25 diseases and 7 pests of tomatoes
Any garden owner who decides to start growing tomatoes sooner or later faces the problem of their disease. Leaves may turn black, twist, turn yellow, or dry out altogether. There is a sufficient variety of diseases and pests that can destroy seedlings or all tomato bushes to one in a short time. It is worth learning about this better, for the safety of the future harvest.
Diseases of tomatoes and seedlings
Chloratic curl of tomato leaves
It appears as yellow or light green leaves chloratic species. The plant becomes stunted with a curly top. The manifestation of the disease is facilitated by the tobacco mosaic virus or tobacco necrosis. It spreads with contaminated soil.
For treatment, it is required to remove diseased bushes and disinfect the ground.
Gray rot is a dangerous disease destroying all tomato bushes at once... This is a fungal disease that occurs with the presence of brown weeping spots. They are brown to gray in color, dry at first, then slippery.
Starting from the stem, the fungus can cover the entire plant overnight. The first susceptible places for the disease are the places where the plant is wounded (scraps of leaves or bandaging with props).
The disease begins in cool weather and constant rains... If the seedlings are in a greenhouse, then they arise from poorly ventilated air, also high humidity.
Treatment should be started immediately, but the weather should be sunny. Control method: remove diseased leaves so that the fungus does not go into the trunk of the plant. It is advisable to avoid watering at this time.
The prophylactic method will be spraying with an infusion of chopped garlic infused in water, in a ratio of 30 g per 10 liters. There can be chemical methods of protection: Multi, Euparen, Bayleton.
A fungal disease in which the leaves and stems of tomatoes are affected is called septoria or white spot.
First, the leaves located below the plant, near the ground itself, wither and dry out. Then spots of light color are formed on them, acquiring over time a brown color with a black dot in the middle. After which the sheet disappears.
To do this, it assists high humidity... Not seed borne.
For treatment you will need remove infected leaves, even if you need to cut them all off. Also in preventive methods, treat with copper oxychloride, Tsinab, Horus.
The main symptom of the disease is the presence of a "black leg" in seedlings or plants. Is happening due to poorly cultivated soil (not sterile, high humidity). The losses may not be great.
You can remove root rot by replacing the soil in the greenhouse, for open ground - treating seedlings and earth with disinfectants.
For the best effect, sprinkle the soil with coarse sand from the river when loosening.
Tomato stem necrosis
The first signs of tomato stem necrosis are the presence of cracks in the stemme, with the subsequent formation of air roots in them. Appears on an already formed bush with the first bunches of fruits.
A plant with such a disease dies completely... The root cause is contaminated seeds as well as soil.
To protect other bushes, the infected must be removed and burned. To cultivate the soil, the use of Fitolavin-300 is required.
The disease spreads rapidly and overnight, can destroy many bushes at once. It manifests itself as a void in the stem and the presence of liquid in it. The color in the section is brown.
Heal does not seem possible... It must be removed and incinerated immediately.
Treat the remaining, not infected bushes, as well as other plants located nearby, with a solution of Fitolovin 300 (0.6-1%). For each plant, not less than 200 ml of solution. It is impossible to cure infected bushes, but it will protect healthy plants.
Phomosis or brown rot affects the tomato itself at any maturity.
It is characterized by the presence of a brown spot near the stalk. In the context, all the flesh is rotten. Infected fruits pluck from the stem by themselves. Illness occurs due to the large amount of fresh manure in the ground.
You can treat it by treating the plant with Fundazol or Zaslon. The soil is copper sulfate.
Mosaic infestation occurs mainly in older varieties of tomatoes, 2-3 years old suffer less. It is characterized by the presence of yellow or green spots in the form of a mosaic. Then they curl up and frown. The bush dries out completely. You can rub up to 15% of the crop.
Since the main reason for the appearance of the mosaic is seed infection, which means that they should be processed before planting.
Dead bushes are burned. Young ones are processed with milk (low-fat) in a ratio of 1:10 liters with the addition of 1 tsp. urea. Processing required 3 times a month.
