Pruning and shaping a black currant bush: features of spring and autumn pruning
Black currants, like most berry crops, bear fruit better with proper care. Every year, starting from the moment of planting, currant bushes need to be cut and cleaned. There are different ways of pruning a plant, they are used depending on the age, condition of the bush, season and other conditions.
The structure of the black currant bush
Black currant is a shrub up to two meters high. Prefers lighted areas. Fruits best on last year's shoots, although berries grow on old branches as well. Shoots growing from the roots are called null shoots, they provide the main crop for the next year. Zero branches differ from old branches by a lighter color of the bark. Skeletal shoots older than three years are much darker, they have many lateral branches.
An adult currant bush consists of branches of different ages
Do I need to cut currants
After pruning, the illumination of the bush improves, it is better ventilated. When removing old, diseased branches, as well as young shoots that thicken the bush, the plant does not waste extra strength for growth. The remaining branches receive more nutrition, which stimulates the formation and intensive development of new shoots. Harvesting from a properly formed bush is not difficult, since excess branches do not interfere with the removal of berries. Regular pruning results in higher yields and better fruit quality.
A young currant bush consists of one- and two-year shoots
Currant pruning methods
According to its purpose, pruning is:
Formative pruning ensures the correct structure of the currant bush. They start it from the moment of planting and spend 4–5 years, during which it is possible to finally form the plant. In the future, if necessary, carry out sanitary and anti-aging pruning. In the first case, old branches are removed and the growth of young shoots is stimulated, in the second, they get rid of diseased and broken branches. Pests are often found in old bushes, therefore, rejuvenating pruning also plays a sanitary role to some extent.
Regular shaping guarantees a stable harvest throughout the life of the currant bushes. For good fruiting on currants, you need to leave 15-20 branches of different ages. Every year, old (more than 6 years old) and immature shoots are removed, and young branches are also shortened.
A properly formed currant bush consists of branches of different ages
The formation of a young currant bush with only annual shoots is started immediately after planting. All branches are pruned, leaving 5 cm high stumps. This simple operation stimulates the formation of new powerful shoots. If you do not carry out intensive pruning at the beginning of growth, then the bush will be frail.
After removing the ground part, the plant will give 3-4 new shoots over the summer. In autumn, young shoots do not need to be thinned, because next year's harvest will be formed on it.
In the second year, the currants will already begin to bear fruit, and also during the season the bush forms new powerful shoots (zero). Doing autumn pruning leaves some of the strongest noughtiesprocesses. Broken branches affected by powdery mildew and pests are removed, in the same way they do the same with shoots inclined to the ground or thickening the bush. Remove them as short as possible so as not to leave hemp.
There is another obvious benefit from pruning: extra branches can be used as cuttings for rooting, therefore, from one healthy bush bought in the nursery, you can get 3-4 new ones.
Currant pruning begins immediately after planting
Starting from the third year, three old branches are removed annually. They differ from young ones in color - the darker the branch, the older it is. The lightest shoots are young, annuals. Old branches grow strongly and are more often affected by pests. By removing them, better illumination of the bush and plant sanitation are achieved.
On a currant bush from 3 years old and older, several branches of different ages are left
Currant pruning rules
There are several important rules that are followed when pruning currant bushes:
- Do not leave stumps, cut as close to the ground as possible.
- Remove the branches to the nearest external bud.
- Cut the shoots at an angle of 45about.
- The optimum cutting distance from the kidney is 5 mm.
A well-sharpened pruner is needed to trim bushes. Some gardeners recommend disinfecting it after use.
Currant branches that thicken the bush are removed as close to the ground as possible
Gardeners believe that the currant bush lives no more than 12-15 years. Proper care, timely pruning and feeding will ensure maximum productivity of the currant bush during this time. In the future, if this is a really valuable variety, propagate it by cuttings and grow a new plant. It is generally impractical to keep old bushes longer.
Pruning a currant bush requires a lot of time and certain skills. In the spring, it is recommended to remove branches after the establishment of warm weather, but before the start of sap flow and budding. If you start pruning later, you can nullify the entire crop: awakened buds will fall off, and with intensive sap flow, the cut area heals worse and the plant may get sick.
Many gardeners do pruning in the fall, after harvest. The currant bush at this time still has enough strength for recovery, and the plant hibernates well. In the spring, they carry out the rest of the work, keeping within a short time frame.
