of diarrhea. A distinctive feature is the clear visibility of helminths. The symptoms are identical to the previous illness.

3Pullous lesion

With pullorosis, white feces are found. The disease is very dangerous for the human body, so treatment is started immediately.

4 Pasteurellosis

It has a different name - avian cholera. The disease develops very rapidly, leading to the death of the entire flock.

Special symptoms are fever, feces with a green or brownish tinge. Mucous phlegm is secreted from the nasal sinus. You can get infected from sick birds, rodents and bloodsuckers (mosquitoes, etc.).

5 Coccidiosis

It is rarely found in the initial stages, but you need to pay attention to the following signs:

  • ruffled feathers
  • brown chair
  • foamy stool structure
  • the presence of blood clots
  • swelling of the goiter
  • stopping the growth of chickens
  • pallor of scallops
  • increased thirst.

Treatment is predominantly a holistic approach. The aggravation is observed in autumn or spring. It is important to carry out an unscheduled cleaning of the chicken coop and remove the diseased individual from the rest of the birds.

6 Gastritis and other types

This disease occurs in broilers with improper nutrition and diet. The symptoms are the same as in humans. The main symptoms are pain syndromes and colic.

Quite often, diarrhea begins with spring vitamin deficiency, when the bird lacks vitamins and minerals. Infection with protozoan parasites is possible. This disease is called eimeriosis.

Causes of occurrence

The main factors and causes of diarrhea:

  • Low-grade feed and vitamin deficiency. In this case, diarrhea occurs in almost all birds from the same house.
  • Overdose of fortified food.
  • Overeating.
  • A sharp change in diet.
  • Poisoning by toxins, cigarette smoke, chemicals, galvanized or copper utensils. Also, intoxication occurs against the background of eating poisonous vegetation - celandine, buttercups, milkweed.
  • Ingestion of foreign objects.
  • Infection with pathogenic bacteria.
  • Contaminated poultry house.
  • Hypothermia leads to a decrease in immunity and an increased risk of infection.
  • Colds due to drafts, high humidity.
  • Stressful conditions of detention. It can be a fright, a sudden change of place of stay.

Signs

Symptoms for various diseases in broilers may differ slightly from each other, but in general, the following symptoms appear:

  • increased lethargy, lack of activity
  • the duration of loose stools is at least two days
  • unnatural color of stool - with a green, white, brown or yellow tint
  • the consistency of the droppings is more often of a frothy character
  • body temperature may rise
  • poor coordination of movements
  • impaired appetite
  • possible presence of blood clots
  • swelling of the paws - swelling.

If these signs are found, it is necessary to immediately contact a veterinarian, since an important part of successful therapy is an accurate diagnosis of the disease and the etiology of the origin of the pathogenic microorganism. Before going to the veterinary clinic, you need to collect feces for further laboratory research.

Possible complications and consequences

The most dangerous complication is the death of the entire flock, so sick birds should be removed from healthy ones. Some types of parasites pose a threat to human health, for example, a person can easily become infected with salmonellosis. Therefore, when in contact with animals and their droppings, feeders, drinkers, you must use protective equipment - rubber gloves, a medical mask, work clothes. If you do not get rid of the disease in a timely manner, it turns into a chronic form, which is quite difficult to get rid of.

How to treat diarrhea in broilers?

Avian diarrhea should be managed by a qualified veterinarian after careful examination of the stool and identification of the underlying causative agent of diarrhea. The doctor prescribes the separation of the affected individuals from the main flock. After transplanting the birds, you will have to disinfect the entire room (chicken coop and walking places), as well as drinkers, feeders, and work equipment.

Features of therapy:

  • In case of unbalanced nutrition, the farmer must reconsider the diet of the birds, replacing the old feed with a new, improved one, with the addition of vitamins and minerals.
  • Broilers need sufficient water, which must be clean and drinkable. Drinking bowls should also be cleaned as much as possible.
  • Straw, chalk and gravel are added to the diet.
  • It is beneficial for chicks to be given regular activated charcoal or other absorbents, which makes them feel better - relieving pain and discomfort.
  • At the initial stages of treatment, it is recommended to add a solution of potassium permanganate in a weak concentration to drinking water.
  • When infected, agents based on enzymes and probiotics are prescribed. Especially if the droppings are brownish.
  • To restore the intestinal microflora, they give fermented milk products (natural, not store-bought). Most often it is homemade yogurt (sour milk).
  • It is advisable to add a weak solution of manganese to the water or replace it with a decoction of pharmacy chamomile.
  • Nonspecific treatment is started after the first symptoms appear. After receiving the test results, the drugs are prescribed by the veterinarian.
  • With the above means, you need to solder birds for at least a week.
  • If drugs are prescribed in the form of powder or tablets, they are added to feed or drink. Accordingly, the tablets are pre-crushed to a powder state.
  • When infected with helminths, the doctor prescribes sulfonamide-based drugs. It should also be antibiotics.
  • Broilers should be kept in a warm environment and the bedding should be dry at all times.