Alternaria or macrosporiosis (brown or dry spotting)
This fungal disease is characterized by the presence large round spotslocated on the bottom sheets. Then they rise higher and pass to the fruits, in the form of a brown spot at the base. At high humidity and high temperatures, sporulation of fungi begins to appear.
In preventive methods, it is required to spray tomatoes with antifungal drugs. With the manifestation of the disease, when the fruits are already ripe, treatment with biological products is required.
The most common and well-known is a disease called late blight. It affects bushes both in open ground and in greenhouses. A favorable environment for her will be a sharp change in temperature and high humidity.
Characterized blackening of leaves with a weak white bloom... The fruit has brown spots that grow rapidly. Sick bushes must be destroyed immediately.
If you constantly do prevention, then the disease will not harm the crop.
This will require spraying the bushes once a week with whey. The created acidic environment kills the fungus. Chemical preparations such as: Barrier, Fitosporin, Zaslon are also suitable.
Brown olive spot (cladosporium)
Cladospariosis also has the form of a fungal disease. Mostly get sick greenhouse types of tomatoes... Initially, the leaf of the bush suffers: covered with chlorotic yellow spots, merging into a large spot.
Spores of the fungus appear under the leaf, manifesting themselves velvety brown bloom... The disease develops at the stage of tomato flowering and the appearance of fruits. The sooner it appears, the worse for tomato bushes. Infection occurs quickly at high temperatures.
Rarely, the fungus spreads to the fruit. If this happens, then the fruit acquires a soft brown consistency. Watering with cold water and temperature drops will provoke this disease.
Copper-containing preparations will help to fight: Barrier, Zaslon, Bordeaux mixture.
The black leg is expressed in the form of fungal spores, which invade the roots of the plant and into the root area. At the root base, the stem turns black, weakens, and dies less than a week after infection.
Affects mostly greenhouse bushes that do not meet the growing conditions... If the ground is not changed, the greenhouse is poorly ventilated, and water is abundant, then tomato seedlings will become infected with this type of fungus.
You can fight the black leg by loosening the soil, drying, processing with potassium permanganate (5 g / 10 l of water)
This disease is characterized as watery spots of dark green color... Then they become darker and cover the entire surface of the tomato. The infected part dries out and becomes flat, with the formation of folds.
Sometimes the disease can only be detected by cutting a tomato. Formed due to lack of watering and heat.
The main treatment is watering, especially during the ripening period. You also need to spray with a 1% solution of calcium chloride.
The presence of a large amount of nitrogen fertilizer leads to the instability of the tomato plant to this disease.
Leads to cracking of the fruit improper plant care... It occurs as a result of improper watering (first dry soil, then an excess of moisture).
Also, an excess of nitrogen or incorrect use of pollination leads to cracking of tomato fruits.
A yellow or green spot near the peduncle
If the variety of tomato does not include the presence of green at the stalk, then this feature is acquired due to high temperatures.
Due to the effect of heat, the red color of the tomato (pigment) burned out in the sun, which led to the formation of carotene. it is not a disease... You can only avoid shading the plants.
Silvery spots on the leaves
Some gardeners are frightened by the appearance of silvery spots on the leaves. it not a disease, this is a feature of the plant (anomaly).
The origin is due to temperature fluctuations during the night or day. Also when creating hybrids, in the process of their poor processing.
Oedema is also not a tomato disease. Characterized swelling of leaves due to improper watering... It is expressed in the form of raised spots in its similarity to white mold. It happens that this anomaly is due to a mismatch between the temperature of the soil and air.
For prevention, it is recommended that the plants are well ventilated, there is enough sun.
Soil phytotoxicity occurs due to misuse dressing, fertilizers, which should be beneficial to tomatoes, but are harmful to the plant.
The manifestations are different: from a change in the color of the leaves to their drying out.