During spring pruning, pay attention to the type of bush. Currants should not be very spreading, so branches that are tilted or lying on the ground are removed first. They also remove currant shoots that grow inward and thicken the bush, damaged by frost, broken or dry. If, for some reason, the branches that bear fruit were not removed in the fall, this is also done in the spring.
Video: spring pruning and processing of black currant bushes
Depending on the age of the bushes, pruning in the fall is carried out in different ways. Usually, before starting work, remove all the leaves remaining on the branches.
On young bushes, the tops of the central zero shoots are shortened by 20–25 cm. Later, more fruit buds are laid on the cut branches, better illumination is provided, and the shoots themselves branch better. The next year, the harvest will be formed in the central part, which will facilitate the harvesting of berries.
On old bushes, sore and broken branches are removed if necessary, shortened to strong young shoots and maintained in the correct shape.
Video: ways of autumn pruning of bushes of different ages
Black currant is a fast-growing shrub that grows green mass very quickly and can thicken strongly, sometimes to the detriment of yield. The correct formation of currants requires certain skills and knowledge, but any gardener can master them. ...
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Cutting currants at the root. How to prune?
In fact, caring for currants is not particularly difficult. But some inexperienced gardeners do not know how to properly prune currants to increase yields. Pruning can be done in different ways. It all depends on the age of the plant, on the goals and on the condition of the shrub. The most important thing is not to break branches. This can lead to the fact that the shrub will take a long time to heal the cracks.
If the bush is young, has not yet yielded a crop, only the pruning of unnecessary basal branches is carried out. In order for the bush to form harmoniously, a few shoots are enough. But if the plant is more than 4 years old, every autumn it is necessary to carefully remove diseased, dry shoots, leaving only viable and fruitful ones.
It so happens that currants begin to give a meager harvest. And over time, and generally ceases to bear fruit. In this case, you need a radical pruning of the currant, which is a complete pruning of the bush, at the root.
How the correct pruning of currants in the spring is carried out is given below:
- The shoots are shortened by 1/4 at the edges so that the plant resembles a bowl.
- The crown should be thinned out. All unnecessary thickets that block the flow of sunlight to young shoots and take away the strength from the plant must be removed. This is usually done in mid-July. For the formation of large and tasty berries, currants need good lighting.
- All diseased branches must also be cut off. The currant is often struck by the glass. Its larvae eat away the core of the appendix, the bush begins to weaken. Because of this pest, the plant begins to bear fruit worse. And if suddenly the bush began to give a meager harvest, you need to cut off the oldest shoot. Most likely, he is struck by the glass.
- For a young shrub after the first spring pruning, 10 strong shoots will be enough. An adult bush, which is about 4 years old, should consist of 6 shoots.
- Spring pruning is necessary every year.
Some gardeners are interested in whether the currant is pruned at the root - whether the bush will revive.
Experienced experts say yes. This is especially true for old plants that have ceased to bear fruit. After cutting the currants at the root, new shoots will begin to form, and the gardener will have the opportunity to harvest a good harvest.
Pruning old shrubs is carried out as follows. The branches of the second, third and fourth years are shortened, leaving 4 buds on each branch. In last year's shoots, only the top is cut off. From the branches of the current year, the 5 most viable and promising are selected, and the rest are cut out. The yield of the plant largely depends on how correctly the pruning of the old currant bush is carried out.
If the plant is already about 15 years old, it needs to be rejuvenated. It is important to do this procedure gradually, over 3 years. In the first year, a third of all shoots are pruned to the very base. As a result, new processes appear. Of these, a few of the strongest are left. In the second year, the whole procedure is repeated again. Do the same for the third year. As a result, the hive is updated. But if the shrub is already 20 years old, it cannot be updated. In this case, the plant is uprooted and a new plant is planted.
During a year there are several periods for cutting currants... The procedure can be performed in spring, summer, autumn and even winter.
Timing of pruning should be based on not on the convenience of the gardener, but during the period of vegetative development of the plant.
Do I need to prune in the spring?
In early spring, fruit shrubs are dormant. Vegetation has not yet begun, there is no active sap flow in the tissues. This is the best time to prune your bush in the spring.
The gardener has little time to carry out the procedure in the spring.... As soon as the buds begin to bloom en masse, the spring pruning period is over.
If you do not follow this rule:
- the slices will abundantly secrete juice, which will not allow the wounds to quickly heal
- the risk of infection with fungal and bacterial infections increases
- the bush will hurt for a long time, instead of building up the leaf mass and forming fruit inflorescences.