Used drugs:

  • Levomycetin. Most often used for salmonellosis. Only 1 tablet is needed for 100 ml of water. The medicine is given from 3 to 4 times a day and make sure that broilers drink it.
  • With pasteurellosis and pullorosis, Furazolidone is prescribed. Application feature - the dose is selected based on the age category of the bird. So, 10-day-old chickens should be given 0.02 grams of the drug per 10 broilers. For two-week-old individuals, the dosage is increased to 0.03 grams, for an adult livestock, 0.04 grams are diluted in water.
  • For coccidiosis, Coccidin is recommended, which must be added to the feed. They are treated according to the scheme: for the first 5 days, 250 grams of a powdery preparation is put on 1 kg of compound feed, then exactly 2 times less (125 grams each) is added during the week. You can replace this medicine with such agents as Sulfadimezin and Zolen.
  • With histomonosis, Metronidazole is prescribed. The duration of the course is 5 days. For 1 kg of bird weight, you need to put 25 mg of the drug.
  • Other means: Biomycin, Flosanom, Biseptol.

The drug is selected based on the type of causative agent of diarrhea. Some drugs are injected intramuscularly.

Prevention measures

In order to prevent infection, it is necessary to follow preventive recommendations, which include the following measures:

  • Dilute water or feed with activated charcoal periodically.
  • Give rice cereal about once a week.
  • Be sure to disinfect feeders, drinkers, equipment and premises every day.
  • Look through the bird bedding throughout the day - it should be as dry as possible. Change if dirty.
  • Make sure that the chickens do not trample on the litter - remove it in a timely manner.
  • Refresh drinking water twice a day.
  • Handling the utensils with which you clean the coop is just as important as brushing your teeth and washing your hands. Because it is he who can become a carrier of infection. It is best to wash it, and then treat it with a blowtorch.
  • Many pathogenic bacteria are carried by blood-sucking and other insects, so treat the entire livestock with special agents against ticks, lice, fleas and other things.
  • Every six months, anthelmintic drugs should be administered.
  • For broilers, you need to create special corners for hygiene procedures (cleaning the plumage). To do this, separate a small area, cover it with ash and sand.

Timely vaccination:

  • Within 4 days after the birth of the chicken, the first administration of antibacterial agents is carried out. This is usually the drug Enrosol.
  • To strengthen the immune system and saturate the bird's body with vitamins, Chiktonik is given in the form of a solution. This should be done on the 7-9th day after birth, 16-17 and 29-32.
  • After 10 days of the chick's life, Baycox is applied.
  • On the 27th day, a vaccine against Newcastle's disease is administered orally or into the sinuses.
  • After 60 days, oral vaccination against helminthiasis is carried out - Promectin is used.

Clean living conditions and vaccinations are key to good bird health. Remember that preventing parasite infestation is much easier than getting rid of them later. Thus, you will protect not only broilers, but also your own health, since many helminths infect humans.

Author of the publication

2 Russia. City: Zheleznogorsk Publications: 58 Comments: 0


Home treatment methods: what to do

You can fight constipation in rabbits both with medication and with the help of folk recipes. In order to cope with the problem quickly and not harm the animals, it is very important to show the animals to the veterinarian before starting treatment and to coordinate the therapy with him. It is necessary to contact a specialist as soon as you notice the first symptoms of the disease in your animals. Read about the use of Iodinol for laying hens in this article.

If there is no way to go to the veterinarian at the moment, you can start treating the animal with mild folk remedies, but they can be used for no more than two days. There is no need to delay with medical help, since improperly selected therapy can harm the animal. Only after veterinary communication can you start treatment

Medication - is it possible to give a laxative

A number of drugs are used to treat constipation in rabbits:

  • Pain relievers, including Movalis or No-shpa. Used as an injection. They are used in cases where rabbits have a pronounced pain syndrome (the animal holds its teeth, behaves restlessly).
  • Simethicone-based products. They are used if the animal has bloating. The most popular drugs in this group used to treat rodents are Bobotik or Espumisan.
  • Antibiotics of the tetracycline group. They are used when constipation in rabbits is caused by a severe infection, given by injection. They can only be used on the recommendation of a veterinarian.