The origin of the curl or curliness of the leaves depends on the conditions created by the plant. Improper watering, ingestion of herbicides, improper use of Tamaton growth stimulant.
If these violations occur, then when herbicides and growth stimulants get into leaves need to be removed... For waterlogged soil, loosening is required.
If powdery mildew manifests itself on tomatoes, then you can lose the entire crop in a short time. It manifests itself as a white bloom - the trunk and leaves begin to turn white. Most of the disease is harmful to greenhouses. Suitable conditions: lack of moisture, low temperature.
For prevention, the following measures are used - tomatoes are treated with Strobi, Topaz, sodium humate fungicides according to the description.
Streak looks like wide dying stripes on the bushes of the plant. On fruits it appears in the form of spots of various shapes and sizes. If the disease progresses, then the bush dies.
Before transplanting tomatoes into open ground, you need to spray them with boric acid.
It is impossible to cure a charged bush, but you can minimize the appearance of a streak. To do this, use healthy seeds and avoid fluctuations in air temperature.
The presence of such a disease can also destroy most of the crop. It is manifested by the underdevelopment of the plant, the formation of black spots on the fruits. Arises due to infected seeds, therefore, before sowing, you need to process them well. Before planting, you also need to disinfect the soil, due to the fact that this type of bacteria lives in it for up to several years.
All of the above types are the most common diseases of tomato and its seedlings.
Some types of diseases can simply scare the gardener, and can lead to the complete loss of all tomato bushes at once.
Dangerous for tomato seedlings at home:
- Late blight
- White leaf spot
- Brown leaf spot
- Black bacterial spot
The most common:
- Stem necrosis
- Alternaria or macrosporiosis
- Chloratic curl of tomato leaves
- Gray rot
- Root rot
- Bacterial wilting
- Brown olive spot (cladosporium)
- Root rot
- Top rot
- Fruit cracking
- A yellow or green spot near the peduncle
- Silvery spots on tomato leaves
Why tomatoes are sick
- Incorrect feeding... Most of all, the excess of nutrients in the soil is reflected in tomatoes. It is better not to feed them than to overfeed them. Their leaves begin to spin. The trunk of the plant thickens, many shoots appear. All this interferes with the normal development of the fetus.
- Poor conditions of detention... For normal growth, tomatoes require abundant watering, good ventilation.
- Viral infections.
- Wind. The wind can bring in improperly stored herbicides.
Signs of a lack of basic nutrients
|Lack of which element||Signs of shortage|
|Nitrogen||Leaves turn completely yellow, without veins of a different color|
|Phosphorus||At the initial stage, the leaf turns blue, then becomes brown and black.|
|Potassium||The leaves have blackened edges. In fruits, it is manifested by a low sugar content (becomes sour).|
|Gland||The upper leaves turn yellow with green veins.|
|Bora||Bad fruit set|
|Calcium||The fruit has a gray or brown top|
|Magnesium||The lower leaves with red veins turn yellow.|
|Manganese||Symptoms are similar to mosaic disease, but manifests itself from the upper leaves near the roots.|
What makes the leaves turn yellow
Often, tomato growers are wondering about the presence of yellow leaves in plants.
There are reasons for this trouble:
- Violation of the root system... Occurs due to a lack of root growth space. The roots of closely spaced bushes are intertwined and cannot breathe.
- Hypothermia... A sharp drop in temperature leads to yellowness or blueness of the entire bush.
- Root damage... It is manifested by the presence of yellow lower leaves. It happens due to loosening of the soil or transplantation. The plant quickly bounces back.
- Insufficient watering.
- Excessive humidity.
- Lack of nutrients.
- Fusarium wilting... A fungal disease in which the root first becomes ill, then the stem. In advanced cases, moisture is not absorbed by the plant, wilting begins. The appearance of small, underdeveloped fruits.
Pests and description of the fight against them
Not only diseases can spoil the tomato crop, but also all kinds of pests. They can cause damage both on the surface of the bushes and at the roots.