Any type of pruning can be done in the spring. Opportunities are limited by different climatic zones.
Spring pruning of currants allows you to increase the yield of the current season and lay the foundation for the next year.
Sanitary pruning must be carried out in any type of climate. All broken and cracked branches are cut off. Partially removed shoots that are damaged by frost, sun, disease.
Shaping and rejuvenating pruning carried out during this period only in the northern regions. In all the rest, it is better to postpone these procedures until the fall.
Spring Pruning Benefits:
- the forces of the plant are directed to more promising branches, the amount of harvest increases, the size of berries increases
- lighting is evenly distributed over the vegetative mass, ripening of berries in the brushes occurs almost simultaneously
- bush diseases are prevented
- the growth of shoots is stimulated, which will bear fruit next year.
Spring pruning allows you to increase the yield of the current season and set the stage for the next year.
How to properly prune berry bushes in spring:
Can branches be pruned in summer?
At the very beginning of summer, especially if the spring was long and cold, you can re-sanitary pruning of currant bushes. At this time, all damaged branches are clearly visible.
In spring, with dormant buds, it is not always possible to determine which shoot survived the winter well and which did not.
In the summer, you need to cut out dried shoots, and also pinch green growth. On the branches that are left without tops, lateral shoots will begin to develop.
Some gardeners carry out the thinning and shaping of currants in the summer. Such pruning is applied as soon as all the berries are harvested in August.
Cutting the bush after harvest:
- removing branches older than five years
- pruning deformed, underdeveloped shoots
- destruction of sick and weak branches.
These actions are not unambiguous... On the one hand, the illumination and airing of the fruit branches are improved.
There is a place for the free development of annual shoots. Young growth is timely protected from infections and pests.
On the other hand, the load on the bush increases. Pruning stimulates the formation of young shoots, at the same time, when the currant spends all its energy on ripening wood and preparing for winter.
The movement of the juice during this period is still active, the wounds can remain wet for a long time. It is a gateway for infections of various natures.
Shoots that are just beginning to grow during this period will hardly have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather. Damage to them in winter is inevitable.
Autumn tenderloin - what is it for?
In the fall, they start pruning after the currants drop the bulk of the leaves... The plant prepares for winter, the movement of juices slows down. The release of drops of juice on the cut suggests that it is too early to start the autumn pruning.
In areas with harsh climates, it is recommended to prune shrubs in the spring. In autumn, frosts can spoil the results of the work: the tips of the branches will freeze, in the spring they will have to be removed.
Benefits of Autumn Pruning:
- longer production period
- preparing the plant for winter
- assistance to young shoots in nutrition and active development
- stimulus for the formation of a large number of replacement shoots next spring
- bushes get rid of diseases and pests
- conditions are created for good fruiting next year.
In the autumn period in the central regions there are carrying out a shaping, rejuvenating pruning... At the same time, branches damaged during summer work with bushes are cut.
Pruning black currant bushes in the fall:
Some gardeners carry out winter pruning work. from November to mid-February... This is possible subject to year-round access to the site. Slices are carried out on frozen branches.
It is impossible to say unequivocally when it is better to cut currants, in spring or autumn. Unlike gooseberries, whose buds begin to bloom early and complicate spring pruning, currants later enter the growing season.
If it is impossible to get to the site while there is snow, all trimming work with gooseberries has to be carried out in the fall. Currants make it possible to find time for pruning in each season.
Currant pruning should be done annually.... It is convenient to do the main work in the fall. In the spring, it will remain to carry out sanitary pruning, which will correct the consequences of the wintering of the bush.
Currant pruning should be done annually, be sure to fall and spring
Blueberry is a long-lived shrub with an erect or spreading bush. The harvest is formed on the growth of the last year. Pruning regulates the number of fruiting shoots, as well as the yield and size of berries.
Blueberry pruning is carried out in early spring; in warm regions with mild winters, this can be done in the fall after leaf fall. The formed bush begins to be cut in the fourth year after planting.
When pruning, remove weak and old branches from the middle of the bush if they thicken the plant. Cut off drooping branches or lying on the surface of the soil. Small, thin branches are removed, leaving the strongest, successful growing.
Pruning effectively affects the growth and development of berry bushes, significantly affects the yield. This powerful technique must be carried out taking into account the characteristics of each plant.