In no case should the animals be given a laxative to get rid of constipation. Such treatment can worsen the condition of the animal.

The dosage of the presented preparations should be selected for each animal on an individual basis for each animal. It depends on the weight of the rabbit, its age, and the presence of concomitant diseases.

Traditional methods: liquid paraffin, tansy, chamomile

If constipation in a rabbit is of a non-infectious nature, you can fight it with folk remedies. The most effective of these are:

  • Decoction of tansy with chamomile... This remedy can be given to a rabbit in the early days of constipation. The broth must be poured into the rabbit's mouth with a syringe (without a needle).
  • Vaseline oil. This remedy is given to the rabbit in an amount of 5 ml at a time. It works as a mild laxative. If the remedy helps the animal get rid of a woolen ball, foreign object, or other cause of constipation, you do not need to reuse the petroleum jelly.
  • Soft massage of the animal's abdomen... It must be done every three hours. For this purpose, the rabbit must be laid on its knees and gently moved from the neck to the tail of the animal. If such massage is unpleasant for the animal, it should be stopped immediately.

Do not use folk remedies at the same time as medication. In particular, you can not combine the intake of vaseline oil with any drugs. This will reduce the effectiveness of the treatment.


Infectious pathologies

This disease is typical for young cows. When infected with smallpox, there is a refusal of food, a decrease in milk yield, a feverish state and the appearance of purulent acne on the udder.

For the treatment of this disease, boric or zinc ointment is used to lubricate the udder. To avoid this disease, the stall must be kept clean.

Ringworm

It is a contact-borne fungal disease. Lichen is contagious to humans; cows get it most often from rodents.

Treatment requires the use of antifungal drugs. The disease is caused by hair loss at the places of appearance and peeling of the skin.

Actinomycosis

It is provoked by a fungus on internal organs and tissues. This disease causes inflammation and swelling in the body of the animal. Treatment for such a disease is prescribed only by a veterinarian. The most commonly used antibiotic treatment for the cow.

Non-infectious diseases in cattle are associated with digestion. This type of disease is not similar to human diseases. For the treatment of blockage of the esophagus, vegetable oil is used, as well as platifillin or atropine.

With atony of the proventriculus, feeding is prohibited on the first day, then fresh vegetables or green grass are given. Acidosis is treated with baking soda and macerobacillin after gastric lavage.

In case of poisoning, washing is done, then adsorbing drugs, laxatives and analgesics are given.

Infections are more common in barns that do not have proper livestock management.

The most dangerous and common pathology of newborn calves, which can lead to the loss of most of the livestock. The causative agent of the disease is a type of E. coli. With colibacillosis, severe intoxication of the calf's body occurs. The signs of the disease are as follows:

  • Lethargy
  • Too bright color of mucous membranes
  • Temperature rise
  • Diarrhea - against its background, dehydration is rapidly developing
  • Loss of appetite
  • Enlargement of the folds of the skin around the lips.

If symptoms of the disease appear, an urgent appeal to the veterinarian is necessary. Antibiotics are used for therapy, as well as with measures to eliminate intoxication. A good result is given by a dropper. In the absence of treatment, the animal dies in convulsions on the 3-5 day of illness.

The causative agent of the disease is protozoa. Pathology is noted, as a rule, in large farms, where cows and calves are kept in significant overcrowding. Symptoms of infection appear after 3 days of the incubation period. The fact that the animal is sick is evidenced by:

  • The calf grinds its teeth
  • Lack of appetite
  • Depletion
  • Frequent watery stools
  • Increasing dehydration.

The calf dies without treatment. Weak individuals can also die during therapy. The disease does not become chronic. With her, the calf will either recover completely or die. In addition to antibiotics, the veterinarian also carries out symptomatic treatment, depending on the condition of the cub.

Gertner's bacillus provokes the disease. Usually, the disease affects calves whose body is already weakened by a cold or vitamin deficiency. Symptoms appear about a week after infection. The calf has the following manifestations of the disease:

  • Temperature rise to 41 degrees and above
  • Decreased appetite to complete loss
  • Constipation, which soon gives way to diarrhea
  • Tousled coat
  • Rapid panting
  • Staggering when walking from weakness.

As a complication of the disease, pneumonia is often observed. In such a situation, even with treatment, the paratyphoid fever of the calves is often fatal. Autopsy of dead animals reveals serious intestinal atrophy and numerous hemorrhages in it.

For treatment, a special antiparatyphoid serum is used. Contacting a veterinarian for help is mandatory.


Watch the video: DIY: Homemade Rabbit critical care - Used For GI Stasis