The most famous types of pests are:
- Garden scoop
- Colorado beetle
The whitefly mainly lives in greenhouses. You can identify it by the formed black bloom on the leaves... It is formed due to the fact that the pest feeds on plant sap, and the formation of a sticky film is their surplus. The plant does not breathe and begins to die.
When a whitefly is found, you can simply touch the leaves and a swarm of white insects will rise from them. The main harm is brought by the larvae.
You can fight the pest using special adhesive tapes. Also rinsing the leaves with soapy water to remove sticky deposits. An effective way of fighting will be an aqueous infusion of dandelion roots and leaves, as well as an infusion of garlic water.
Thrips seal the tops of plants and feed mainly on inflorescences, spoiling the ovary of the fruit. They are detected quite easily due to the characteristic spots of light color... They cause irreparable harm.
It is quite difficult to get rid of the pest, they are poorly treated with insecticides.You can destroy it if you spray with "Fitoverm", "Karate", read the description in advance at home.
The garden scoop looks like a pest butterfly. Delayed larvae, which can be found on the back of the leaves, cause harm. If there are a large number of them, then seedlings can be eaten whole.
For prevention, it is required to destroy the weeds and pluck the leaves on which the larvae of the garden scoop are found.
Aphids are a small pest located on the leaves of a plant and sucking the juice out of it... With a large accumulation of aphids, the bush may die.
To remove aphids, insecticide treatment will be required.
The wireworm dwells in the earth and spoils the roots of plants... If damaged, the tomato bush dries up.
To get rid of this pest, potato tubers are buried in the ground before planting tomatoes. After a couple of days, they are dug up and burned.
Medvedka is the main threat to tomatoes in the ground.
It is characterized by gluttony. Dangerous both adults and larvae... It lives in moist soils with a rich humus content.
For prevention, onions and spoiled food are buried in the ground. Since it does not tolerate unpleasant odors. He is also afraid of loud sounds, so special noise turntables are installed. Chemical protection is also used: to spray on the plant "Medvetox", "Thunder", "Grizzly".
Colorado potato beetle, as well as its larvae feed on the leaves and stems of tomatoes... To combat it, manual collection is used (if the amount is small). For a large lesion, spraying with drugs is carried out: "Commander", "Iskra".
The tomato is inherently an unpretentious plant. But his diseases and pests can discourage him from growing this wonderful vegetable. Nowadays, there are a sufficient number of all kinds of drugs to combat them to help grow a good harvest.
Description of the variety and characteristics of Kumato tomatoes
The variety is not included in Rosreestr, the seeds are sold of foreign production. The only thing known about the origin of the tomato hybrid is that it was obtained in Europe. The basis is taken from wild tomatoes from the Galapagos Islands, the unusual color of which was given by the blackberry pigment. Today, various seed companies offer their versions of Kumato tomatoes, among which there are tall plants reaching 2 m in height, as well as undersized small-fruited "cherry".
The most common variety of Kumato tomatoes is an indeterminate shrub. Its height in the open ground and in the greenhouse reaches 1.8-2 m. The stem of the tomatoes shows the features characteristic of lianas, it is strong, bristly. Clusters are formed from 6-7 ovaries after the 9th leaf, and then after 1-2 leaves. The root system of tomatoes is strong, but not buried. The roots go 20-25 cm into the soil, but around the bush they stretch out in a radius of up to 50 cm. The leaves are relatively small, without pubescence, wrinkled, dark green.
The fruits of Kumato tomatoes have a bright dark color - brown-red or chocolate. The darkest colored spot is around the stalk. The skin is firm but may crack when the fruit is overripe. The orange-red flesh brightens towards the center. Inside the tomato there are 4 chambers filled with yellowish seeds and brownish-brown juice. Rounded, slightly flattened fruits weigh on average 120-150 g. Kumato tomatoes are good fresh, keep in the refrigerator for a long time, but lose their taste in salting.
We carry out treatments for diseases
One of the dangerous diseases of vegetable crops - peronosporosis (downy mildew) - often leads to the complete death of cucumbers. Even the slightest manifestation of it on the leaves should alert the gardener.
Downy mildew on cucumber leaves. Photo: "Gavrish"
When the leaf surface is affected by powdery and downy mildew plants die within 2 weeks... The fruits may not be damaged, but on dehydrated plants they become smaller, wither and bitter. Losses can reach 40-50% of the yield.
Our illustrated catalog - market will help you find all these hybrids on sale. Compare offers from different online retailers and choose powdery mildew-resistant cucumber seeds.
But still plant protection experts advise: if the first signs of peronosporosis appear, you need be sure to carry out processingrather than waiting for the infection to take over the entire plant. Downy mildew can ruin the entire crop.
Left: cucumbers in a greenhouse. Right: beginning of leaf damage. Photo: Gavrish
Timely preventive treatment drug "Ordan" protects plants from fungal infection for a long time. Spraying of cucumbers is carried out at the stage of 4-6 true leaves. Due to the pronounced therapeutic effect, "Ordan" localizes the foci of the disease, preventing it from spreading throughout the plant. The second spraying is recommended 7-10 days after the first.
Spraying is carried out at the stage of 4-6 true leaves
A new systemic drug against peronosporosis and root rot "Previkur»Used by watering the soil immediately after sowing seeds cucumbers or by watering seedlings at the root with an interval of 2 weeks.
Good results were obtained when using an immunomodulator and a growth regulator from powdery mildew "Ecogel". It affects plants at the cellular level, increases resistance to fungal, bacterial and viral diseases, significantly inhibits the spread of powdery mildew on cucumbers. To suppress the foci of the disease, it is used in a mixture with the fungicide "Topaz».
Bacteriosis is caused by a group of special pathogens that lead to a decrease in yield and death of plants. I am glad that such dangerous infections are less common than infection by viruses and fungi, but we must try to prevent their appearance.
Infection of a vascular nature, the pathogen enters through the damaged parts of the stems and leaves. From the onset of the onset of tomato disease to the final death, 1-2 months pass.
- the leaves of the lower tier lose their elasticity, wither
- yellow spots appear
- small brown ulcers appear on the stalks, stems
- tomatoes are delayed in development, spots appear on the fruits (first white, then in the center - yellow, "bird's eye").
In hot weather, with numerous rains, the infection becomes epiphytotic. Most often, diseased plants are uprooted and destroyed. In the early stages, spraying with a formulation containing copper may help.
Hollowness (stem necrosis)
The disease is characterized by high danger, since without surgical treatment, crop losses are up to 30-40%. The reasons:
- fluctuations in day and night temperatures
- high humidity
- excess nitrogen in the soil.
Infection manifests itself in the fruiting stage, when light spots are visible on the leaf plates in the central part. The leaves curl, look like "scalded" with boiling water, later necrotic areas are formed. Ripe fruits develop cracks, which are typical for this disease, "mesh" fragments of veins.
- the affected bushes are removed and burned
- treat the soil with Phytolavin solution (0.2%).
Tomato fruit mottling
It occurs less frequently than other bacterial infections. All ground parts of tomato bushes are infected.
- small black spots with a brown border on the leaves
- twisting of sheet plates
- drying flowers
- the appearance on young green tomatoes of convex black spots with a whitish border.
For treatment, use any copper-containing compounds or Fitolavin.
Bacterial (black) tomato spot
The disease is dangerous in hot summer, because of pathogens, up to half of young plants die. Crop losses are up to 15-20%. Planted young tomato seedlings suffer more from insidious bacteriosis.
- depressed watery spots on the leaves (first brown, then black)
- yellowing of shoots, pericarp
- massive shedding of flowers and ovaries
- the appearance of black spots on the fruits.
On a note! Unlike bacterial cancer, with black spot, the spots do not have a light border.
Affected plants do not produce fruit, but if the infection occurred later, then the tomatoes are of poor quality.
For prophylaxis, tomatoes are sprayed with Kartocid, a Bordeaux liquid. At the first sign of infection, the bushes are removed from the greenhouse and burned.
Insect pests of tomatoes in the greenhouse and soil: photos and control measures
Insect pests threaten tomatoes both in the open field and in greenhouses.
The most dangerous is the Colorado potato beetle. Everyone knows him, a lot has been written about him. The most effective drugs for protecting tomatoes from this pest are: "Bison", "Tanrek", "Iskra Zolotaya", "Confidor" and "Commander", "Apache", etc. All these pesticides are long-acting (up to three weeks). To control pests of tomatoes, it is important to thoroughly sprinkle in the evening during the mass hatching of larvae.
Whitefly pests also cause damage to tomatoes in the open field and in the greenhouse. The same toxic chemicals, as well as Aktara and Aktellik, will save the plants from these insects.
In the southern region, tomatoes of medium and late ripening periods are often affected by the polyphagous caterpillars of the scoop.
Look at the photo - these pests of tomatoes, gnawing inside, eat away the seeds and pulp of the fruit:
The sweet pepper harvest is also greatly affected by the scoop. The fruits affected by the scoop rot. The color of caterpillars is variable from greenish, pink to purple-blackish, they are up to 2 cm long.
Since the moth caterpillars damage the fruits in the initial period of ripening, due to the need to comply with the waiting period, tomatoes should not be sprayed with chemicals.
It is possible to stop the harmfulness of moths by using biological insecticides "Aparin", "Iskra-Bio", "Fitoverm" or "Agrovertin". These preparations can be used even during the harvest season. The last treatment is 48 hours in advance.
These photos show the pests of tomatoes in the greenhouse and in the open field.
Tomato disease: root knot nematode (photo)
Tomatoes also get sick from the defeat of potato and rootworm nematodeswhere the observance of culture circulation is very important. Return of affected crops to their original place not earlier than in 3-4 years.
Pest and disease control of tomatoes is carried out if available. Spraying with pesticides is repeated if pests threaten the crop. In both cases, the regulations for the use of drugs are strictly observed.
The selection of photos "Pests of tomatoes and the fight against them" clearly demonstrates how to get rid of insects that damage the crop:
Disease-resistant varieties and hybrids of indoor tomatoes
Breeders have developed a large number of tomato varieties that are resistant to diseases and pests. By choosing them for planting in a greenhouse, you can minimize preventive treatments and get a bountiful harvest without much hassle.
Table: varieties and hybrids of tomatoes that are immune to disease
Photo Gallery: Disease Resistant Tomatoes
Reviews of gardeners about disease-resistant tomato varieties
Alhambra is a very good variety, fruitful, did not hurt and the tomatoes are delicious, I did not notice the sourness. My sister gave me seeds, I planted only once, in a greenhouse, and for several years in a row, she considered it the best variety. And she was a great connoisseur of tomatoes.
De Barao gold (as it was written on the pack) is my favorite, I have been growing it for several years. The variety is very reliable - in any year it gives a super-yield, is not afraid of either cold or shading. The taste is really the best - dense, fleshy, sweet, and eat from a bush, and in a salad, and in salting. We eat from July until the last tomato - very stale, in October I pick only them green for ripening (from this year it is also De Barao Tsar), sometimes they lie until the New Year.
I like La-la-fa for three reasons: fruitful, not affected by cladosporia, the fruits are long
Pink spam from Semko, declared by the manufacturer as resistant to cladosporia, turned out to be absolutely unstable, it gets sick just like the rest of the unstable ones. Or maybe my cladosporiosis is wrong? The taste is also so-so. And it's no good in terms of yield, all three plants behave the same.
Diseases and pests often cause significant damage to the crop of tomatoes grown in greenhouses. But timely preventive measures and the correct choice of the variety will reduce the loss of the gardener to a minimum and provide him with a large number of tasty and beautiful fruits.